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1.
Blood ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914826

RESUMO

Patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at high-risk for relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We conducted a single center phase II study evaluating the feasibility of 4 cycles of blinatumomab administered every 3 months during the first year after HCT in an effort to mitigate relapse in high-risk ALL patients. Twenty-one of 23 enrolled patients received at least one cycle of blinatumomab and were included in the analysis. The median time from HCT to the first cycle of blinatumomab was 78 days (range, 44-105). Twelve patients (57%) completed all 4 treatment cycles. Neutropenia was the only grade 4 adverse event (19%). Rates of cytokine release (5% G1) and neurotoxicity (5% G2) were minimal. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades 2-4 and 3-4 were 33% and 5%, respectively; two cases of mild (10%) and one case of moderate (5%) chronic GVHD were noted. With a median follow-up of 14.3 months, the 1-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and non-relapse mortality rates were 85%, 71%, and 0%, respectively. In a matched-analysis with a contemporary cohort of 57 patients, we found no significant difference between groups regarding blinatumomab's efficacy. Correlative studies of baseline and post-treatment samples identified patients with specific T-cell profiles as "responders" or "non-responders" to therapy. Responders had higher proportions of effector memory CD8 T-cell subsets. Non-responders were T-cell deficient and expressed more inhibitory checkpoint molecules, including TIM3. We found that blinatumomab post-allogeneic HCT is feasible, and its benefit is dependent on the immune milieu at time of treatment.

2.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109432, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270918

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy with virus-specific T cells has been used successfully to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting application of this approach to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We expand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observe that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T cells. Culture with interleukin (IL)-2/4/7, but not under other cytokine-driven conditions, results in more than 1,000-fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T cells with a retained phenotype, function, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition compared with baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T cells cannot be expanded efficiently from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Because corticosteroids are used for management of severe COVID-19, we propose an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138753

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain cancer, recurs because glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are resistant to all standard therapies. We showed that GSCs, but not normal astrocytes, are sensitive to lysis by healthy allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. Mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of primary tumor samples revealed that GBM tumor-infiltrating NK cells acquired an altered phenotype associated with impaired lytic function relative to matched peripheral blood NK cells from patients with GBM or healthy donors. We attributed this immune evasion tactic to direct cell-to-cell contact between GSCs and NK cells via αv integrin-mediated TGF-ß activation. Treatment of GSC-engrafted mice with allogeneic NK cells in combination with inhibitors of integrin or TGF-ß signaling or with TGFBR2 gene-edited allogeneic NK cells prevented GSC-induced NK cell dysfunction and tumor growth. These findings reveal an important mechanism of NK cell immune evasion by GSCs and suggest the αv integrin/TGF-ß axis as a potentially useful therapeutic target in GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/imunologia , Integrinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Integrinas/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631353, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017325

RESUMO

Acute graft-vs.-host (GVHD) disease remains a common complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with very poor outcomes once the disease becomes steroid refractory. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of GVHD, but so far this strategy has had equivocal clinical efficacy. Therapies using MSCs require optimization taking advantage of the plasticity of these cells in response to different microenvironments. In this study, we aimed to optimize cord blood tissue derived MSCs (CBti MSCs) by priming them using a regimen of inflammatory cytokines. This approach led to their metabolic reprogramming with enhancement of their glycolytic capacity. Metabolically reprogrammed CBti MSCs displayed a boosted immunosuppressive potential, with superior immunomodulatory and homing properties, even after cryopreservation and thawing. Mechanistically, primed CBti MSCs significantly interfered with glycolytic switching and mTOR signaling in T cells, suppressing T cell proliferation and ensuing polarizing toward T regulatory cells. Based on these data, we generated a Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) Laboratory protocol for the production and cryopreservation of primed CBti MSCs for clinical use. Following thawing, these cryopreserved GMP-compliant primed CBti MSCs significantly improved outcomes in a xenogenic mouse model of GVHD. Our data support the concept that metabolic profiling of MSCs can be used as a surrogate for their suppressive potential in conjunction with conventional functional methods to support their therapeutic use in GVHD or other autoimmune disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Controle de Qualidade
5.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: 1-5, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989022

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy has significantly impacted the immuno-oncology landscape. The number of strategies currently in preclinical and clinical development is increasing at a rapid rate. Indeed, we are experiencing a transformative movement in cancer care as we shift toward highly personalized treatments designed to confront the specific challenges of each cancer. Advancements in genetic engineering methods and single-cell profiling technologies provide a level of understanding of the interactions between the immune system and cancer never before achieved. This knowledge, in turn, can be applied to the design and engineering of effective cancer-fighting treatments. As these promising new therapies progress toward clinical application, it becomes evident that we must develop robust methods for production and validation of cellular products to ensure consistency, safety, and efficacy, irrespective of cell type or indication. Herein, we provide an overview of the innovative approaches guiding the new generation of cell therapies and describe the benefits and challenges associated with emerging autologous and allogeneic platforms. Moreover, we discuss important considerations pertaining to process development, cost of goods, and manufacturing, and highlight their impact on the transfer of therapies from bench to bedside.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Neoplasias , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(13): 3744-3756, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Natural killer (NK)-cell recognition and function against NK-resistant cancers remain substantial barriers to the broad application of NK-cell immunotherapy. Potential solutions include bispecific engagers that target NK-cell activity via an NK-activating receptor when simultaneously targeting a tumor-specific antigen, as well as enhancing functionality using IL12/15/18 cytokine pre-activation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed single-cell NK-cell responses stimulated by the tetravalent bispecific antibody AFM13 that binds CD30 on leukemia/lymphoma targets and CD16A on various types of NK cells using mass cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The combination of AFM13 and IL12/15/18 pre-activation of blood and cord blood-derived NK cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We found heterogeneity within AFM13-directed conventional blood NK cell (cNK) responses, as well as consistent AFM13-directed polyfunctional activation of mature NK cells across donors. NK-cell source also impacted the AFM13 response, with cNK cells from healthy donors exhibiting superior responses to those from patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. IL12/15/18-induced memory-like NK cells from peripheral blood exhibited enhanced killing of CD30+ lymphoma targets directed by AFM13, compared with cNK cells. Cord-blood NK cells preactivated with IL12/15/18 and ex vivo expanded with K562-based feeders also exhibited enhanced killing with AFM13 stimulation via upregulation of signaling pathways related to NK-cell effector function. AFM13-NK complex cells exhibited enhanced responses to CD30+ lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We identify AFM13 as a promising combination with cytokine-activated adult blood or cord-blood NK cells to treat CD30+ hematologic malignancies, warranting clinical trials with these novel combinations.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2710-2719, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed. RESULTS: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement. CONCLUSION: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.


Assuntos
Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Hemorrágicos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717142

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes recognized for their important role against tumor cells. NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have enhanced effector function against various type of cancer and are attractive contenders for the next generation of cancer immunotherapies. However, a number of factors have hindered the application of NK cells for cellular therapy, including their poor in vitro growth kinetics and relatively low starting percentages within the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood or cord blood (CB). To overcome these limitations, we genetically-engineered human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A- and HLA-B- K562 cells to enforce the expression of CD48, 4-1BBL, and membrane-bound IL-21 (mbIL21), creating a universal antigen presenting cell (uAPC) capable of stimulating their cognate receptors on NK cells. We have shown that uAPC can drive the expansion of both non-transduced (NT) and CAR-transduced CB derived NK cells by >900-fold in 2 weeks of co-culture with excellent purity (>99.9%) and without indications of senescence/exhaustion. We confirmed that uAPC-expanded research- and clinical-grade NT and CAR-transduced NK cells have higher metabolic fitness and display enhanced effector function against tumor targets compared to the corresponding cell fractions cultured without uAPCs. This novel approach allowed the expansion of highly pure GMP-grade CAR NK cells at optimal cell numbers to be used for adoptive CAR NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Animais , Engenharia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Sangue Fetal , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Células K562 , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Transdução Genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Blood ; 137(5): 624-636, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902645

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint therapy has resulted in remarkable improvements in the outcome for certain cancers. To broaden the clinical impact of checkpoint targeting, we devised a strategy that couples targeting of the cytokine-inducible Src homology 2-containing (CIS) protein, a key negative regulator of interleukin 15 (IL-15) signaling, with fourth-generation "armored" chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineering of cord blood-derived natural killer (NK) cells. This combined strategy boosted NK cell effector function through enhancing the Akt/mTORC1 axis and c-MYC signaling, resulting in increased aerobic glycolysis. When tested in a lymphoma mouse model, this combined approach improved NK cell antitumor activity more than either alteration alone, eradicating lymphoma xenografts without signs of any measurable toxicity. We conclude that targeting a cytokine checkpoint further enhances the antitumor activity of IL-15-secreting armored CAR-NK cells by promoting their metabolic fitness and antitumor activity. This combined approach represents a promising milestone in the development of the next generation of NK cells for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/citologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Interleucina-15/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Aerobiose , Animais , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/terapia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glicólise , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/fisiologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Cytometry A ; 99(9): 899-909, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342071

RESUMO

Signal intensity measured in a mass cytometry (CyTOF) channel can often be affected by the neighboring channels due to technological limitations. Such signal artifacts are known as spillover effects and can substantially limit the accuracy of cell population clustering. Current approaches reduce these effects by using additional beads for normalization purposes known as single-stained controls. While effective in compensating for spillover effects, incorporating single-stained controls can be costly and require customized panel design. This is especially evident when executing large-scale immune profiling studies. We present a novel statistical method, named CytoSpill that independently quantifies and compensates the spillover effects in CyTOF data without requiring the use of single-stained controls. Our method utilizes knowledge-guided modeling and statistical techniques, such as finite mixture modeling and sequential quadratic programming, to achieve optimal error correction. We evaluated our method using five publicly available CyTOF datasets obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), C57BL/6J mouse bone marrow, healthy human bone marrow, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient, and healthy human cord blood samples. In the PBMCs with known ground truth, our method achieved comparable results to experiments that incorporated single-stained controls. In datasets without ground-truth, our method not only reduced spillover on likely affected markers, but also led to the discovery of potentially novel subpopulations expressing functionally meaningful, cluster-specific markers. CytoSpill (developed in R) will greatly enhance the execution of large-scale cellular profiling of tumor immune microenvironment, development of novel immunotherapy, and the discovery of immune-specific biomarkers. The implementation of our method can be found at https://github.com/KChen-lab/CytoSpill.git.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Animais , Biomarcadores , Análise por Conglomerados , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2020(1): 570-578, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275752

RESUMO

T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have revolutionized the field of cell therapy and changed the paradigm of treatment for many patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. Despite this progress, there are limitations to CAR-T cell therapy in both the autologous and allogeneic settings, including practical, logistical, and toxicity issues. Given these concerns, there is a rapidly growing interest in natural killer cells as alternative vehicles for CAR engineering, given their unique biological features and their established safety profile in the allogeneic setting. Other immune effector cells, such as invariant natural killer T cells, γδ T cells, and macrophages, are attracting interest as well and eventually may be added to the repertoire of engineered cell therapies against cancer. The pace of these developments will undoubtedly benefit from multiple innovative technologies, such as the CRISPR-Cas gene editing system, which offers great potential to enhance the natural ability of immune effector cells to eliminate refractory cancers.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Edição de Genes , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico
12.
Blood Adv ; 4(22): 5868-5876, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232480

RESUMO

T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have revolutionized the field of cell therapy and changed the paradigm of treatment for many patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. Despite this progress, there are limitations to CAR-T cell therapy in both the autologous and allogeneic settings, including practical, logistical, and toxicity issues. Given these concerns, there is a rapidly growing interest in natural killer cells as alternative vehicles for CAR engineering, given their unique biological features and their established safety profile in the allogeneic setting. Other immune effector cells, such as invariant natural killer T cells, γδ T cells, and macrophages, are attracting interest as well and eventually may be added to the repertoire of engineered cell therapies against cancer. The pace of these developments will undoubtedly benefit from multiple innovative technologies, such as the CRISPR-Cas gene editing system, which offers great potential to enhance the natural ability of immune effector cells to eliminate refractory cancers.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Células Matadoras Naturais , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética
13.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995792

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy with viral-specific T cells has been successfully used to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting the application of this approach against COVID-19. We expanded SARS-CoV-2 T-cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observed that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T-cells. Culture with IL-2/4/7 but not other cytokine-driven conditions resulted in >1000 fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T-cells with a retained phenotype, function and hierarchy of antigenic recognition when compared to baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded CTLs were directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T-cells could not be efficiently expanded from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Since corticosteroids are used for the management of severe COVID-19, we developed an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene ( NR3C1 ) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

14.
Blood Adv ; 4(14): 3357-3367, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717029

RESUMO

Virus-specific T cells have proven highly effective for the treatment of severe and drug-refractory infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). However, the efficacy of these cells is hindered by the use of glucocorticoids, often given to patients for the management of complications such as graft-versus-host disease. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel strategy for the rapid generation of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade glucocorticoid-resistant multivirus-specific T cells (VSTs) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene-editing technology. We have shown that deleting the nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1; the gene encoding for the glucocorticoid receptor) renders VSTs resistant to the lymphocytotoxic effect of glucocorticoids. NR3C1-knockout (KO) VSTs kill their targets and proliferate successfully in the presence of high doses of dexamethasone both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we developed a protocol for the rapid generation of GMP-grade NR3C1 KO VSTs with high on-target activity and minimal off-target editing. These genetically engineered VSTs promise to be a novel approach for the treatment of patients with life-threatening viral infections post-HSCT on glucocorticoid therapy.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Linfócitos T
15.
N Engl J Med ; 382(6): 545-553, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in B-cell cancers. However, CAR T cells can induce substantial toxic effects, and the manufacture of the cells is complex. Natural killer (NK) cells that have been modified to express an anti-CD19 CAR have the potential to overcome these limitations. METHODS: In this phase 1 and 2 trial, we administered HLA-mismatched anti-CD19 CAR-NK cells derived from cord blood to 11 patients with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive cancers (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL]). NK cells were transduced with a retroviral vector expressing genes that encode anti-CD19 CAR, interleukin-15, and inducible caspase 9 as a safety switch. The cells were expanded ex vivo and administered in a single infusion at one of three doses (1×105, 1×106, or 1×107 CAR-NK cells per kilogram of body weight) after lymphodepleting chemotherapy. RESULTS: The administration of CAR-NK cells was not associated with the development of cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, or graft-versus-host disease, and there was no increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, over baseline. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Of the 11 patients who were treated, 8 (73%) had a response; of these patients, 7 (4 with lymphoma and 3 with CLL) had a complete remission, and 1 had remission of the Richter's transformation component but had persistent CLL. Responses were rapid and seen within 30 days after infusion at all dose levels. The infused CAR-NK cells expanded and persisted at low levels for at least 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Among 11 patients with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive cancers, a majority had a response to treatment with CAR-NK cells without the development of major toxic effects. (Funded by the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center CLL and Lymphoma Moonshot and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03056339.).


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19 , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Retroviridae/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
16.
Nature ; 577(7791): 549-555, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942075

RESUMO

Treatment with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has revolutionized cancer therapy. Until now, predictive biomarkers1-10 and strategies to augment clinical response have largely focused on the T cell compartment. However, other immune subsets may also contribute to anti-tumour immunity11-15, although these have been less well-studied in ICB treatment16. A previously conducted neoadjuvant ICB trial in patients with melanoma showed via targeted expression profiling17 that B cell signatures were enriched in the tumours of patients who respond to treatment versus non-responding patients. To build on this, here we performed bulk RNA sequencing and found that B cell markers were the most differentially expressed genes in the tumours of responders versus non-responders. Our findings were corroborated using a computational method (MCP-counter18) to estimate the immune and stromal composition in this and two other ICB-treated cohorts (patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma). Histological evaluation highlighted the localization of B cells within tertiary lymphoid structures. We assessed the potential functional contributions of B cells via bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing, which demonstrate clonal expansion and unique functional states of B cells in responders. Mass cytometry showed that switched memory B cells were enriched in the tumours of responders. Together, these data provide insights into the potential role of B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures in the response to ICB treatment, with implications for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/citologia , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcriptoma
17.
Blood Adv ; 3(23): 4117-4130, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821460

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are highly heterogeneous, with vast phenotypic and functional diversity at the single-cell level. They are involved in the innate immune response against malignant and virus-infected cells. To understand the effect of NK diversity during immune recovery on the antitumor response after cord blood transplantation (CBT), we used high-dimensional mass cytometry and the metrics of NK cell diversity to study the NK cell repertoire in serial samples from 43 CBT recipients. A higher-diversity index based on single-cell combinatorial phenotypes was significantly associated with a lower risk for relapse after CBT (P = .005). Cytomegalovirus reactivation was a major factor in the development of a more diverse NK repertoire after CBT. Notably, we identified a group of patients whose CB-derived NK cells after transplantation possessed an immature phenotype (CB-NKim), characterized by poor effector function and a low diversity index. Frequencies of CB-NKim of 11.8% or higher during the early post-CBT recovery phase were highly predictive for relapse (area under the curve [AUC], 0.979), a finding that was validated in a second independent cohort of patients (n = 25; AUC, 0.977). Moreover, we showed that the maturation, diversity, and acquisition of effector function by CB-NKim early after CBT were driven by interleukin 15. Our data indicate that the diversity of the NK cell repertoire after CBT contributes importantly to the risk for subsequent relapse. We suggest that the use of diversity metrics and high-dimensional mass cytometry may be useful tools in predicting clinical outcomes and informing the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent relapse after CBT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Humanos , Recidiva
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2444, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405633

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a major cause of morbidity following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Natural killer cells expressing NKG2C have been shown to play a role in the immune surveillance of human CMV. We studied NKG2C copy number in the donor graft and the risk of CMV reactivation after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (DUCBT) in 100 CMV seropositive DUCBT recipients and their corresponding cord blood (CB) grafts (n = 200). In the setting of DUCBT, the combined graft may contain 0-4 functional copies of NKG2C gene. Sixteen patients received a combined graft with 1 or 2 NKG2C copies and 84 patients were recipients of a combined graft with 3 or 4 NKG2C copies. The 6-month cumulative incidence of CMV reactivation for the two groups was 93.7 and 58.4%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In multivariate analysis, low NKG2C copies in the graft was an independent predictor of CMV reactivation (HR = 2.72, CI = 1.59-4.64; p < 0.0001). Our study points to an important role for donor NKG2C for protection against CMV reactivation after DUCBT. These novel findings may help identify patients at a higher risk of CMV reactivation after DUCBT. Donor NKG2C genotype may be used as a potential criterion in the algorithm for graft selection for DUCBT.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Ativação Viral/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Criança , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reoperação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(1): e5513, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28072692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of pancreatic cysts is based on neoplastic-nonneoplastic discrimination. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) enables to differentiate neoplastic-nonneoplastic lesions and also allows fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, we aim to assess feasibility and clinical relevance of cytological and biochemical analysis in differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions in patients who had undergone endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) due to pancreatic cysts. METHODS: Participants were 96 patients who had undergone EUS-FNA for differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Pancreatic cysts were classified as benign-mucinous, nonmucinous, and malignant according to patient history, physical examination, EUS appearance, and cystic fluid assessment. Tumor markers (CEA, CA(cancer antigens) 72.4, CA 19-9) , amylase, lipase and cytological assesment were compared between 3 different groups. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to identify appropriate cut-off values. RESULTS: Fluid CEA and CA 72.4 levels for benign-mucinous and malignant cysts were significantly higher than for nonmucinous cysts (P ≤ 0.04). A cut-off CEA level of 207 ng/mL differentiated mucinous etiology with a sensitivity of 72.7%, specificity of 97.7%, and accuracy of 89.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the CA 72.4 cut-off level of 3.32 ng/mL were 80%, 69.5%, and 73.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cyst fluid CEA and CA 72.4 levels have a high accuracy in discriminating mucinous from nonmucinous cysts. When combined with cytology their accuracy rate increases.


Assuntos
Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/análise , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/análise , Líquido Cístico , Cisto Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Líquido Cístico/química , Líquido Cístico/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cisto Pancreático/química , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Cisto Pancreático/metabolismo , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia
20.
Blood ; 129(6): 740-758, 2017 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821506

RESUMO

The establishment of long-lived pathogen-specific T cells is a fundamental property of the adaptive immune response. However, the mechanisms underlying long-term persistence of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells are not well-defined. Here we identify a subset of memory CD4+ T cells capable of effluxing cellular toxins, including rhodamine (Rho), through the multidrug efflux protein MDR1 (also known as P-glycoprotein and ABCB1). Drug-effluxing CD4+ T cells were characterized as CD161+CD95+CD45RA-CD127hiCD28+CD25int cells with a distinct chemokine profile and a Th1-polarized pro-inflammatory phenotype. CD4+CD161+Rho-effluxing T cells proliferated vigorously in response to stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads and gave rise to CD161- progeny in vitro. These cells were also capable of self-renewal and maintained their phenotypic and functional characteristics when cultured with homeostatic cytokines. Multidrug-effluxing CD4+CD161+ T cells were enriched within the viral-specific Th1 repertoire of healthy donors and patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and survived exposure to daunorubicin chemotherapy in vitro. Multidrug-effluxing CD4+CD161+ T cells also resisted chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity in vivo and underwent significant expansion in AML patients rendered lymphopenic after chemotherapy, contributing to the repopulation of anti-CMV immunity. Finally, after influenza vaccination, the proportion of influenza-specific CD4+ T cells coexpressing CD161 was significantly higher after 2 years compared with 4 weeks after immunization, suggesting CD161 is a marker for long-lived antigen-specific memory T cells. These findings suggest that CD4+CD161+ T cells with rapid efflux capacity contribute to the maintenance of viral-specific memory T cells. These data provide novel insights into mechanisms that preserve antiviral immunity in patients undergoing chemotherapy and have implications for the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Memória Imunológica , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Subfamília B de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/imunologia , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Transporte Biológico , Antígenos CD4/genética , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/classificação , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Citomegalovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Daunorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/virologia , Subfamília B de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Rodaminas/metabolismo , Rodaminas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/patologia
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