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Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18293, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797960


The standardization of apiceutical products like as propolis extracts has been widely debated worldwide and variations in the propolis chemical composition are still very relevant topics for use-standardized of different propolis-type as medication by much of the world's population. The present manuscript discuss important issues related to the climate effect and variations in propolis metabolite-profiling changes, antioxidant capacity and variations of the antibacterial activity of the Brazilian red propolis metabolites using comprehensive multivariate correlations. It was observed the increasing of guttiferones concentrations during the intense drought period and drastic decreasing in rainy period. The climate variation induced the high concentration of flavonoids in rainy period with pronounced dropped in some rainy months. The Pearson´s analysis demonstrated correlation between IC50 from DPPH and guttiferones and flavonoids concentrations. The PCA-X and Hotelling T2 test showed outliers during the months with lowest concentrations of formononetin and isoliquiritigenin was observed in antibacterial tests. The PLS-DA, OPLS-DA and VIP analysis demonstrate guttiferone E, guttiferone B, liquiritigenin, naringenin are considered important substances responsible by anti-staphylococcal activity in red propolis composition during the rainy season and drought period, but a synergistic effect with other flavonoids and isoflavonoids are not ruled out.

Adv Pharm Bull ; 9(3): 432-438, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592433


Purpose: Quercetin is a flavonoid known for its therapeutic properties and for forming complexes. Although the antimony-quercetin (SbQ) complex has been produced before, no previous exploration of its characteristics has been published in literature. Thus, this study aimed to characterize this complex, assess its stability and investigate its complexation site through its antibacterial activity. Methods: The SbQ complex was synthetized using Sb(III) potassium tartrate trihydrate and quercetin anhydrous (1:1) (v/v) as a solution and dried using three methods: rotaevaporation, lyophilization and spray drying. The material, in solution, was analyzed by UV-vis and fluorimetry; and, in the powder, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), both scanning electronic and fluorescence microscopy and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated via broth microdilution. Results: UV-vis exhibited a shoulder peak at 291 nm indicating metal chelation at C-ring of quercetin and confirmed 1:1 stoichiometry. Spectrofluorimetry showed an increase of intensity with the complex formation with an emission band (525 nm). After drying, XRD and SEM indicated loss of crystallinity and a difference in shape and size of the complex compared to its precursors. FT-IR suggested by a shift of frequency of the carbonyl group (1661 cm-1) that the quercetin bond to antimony by the C-3, followed by positions C-5 and C-4 carbonyl, which has been confirmed by MIC through the structure-activity relationship of the antibacterial activity of quercetin. Conclusion: These results provided a characterization of SbQ complex with the confirmation of its binding site, working as a guide for future studies involving this complex.

J Pharm Anal ; 7(5): 280-287, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404050


The aim of this study was to characterize tinctures and microcapsules loaded with an ethanol extract of red propolis through chemical, physicochemical and microbiological assays in order to establish quality control tools for nutraceutical preparations of red propolis. The markers (isoflavonoids, chalcones, pterocarpans, flavones, phenolic acids, terpenes and guttiferones) present in the tinctures A and B were identified and confirmed using LC/ESI/FTMS/Orbitrap. Four compositions (A, B, C and D) were prepared to contain B tincture of the red propolis with some pharmaceutical excipients and submitted to two drying processes, i. e. spray-drying and freeze-drying to obtain microcapsules loaded with the red propolis extract. The tinctures and microcapsules of the red propolis were submitted to the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity tests. The antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were tested using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25293 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strains. The tinctures and microcapsules presented high flavonoid quantities from 20.50 to 40.79 mg/100 mg of the microcapsules. The antioxidant activity and IC50 were determined for the tinctures A and B (IC50: 6.95 µg/mL and 7.48 µg/mL), the spray-dried microcapsules (IC50: 8.89-15.63 µg/mL) and the freeze-dried microcapsules (IC50: 11.83-23.36 µg/mL). The tinctures and microcapsules were proved to be bioactive against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with inhibition halos superior to 10 mm at concentration of 200 µg/mL and MIC values of 135.87-271.74 µg/mL using gram-positive strain and 271.74-543.48 µg/mL using gram-negative strain. The tinctures and microcapsules of the red propolis have a potential application for nutraceutical products.

Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 301, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27316742


The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ε-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0 µg/mL and 31.3 µg/mL, 47.2 µg/mL, 154.2µg/mL and 193.2 µg/mL for NRPE A1, NRPE A2, NRPE A3 and NRPE A4, respectively. Nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract in co-delivery system and EEP presented cytotoxic activity on Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Red propolis extract loaded in nanoparticles has shown to be potential candidates as intermediate products for preparation of various pharmaceutical dosage forms containing red propolis extract in the therapy against negligible diseases such as leishmaniasis. Graphical Abstract Some biochemical mechanisms of cellular debridement of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis species by the flavonoids of red propolis extract (EEP) or NRPE loaded with red propolis extract.

Ciênc. rural ; 46(5): 771-775, May 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-777284


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer) or arabic gum (second polymer). It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1) and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a bioatividade do extrato microencapsulado das sementes de graviola, Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), sobre a traça-das-crucíferas, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). A microencapsulação foi realizada em um Mini Spray Dryer modelo B-290 utilizando-se 50mL dos extratos etanólico e hexânico mais 150mL de álcool etílico e 150mL de água ultrapurificada, misturado com aerosil (primeiro polímero) ou com goma arábica (segundo polímero). Só foi possível microencapsular o extrato etanólico de sementes de graviola com a utilização do polímero goma arábica a 20%. O extrato microencapsulado causou significativa toxicidade aguda (CL50=258mg L-1) e efeitos crônicos, especialmente redução da viabilidade larval e aumento da duração do estágio larval. Conclui-se que a microencapsulação do extrato etanólico da semente de graviola pode ser uma alternativa viável no controle da traça com possíveis ganhos para o meio ambiente.

BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 357, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26467757


BACKGROUND: The implementation of new public healthcare models that stimulate the use of natural products from traditional medicine, as a so-called integrated medicine, refers to an approach that use best of both conventional medicine and traditional medicine. Propolis is a widely used natural product by different ancient cultures and known to exhibit biological activities beneficial for health. The large number of studies conducted with propolis had shown that its chemical composition differs as a function of the climate, plant diversity and bee species and plays an important role on its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract of red propolis (EEP) and its fractionation, antioxidant action of EEP and its fractions hexane, cloroform and ethyl acetate and cytotoxic activity of EEP on human tumour cell lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovary) and HCT-116 (colon). METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50 < 34.27 µg/mL) exhibited high levels of cytotoxicity on all human tumour cell lines tested when compared to negative control. CONCLUSIONS: C-Orbitrap-FTMS was useful to establish the chemical profile of the red propolis. Brazilian red propolis has antioxidant properties and decreases substantially the percentage of cell survival of human tumour cells; thus, it has potential to serve as an anticancer drug.

Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Própole/química , Própole/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 73: 59-64, 2013 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22559990


A limited number of studies with application of the Arrhenius equation have been reported to drugs and biopharmaceuticals in biological fluids at frozen temperatures. This paper describes stability studies of ampicillin and cephalexin in aqueous solution and human plasma applying the Arrhenius law for determination of adequate temperature and time of storage of these drugs using appropriate statistical analysis. Stability studies of the beta-lactams in human plasma were conducted at temperatures of 20°C, 2°C, -20°C and also during four cycles of freeze-thawing. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Shimpak C(18) column, acetonitrile as organic modifier and detection at 215nm. LC-UV-MS/MS was used to demonstrate the conversion of ampicillin into two diastereomeric forms of ampicilloic acid. Stability studies demonstrated degradation greater than 10% for ampicillin in human plasma at 20°C, 2°C and -20°C after 15h, 2.7days, 11days and for cephalexin at the same temperatures after 14h, 3.4days and 19days, respectively, and after the fourth cycle of freezing-thawing. The Arrhenius plot showed good prediction for the ideal temperature and time of storage for ampicillin (52days) and cephalexin (151days) at a temperature of -40°C, but statistical analysis (least squares method) must be applied to avoid incorrect extrapolations and estimated values out uncertainty limits.

Ampicilina/sangue , Antibacterianos/sangue , Cefalexina/sangue , Modelos Químicos , Ampicilina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Cefalexina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo