Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4878, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385447

RESUMO

A postprandial increase of translation mediated by eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 (eIF6) occurs in the liver. Its contribution to steatosis and disease is unknown. In this study we address whether eIF6-driven translation contributes to disease progression. eIF6 levels increase throughout the progression from Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Reduction of eIF6 levels protects the liver from disease progression. eIF6 depletion blunts lipid accumulation, increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and reduces oncogenic transformation in vitro. In addition, eIF6 depletion delays the progression from NAFLD to hepatocellular carcinoma, in vivo. Mechanistically, eIF6 depletion reduces the translation of transcription factor C/EBPß, leading to a drop in biomarkers associated with NAFLD progression to hepatocellular carcinoma and preserves mitochondrial respiration due to the maintenance of an alternative mTORC1-eIF4F translational branch that increases the expression of transcription factor YY1. We provide proof-of-concept that in vitro pharmacological inhibition of eIF6 activity recapitulates the protective effects of eIF6 depletion. We hypothesize the existence of a targetable, evolutionarily conserved translation circuit optimized for lipid accumulation and tumor progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Animais , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Clofazimina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/metabolismo
2.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a key role in bile acid and lipid homeostasis. Experimental evidence suggests that it can modulate liver damage related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the impact of the NR1H4 rs35724 G>C, encoding for FXR, on liver damage in a large cohort of patients at risk of steatohepatitis. METHODS: We considered 2,660 consecutive individuals at risk of steatohepatitis with liver histology. The rs35724 G>C polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan assays. Gene expression was evaluated by RNASeq in a subset of patients (n = 124). RESULTS: The NR1H4 rs35724 CC genotype, after adjusting for clinic-metabolic and genetic confounders and for enrolling centre, was protective against severity of steatosis (GG vs CC OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95; P = .01), steatohepatitis (GG vs CC OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47-0.83; P = .001) and severity of fibrosis (GG vs CC OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.67-0.98; P = .04). The C allele was associated with higher total circulating cholesterol (P = .01). Patients carrying the NR1H4 rs35724 C allele had significantly higher hepatic mRNA levels of FXR and were associated with higher hepatic FGFR4 and Cyp39A1 that are in turn involved in bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Increased hepatic FXR expression due to the NR1H4 rs35724 C allele is linked to higher serum cholesterol but protects against steatosis, steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. The translational relevance of these results for patient risk stratification and FXR-targeted therapy warrants further investigation.

3.
Mol Metab ; 53: 101275, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neddylation is a druggable and reversible ubiquitin-like post-translational modification upregulated in many diseases, including liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and more recently, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we propose to address the effects of neddylation inhibition and the underlying mechanisms in pre-clinical models of NAFLD. METHODS: Hepatic neddylation measured by immunohistochemical analysis and NEDD8 serum levels measured by ELISA assay were evaluated in NAFLD clinical and pre-clinical samples. The effects of neddylation inhibition by using a pharmacological small inhibitor, MLN4924, or molecular approaches were assessed in isolated mouse hepatocytes and pre-clinical mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD, male adult C57BL/6 mice, and the AlfpCre transgenic mice infected with AAV-DIO-shNedd8. RESULTS: Neddylation inhibition reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-stimulated mouse primary hepatocytes and ameliorated liver steatosis, preventing lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the mouse models of diet-induced NAFLD. Under these conditions, increased Deptor levels and the concomitant repression of mTOR signaling were associated with augmented fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipid content. Moreover, Deptor silencing in isolated mouse hepatocytes abolished the anti-steatotic effects mediated by neddylation inhibition. Finally, serum NEDD8 levels correlated with hepatic neddylation during the disease progression in the clinical and pre-clinical models CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the upregulation of Deptor, driven by neddylation inhibition, is proposed as a novel effective target and therapeutic approach to tackle NAFLD.

4.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801959

RESUMO

We herein characterize the immunopathological features of two Italian COVID-19 patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation (bLTx). Removed lungs underwent histopathological evaluation. Gene expression profiling (GEP) for immune-related signatures was performed on lung specimens and SARS-CoV-2-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cytokine levels were measured on lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and in culture supernatants. Pathological assessment showed extensive lung damage with the pattern of proliferative to fibrotic phases, with diffuse alveolar damage mimicking usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Lungs' GEP revealed overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors, effector cytokines and chemokines, immune activation receptors and of the inflammasome components. Multiplex cytokine analysis confirmed a proinflammatory state, with high levels of monocyte/macrophage chemotactic and activating factors and of IL-6 and TNF-α. A similar profile was observed in SARS-CoV-2-stimulated PBMCs collected 7 days after transplant. The pattern of tissue damage observed in the lungs suggests that this may represent the output of protracted disease, resembling a diffuse UIP-like picture. The molecular immune profiling supports the paradigm of a persistent proinflammatory state and sustained humoral immunity, conditions that are maintained despite the iatrogenic immunosuppression.


Assuntos
COVID-19/cirurgia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Transplante de Pulmão , Pulmão/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/cirurgia , Adolescente , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4904, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649400

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is characterised by a hyperinflammatory response that plays a major role in determining the respiratory and immune-mediated complications of this condition. While isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from whole blood of COVID-19 patients by density gradient centrifugation, we noticed some changes in the floating properties and in the sedimentation of the cells on density medium. Investigating this further, we found that in early phase COVID-19 patients, characterised by reduced circulating lymphocytes and monocytes, the PBMC fraction contained surprisingly high levels of neutrophils. Furthermore, the neutrophil population exhibited alterations in the cell size and in the internal complexity, consistent with the presence of low density neutrophils (LDNs) and immature forms, which may explain the shift seen in the floating abilities and that may be predictive of the severity of the disease. The percentage of this subset of neutrophils found in the PBMC band was rather spread (35.4 ± 27.2%, with a median 28.8% and IQR 11.6-56.1, Welch's t-test early phase COVID-19 versus blood donor healthy controls P < 0.0001). Results confirm the presence of an increased number of LDNs in patients with early stage COVID-19, which correlates with disease severity and may be recovered by centrifugation on a density gradient together with PBMCs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Separação Celular , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , COVID-19/patologia , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Blood Transfus ; 19(3): 181-189, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Milan metropolitan area in Northern Italy was among the most severely hit by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence trends of SARS-CoV-2 in healthy asymptomatic adults, and the risk factors and laboratory correlates of positive tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of blood donors, who were asymptomatic at the time of evaluation, at the beginning of the first phase (February 24th to April 8th 2020; n=789). Presence of IgM/IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2-Nucleocapsid protein was assessed by a lateral flow immunoassay. RESULTS: The test had a 100/98.3 sensitivity/specificity (n=32/120 positive/negative controls, respectively), and the IgG test was validated in a subset by an independent ELISA against the Spike protein (n=34, p<0.001). At the start of the outbreak, the overall adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 2.7% (95% CI: 0.3-6%; p<0.0001 vs 120 historical controls). During the study period, characterised by a gradual implementation of social distancing measures, there was a progressive increase in the adjusted seroprevalence to 5.2% (95% CI: 2.4-9.0; 4.5%, 95% CI: 0.9-9.2% according to a Bayesian estimate) due to a rise in IgG reactivity to 5% (95% CI: 2.8-8.2; p=0.004 for trend), but there was no increase in IgM+ (p=not significant). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, IgG reactivity was more frequent in younger individuals (p=0.043), while IgM reactivity was more frequent in individuals aged >45 years (p=0.002). DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection was already circulating in Milan at the start of the outbreak. The pattern of IgM/IgG reactivity was influenced by age: IgM was more frequently detected in participants aged >45 years. By the end of April, 2.4-9.0% of healthy adults had evidence of seroconversion.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
8.
Pathology ; 53(4): 462-469, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272690

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is often associated with a poor prognosis and options for the treatment of this disease are few. To date, the important role of the immune microenvironment in modifying the disease natural history is well established. The programmed cell death pathway (PD-1/PD-L1) limits the T lymphocyte activation in peripheral tissues when an inflammatory response occurs, and controls the tumour immune escape. PD-L1 is broadly expressed in several malignant tumours and associated with poor clinical outcomes. Thus, the aim of our study is to investigate the potential role of PD-L1 expression in MPM prognosis. Biopsy samples from 198 patients diagnosed with MPM were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate PD-L1 protein and gene expression. For PD-L1 protein expression we consider at least 5% membranous staining as positive. Gene expression levels were calculated with ΔΔCt method. Positive expression of PD-L1 by IHC was correlated with worse overall survival (OS; p=0.0225) in MPM patients. PD-L1 positive status was correlated with worse OS in the subgroup of patients with ECOG score <2 (p=0.0004, n=129) and these data were confirmed by multivariate analysis. No significant correlation was found between PD-L1 gene expression and OS. Our results show that PD-L1 evaluated by IHC assay may be a prognostic biomarker for MPM patients with good performance status.

9.
J Hepatol ; 74(4): 775-782, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk stratification in individuals with dysmetabolism is a major unmet need. Genetic predisposition contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to exploit robust polygenic risk scores (PRS) that can be evaluated in the clinic to gain insight into the causal relationship between NAFLD and HCC, and to improve HCC risk stratification. METHODS: We examined at-risk individuals (NAFLD cohort, n = 2,566; 226 with HCC; and a replication cohort of 427 German patients with NAFLD) and the general population (UK Biobank [UKBB] cohort, n = 364,048; 202 with HCC). Variants in PNPLA3-TM6SF2-GCKR-MBOAT7 were combined in a hepatic fat PRS (PRS-HFC), and then adjusted for HSD17B13 (PRS-5). RESULTS: In the NAFLD cohort, the adjusted impact of genetic risk variants on HCC was proportional to the predisposition to fatty liver (p = 0.002) with some heterogeneity in the effect. PRS predicted HCC more robustly than single variants (p <10-13). The association between PRS and HCC was mainly mediated through severe fibrosis, but was independent of fibrosis in clinically relevant subgroups, and was also observed in those without severe fibrosis (p <0.05). In the UKBB cohort, PRS predicted HCC independently of classical risk factors and cirrhosis (p <10-7). In the NAFLD cohort, we identified high PRS cut-offs (≥0.532/0.495 for PRS-HFC/PRS-5) that in the UKBB cohort detected HCC with ~90% specificity but limited sensitivity; PRS predicted HCC both in individuals with (p <10-5) and without cirrhosis (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal relationship between hepatic fat and HCC. PRS improved the accuracy of HCC detection and may help stratify HCC risk in individuals with dysmetabolism, including those without severe liver fibrosis. Further studies are needed to validate our findings. LAY SUMMARY: By analyzing variations in genes that contribute to fatty liver disease, we developed two risk scores to help predict liver cancer in individuals with obesity-related metabolic complications. These risk scores can be easily tested in the clinic. We showed that the risk scores helped to identify the risk of liver cancer both in high-risk individuals and in the general population.

10.
Gut ; 70(1): 180-193, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common prelude to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The genetic rs641738 C>T variant in the lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1)/membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7, which incorporates arachidonic acid into phosphatidylinositol (PI), is associated with the entire spectrum of NAFLD. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying this association in mice and cultured human hepatocytes. DESIGN: We generated the hepatocyte-specific Lpiat1 knockout mice to investigate the function of Lpiat1 in vivo. We also depleted LPIAT1 in cultured human hepatic cells using CRISPR-Cas9 systems or siRNA. The effect of LPIAT1-depletion on liver fibrosis was examined in mice fed high fat diet and in liver spheroids. Lipid species were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Lipid metabolism was analysed using radiolabeled glycerol or fatty acids. RESULTS: The hepatocyte-specific Lpiat1 knockout mice developed hepatic steatosis spontaneously, and hepatic fibrosis on high fat diet feeding. Depletion of LPIAT1 in cultured hepatic cells and in spheroids caused triglyceride accumulation and collagen deposition. The increase in hepatocyte fat content was due to a higher triglyceride synthesis fueled by a non-canonical pathway. Indeed, reduction in the PI acyl chain remodelling caused a high PI turnover, by stimulating at the same time PI synthesis and breakdown. The degradation of PI was mediated by a phospholipase C, which produces diacylglycerol, a precursor of triglyceride. CONCLUSION: We found a novel pathway fueling triglyceride synthesis in hepatocytes, by a direct metabolic flow of PI into triglycerides. Our findings provide an insight into the pathogenesis and therapeutics of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1634-1646.e7, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a growing epidemic that is expected to be the leading cause of end-stage liver disease within the next decade. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the susceptibility of FLD. Several genetic variants contributing to FLD have been identified in exome-wide association studies. However, there is still a missing hereditability indicating that other genetic variants are yet to be discovered. METHODS: To find genes involved in FLD, we first examined the association of missense and nonsense variants with alanine aminotransferase at an exome-wide level in 425,671 participants from the UK Biobank. We then validated genetic variants with liver fat content in 8930 participants in whom liver fat measurement was available, and replicated 2 genetic variants in 3 independent cohorts comprising 2621 individuals with available liver biopsy. RESULTS: We identified 190 genetic variants independently associated with alanine aminotransferase after correcting for multiple testing with Bonferroni method. The majority of these variants were not previously associated with this trait. Among those associated, there was a striking enrichment of genetic variants influencing lipid metabolism. We identified the variants rs2792751 in GPAM/GPAT1, the gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial, and rs429358 in APOE, the gene encoding apolipoprotein E, as robustly associated with liver fat content and liver disease after adjusting for multiple testing. Both genes affect lipid metabolism in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 2 novel genetic variants in GPAM and APOE that are robustly associated with steatosis and liver damage. These findings may help to better elucidate the genetic susceptibility to FLD onset and progression.


Assuntos
1-Acilglicerol-3-Fosfato O-Aciltransferase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Variação Genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Exoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(16): 1522-1534, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in disease behavior among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Genomewide association analysis may allow for the identification of potential genetic factors involved in the development of Covid-19. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study involving 1980 patients with Covid-19 and severe disease (defined as respiratory failure) at seven hospitals in the Italian and Spanish epicenters of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. After quality control and the exclusion of population outliers, 835 patients and 1255 control participants from Italy and 775 patients and 950 control participants from Spain were included in the final analysis. In total, we analyzed 8,582,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and conducted a meta-analysis of the two case-control panels. RESULTS: We detected cross-replicating associations with rs11385942 at locus 3p21.31 and with rs657152 at locus 9q34.2, which were significant at the genomewide level (P<5×10-8) in the meta-analysis of the two case-control panels (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 2.11; P = 1.15×10-10; and odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.47; P = 4.95×10-8, respectively). At locus 3p21.31, the association signal spanned the genes SLC6A20, LZTFL1, CCR9, FYCO1, CXCR6 and XCR1. The association signal at locus 9q34.2 coincided with the ABO blood group locus; in this cohort, a blood-group-specific analysis showed a higher risk in blood group A than in other blood groups (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75; P = 1.48×10-4) and a protective effect in blood group O as compared with other blood groups (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79; P = 1.06×10-5). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a 3p21.31 gene cluster as a genetic susceptibility locus in patients with Covid-19 with respiratory failure and confirmed a potential involvement of the ABO blood-group system. (Funded by Stein Erik Hagen and others.).


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Betacoronavirus , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Respiratória/genética , Idoso , COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
14.
Liver Int ; 40(5): 1130-1141, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests an association between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 (I148M protein variant) and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underpinning this association are poorly understood. METHODS: We studied 157 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who underwent ultrasonography and vibration-controlled transient elastography for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or abnormal albuminuria. We surveyed PNPLA3 mRNA expression in human tissues, using the liver as a positive control, and also measured PNPLA3 mRNA and protein expression levels in human cell lines represented in the kidney and the liver. RESULTS: In all, 112 patients had NAFLD and 43 had CKD. Patients homozygous for the I148M variant (n = 11) had lower e-GFR levels (60.6 ± 11.7 vs 77.8 ± 15.9 vs 83.5 ± 16.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 , P = .0001) and higher prevalence of CKD (63.6% vs 24.2% vs 25.0%, P = .028), compared to those with I/M (n = 66) and I/I (n = 80) PNPLA3 genotype. The association of I148M homozygosity with lower e-GFR levels (P < .0001) and higher risk of CKD (adjusted-odds ratio 6.65; 95% CI 1.65-26.8, P = .008) was independent of liver disease severity (as detected by liver stiffness ≥7kPa) and other risk factors. PNPLA3 mRNA expression was greatest in liver and renal cortex, and podocytes showed high PNPLA3 mRNA and protein levels, comparable to that of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PNPLA3 I148M variant was associated with CKD, independently of common renal risk factors and severity of NAFLD PNPLA3 expression levels were particularly high in renal podocytes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética
15.
Gut ; 69(10): 1855-1866, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efforts to manage non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited by the incomplete understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and the absence of accurate non-invasive biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify novel NAFLD therapeutic targets andbiomarkers by conducting liver transcriptomic analysis in patients stratified by the presence of the PNPLA3 I148M genetic risk variant. DESIGN: We sequenced the hepatic transcriptome of 125 obese individuals. 'Severe NAFLD' was defined as the presence of steatohepatitis, NAFLD activity score ≥4 or fibrosis stage ≥2. The circulating levels of the most upregulated transcript, interleukin-32 (IL32), were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Carriage of the PNPLA3 I148M variant correlated with the two major components of hepatic transcriptome variability and broadly influenced gene expression. In patients with severe NAFLD, there was an upregulation of inflammatory and lipid metabolism pathways. IL32 was the most robustly upregulated gene in the severe NAFLD group (adjusted p=1×10-6), and its expression correlated with steatosis severity, both in I148M variant carriers and non-carriers. In 77 severely obese, and in a replication cohort of 160 individuals evaluated at the hepatology service, circulating IL32 levels were associated with both NAFLD and severe NAFLD independently of aminotransferases (p<0.01 for both). A linear combination of IL32-ALT-AST showed a better performance than ALT-AST alone in NAFLD diagnosis (area under the curve=0.92 vs 0.81, p=5×10-5). CONCLUSION: Hepatic IL32 is overexpressed in NAFLD, correlates with hepatic fat and liver damage, and is detectable in the circulation, where it is independently associated with the presence and severity of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Descoberta de Drogas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Regulação para Cima
16.
EBioMedicine ; 52: 102658, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Naturally occurring variation in Membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7 (MBOAT7), encoding for an enzyme involved in phosphatidylinositol acyl-chain remodelling, has been associated with fatty liver and hepatic disorders. Here, we examined the relationship between hepatic Mboat7 down-regulation and fat accumulation. METHODS: Hepatic MBOAT7 expression was surveyed in 119 obese individuals and in experimental models. MBOAT7 was acutely silenced by antisense oligonucleotides in C57Bl/6 mice, and by CRISPR/Cas9 in HepG2 hepatocytes. FINDINGS: In obese individuals, hepatic MBOAT7 mRNA decreased from normal liver to steatohepatitis, independently of diabetes, inflammation and MBOAT7 genotype. Hepatic MBOAT7 levels were reduced in murine models of fatty liver, and by hyper-insulinemia. In wild-type mice, Mboat7 was down-regulated by refeeding and insulin, concomitantly with insulin signalling activation. Acute hepatic Mboat7 silencing promoted hepatic steatosis in vivo and enhanced expression of fatty acid transporter Fatp1. MBOAT7 deletion in hepatocytes reduced the incorporation of arachidonic acid into phosphatidylinositol, consistently with decreased enzymatic activity, determining the accumulation of saturated triglycerides, enhanced lipogenesis and FATP1 expression, while FATP1 deletion rescued the phenotype. INTERPRETATION: MBOAT7 down-regulation by hyper-insulinemia contributes to hepatic fat accumulation, impairing phosphatidylinositol remodelling and up-regulating FATP1. FUNDING: LV was supported by MyFirst Grant AIRC n.16888, Ricerca Finalizzata Ministero della Salute RF-2016-02,364,358, Ricerca corrente Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico; LV and AG received funding from the European Union Programme Horizon 2020 (No. 777,377) for the project LITMUS-"Liver Investigation: Testing Marker Utility in Steatohepatitis". MM was supported by Fondazione Italiana per lo Studio del Fegato (AISF) 'Mario Coppo' fellowship.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/diagnóstico , Resistência à Insulina , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Am J Hematol ; 95(2): 167-177, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724192

RESUMO

Iron overload heritability remains partly unexplained. By performing whole exome sequencing in three patients with a clinical phenotype of hemochromatosis not accounted by known genetic risk factors, we identified in all patients rare variants predicted to alter activity of Neuromedin-B receptor (NMBR). Coding NMBR mutations were enriched in 129 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or iron overload phenotype, as compared to ethnically matched controls, including 100 local healthy blood donors and 1000Genomes project participants (15.5% vs 5%, P = .0038 at burden test), and were associated with higher transferrin saturation in regular blood donors (P = .04). Consistently, in 191 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver, the most common low-frequency p.L390 M variant was independently associated with higher ferritin (P = .03). In 58 individuals, who underwent oral iron challenge, carriage of the p.L390 M variant was associated with higher transferrin saturation and lower hepcidin release. Furthermore, the circulating concentration of the natural NMBR ligand, Neuromedin-B, was reduced in response to iron challenge. It was also decreased in individuals carrying the p.L390 M variant and with hemochromatosis in parallel with increased transferrin saturation. In mice, Nmbr was induced by chronic dietary iron overload in the liver, gut, pancreas, spleen, and skeletal muscle, while Nmb was downregulated in gut, pancreas and spleen. Finally, Nmb amplified holo-transferrin dependent induction of hepcidin in primary mouse hepatocytes, which was associated with Jak2 induction and abolished by the NMBR antagonist PD168368. In conclusion, NMBR natural variants were enriched in patients with iron overload, and associated with facilitated iron absorption, possibly related to a defect of iron-induced hepcidin release.


Assuntos
Sobrecarga de Ferro , Ferro/sangue , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Receptores da Bombesina , Adulto , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferritinas/genética , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Receptores da Bombesina/genética , Receptores da Bombesina/metabolismo , Transferrina/genética , Transferrina/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11585, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406127

RESUMO

There is a high unmet need for developing treatments for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), for which there are no approved drugs today. Here, we used a human in vitro disease model to understand mechanisms linked to genetic risk variants associated with NAFLD. The model is based on 3D spheroids from primary human hepatocytes from five different donors. Across these donors, we observed highly reproducible differences in the extent of steatosis induction, demonstrating that inter-donor variability is reflected in the in vitro model. Importantly, our data indicates that the genetic variant TM6SF2 E167K, previously associated with increased risk for NAFLD, induces increased hepatocyte fat content by reducing APOB particle secretion. Finally, differences in gene expression pathways involved in cholesterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism between wild type and TM6SF2 E167K mutation carriers (N = 125) were confirmed in the in vitro model. Our data suggest that the 3D in vitro spheroids can be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the association of human genetic variants associated with NAFLD. This model may also be suitable to discover new treatments against NAFLD.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Humanos
20.
J Lipid Res ; 60(6): 1144-1153, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918065

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia and altered iron metabolism are typical features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7 (PCSK7) gene variation has been associated with circulating lipids and liver damage during iron overload. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the PCSK7 rs236918 variant on NAFLD-related traits in 1,801 individuals from the Liver Biopsy Cohort (LBC), 500,000 from the UK Biobank Cohort (UKBBC), and 4,580 from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS). The minor PCSK7 rs236918 C allele was associated with higher triglycerides, aminotransferases, and hepatic inflammation in the LBC (P < 0.05) and with hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in the UKBBC. In the DHS, PCSK7 missense variants were associated with circulating lipids. PCSK7 was expressed in hepatocytes and its hepatic expression correlated with that of lipogenic genes (P < 0.05). The rs236918 C allele was associated with upregulation of a new "intra-PCSK7" long noncoding RNA predicted to interact with the protein, higher hepatic and circulating PCSK7 protein (P < 0.01), which correlated with triglycerides (P = 0.04). In HepG2 cells, PCSK7 deletion reduced lipogenesis, fat accumulation, inflammation, transforming growth factor ß pathway activation, and fibrogenesis. In conclusion, PCSK7 gene variation is associated with dyslipidemia and more severe liver disease in high risk individuals, likely by modulating PCSK7 expression/activity.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Subtilisinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/fisiologia , Lipogênese/genética , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Subtilisinas/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...