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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378658

RESUMO

In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus , Bacillus , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esgotos , Temperatura
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 131(1): 392-403, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219581

RESUMO

AIMS: To isolate endophytic Trichoderma species and investigate the potential for biological control of the root rot pathogen Armillaria mellea. METHODS AND RESULTS: In all, 40 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from a range of host plants and identities were confirmed by ITS, rpb2 and tef1 sequence. When tested in dual culture assays for antagonism against A. mellea, Trichoderma isolates overgrew the A. mellea colonies within four days and by eight days 38 Trichoderma isolates significantly reduced A. mellea colony size. Armillaria mellea was unable to be recovered from five of eight co-cultivations tested, suggesting Trichoderma had killed the A. mellea in these cases. Pre-colonized hazel disks were used to determine what happens in a more heterogeneous situation with A. mellea and a refined set of eight Trichoderma isolates. Similar to plate-based assays, Trichoderma quickly covered A. mellea stopping any further growth and two Trichoderma isolates were able to eradicate A. mellea. CONCLUSIONS: Of the Trichoderma spp. tested, endophytic isolates of Trichoderma virens and T. hamatum offered the greatest antagonism towards A. mellea. Using pre-colonized hazel disks was of great importance for this work to demonstrate the fungal interactions in plant material. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Controlling Armillaria root rot is difficult with chemical treatments, thus an environmentally benign and cost-effective alternative is required. This study highlights the prospect of biological control as an effective, environmentally friendly alternative to chemicals.

5.
Curr Oncol ; 26(2): 124-136, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043815

RESUMO

Background: Patient education materials (pems) are frequently used to help patients make cancer screening decisions. However, because pems are typically developed by experts, they might inadequately address patient barriers to screening. We co-created, with patients, a prostate cancer (pca) screening pem, and we compared how the co-created pem and a pem developed by experts affected decisional conflict and screening intention in patients. Methods: We identified and used patient barriers to pca screening to co-create a pca screening pem with patients, clinicians, and researchers. We then conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial with men 40 years of age and older in Ontario to compare decisional conflict and intention about pca screening after those men had viewed the co-created pem (intervention) or an expert-created pem (control). Participants were randomized using dynamic block randomization, and the study team was blinded to the allocation. Results: Of 287 participants randomized to exposure to the co-created pem, 230 were analyzed, and of 287 randomized to exposure to the expert-created pem, 223 were analyzed. After pem exposure, intervention and control participants did not differ significantly in Decisional Conflict Scale scores [mean difference: 0.37 ± 1.23; 95% confidence interval (ci): -2.05 to 2.79]; in sure (Sure of myself, Understand information, Risk-benefit ratio, or Encouragement) scores (odds ratio: 0.75; 95% ci: 0.52 to 1.08); or in screening intention (mean difference: 0.09 ± 0.08; 95% ci: -0.06 to 0.24]). Conclusions: The effectiveness of the co-created pem did not differ from that of the pem developed by experts. Thus, pem developers should choose the method that best fits their goals and resources.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Participação do Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Malays J Pathol ; 38(3): 311-313, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28028302

RESUMO

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APML) is characterised by the t(15;17)(q22;q21), that results in the fusion of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) gene at 15q22 with the retinoic acid α-receptor (RARA) gene at 17q21. The current case report describes a 13-year-old male with APML, who was negative for PML/RARA fusion signal but reported to have an atypical translocation t(16;17). To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of APML responsive to ATRA with such a translocation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Adolescente , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Translocação Genética
7.
Trials ; 17(1): 454, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27634489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incisional hernias are common complications of midline closure following abdominal surgery and cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life and increased health care costs. The 'Hughes Repair' combines a standard mass closure with a series of horizontal and two vertical mattress sutures within a single suture. This theoretically distributes the load along the incision length as well as across it. There is evidence to suggest that this technique is as effective as mesh repair for the operative management of incisional hernias; however, no trials have compared the Hughes Repair with standard mass closure for the prevention of incisional hernia formation following a midline incision. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a 1:1 randomised controlled trial comparing two suture techniques for the closure of the midline abdominal wound following surgery for colorectal cancer. Full ethical approval has been gained (Wales REC 3, MREC 12/WA/0374). Eight hundred patients will be randomised from approximately 20 general surgical units within the United Kingdom. Patients undergoing open or laparoscopic (more than a 5-cm midline incision) surgery for colorectal cancer, elective or emergency, are eligible. Patients under the age of 18 years, those having mesh inserted or undergoing musculofascial flap closure of the perineal defect in abdominoperineal wound closure, and those unable to give informed consent will be excluded. Patients will be randomised intraoperatively to either the Hughes Repair or standard mass closure. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of incisional hernias at 1 year as assessed by standardised clinical examination. The secondary outcomes include quality of life patient-reported outcome measures, cost-utility analysis, incidence of complete abdominal wound dehiscence and C-POSSUM scores. The incidence of incisional hernia at 1 year, assessed by computerised tomography, will form a tertiary outcome. DISCUSSION: A feasibility phase has been completed. The results of the study will be used to inform current and future practice and potentially reduce the risk of incisional hernia formation following midline incisions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN 25616490 . Registered on 1 January 2012.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Hérnia Incisional/prevenção & controle , Laparoscopia , Técnicas de Sutura , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos Abdominais/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos Abdominais/economia , Protocolos Clínicos , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Hérnia Incisional/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Incisional/economia , Hérnia Incisional/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória , Técnicas de Sutura/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Sutura/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(20): 79-85, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27050183

RESUMO

Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Br J Cancer ; 113(4): 603-10, 2015 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26203761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data describe patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of localised oesophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy(CRT). The phase 2/3 SCOPE-1 trial assessed the effectiveness of CRT±cetuximab. The trial for the first time provided an opportunity to describe PROs from a multi-centre group of patients treated with CRT that are presented here. METHODS: Patients undergoing CRT±cetuximab within the SCOPE-1 trial (258 patients from 36 UK centres) completed generic-, disease- and treatment-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-OES18, Dermatology Life-Quality Index (DLQI)) at baseline and at 7, 13, 24, 52 and 104 weeks. Mean EORTC functional scale scores (>15 point change significant), DLQI scores (>4 point change significant) and proportions of patients (>15% significant) with 'minimal' or 'severe' symptoms are presented. RESULTS: Questionnaire response rates were good. At baseline, EORTC functional scores were high (>75%) and few symptoms were reported except for severe problems with fatigue, insomnia and eating-related symptoms (e.g., appetite loss, dysphagia, dry mouth) in both groups(>15%). Functional aspects of health deteriorated and symptoms increased with treatment and by week 13 global quality of life, physical, role and social function significantly deteriorated and more problems with fatigue, dyspnoea, appetite loss and trouble with taste were reported. Recovery occurred by 6 months (except severe fatigue and insomnia in >15% of patients) and maintained at follow-up with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: CRT for localised oesophageal cancer has a significant detrimental impact on many aspects of HRQL; however, recovery is achieved by 6 months and maintained with the exception of persisting problems with severe fatigue and insomnia. The data suggest that the HRQL recovery after definitive CRT is quicker, and there is little lasting deficit compared with treatment including surgery. These data need to be compared with HRQL data from studies evaluating treatments including surgery for oesophageal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Malays Orthop J ; 6(1): 40-2, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279041

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Anterior hip dislocation is common in younger adults and is the result of severe, high energy trauma such as high-velocity motor vehicle accidents or falls from great heights. A similar mechanism of injury would cause a femur neck fracture in older patients. Of these, open anterior hip dislocations are extremely rare and are usually associated with other soft tissue and bony injuries. We report a case of an open anterior hip dislocation with normal neurovascular status in a third world setting. KEY WORDS: trauma, open anterior, dislocation, hip, femoral head, osteonecrosis.

11.
BJOG ; 118(9): 1084-9, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21585640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between placenta accreta (PA) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) pregnancies. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care centre in Jerusalem, Israel. SAMPLE: During January 2004-February 2009, 25,193 deliveries occurred in our hospital, including 752 (3%) deliveries of IVF pregnancies. METHODS: Placenta accreta was only diagnosed when there were histological findings from the placenta associated with the suitable clinical course. Demographic, obstetrical and fertility characteristics of these patients were retrieved from hospital files. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rates of PA in pregnancies achieved with IVF versus rates of PA in spontaneous pregnancies. RESULTS: The rate of PA in the IVF group was 12/752 (16/1000) pregnancies, compared with 30/24,441 (1.2/1000) among spontaneous pregnancies (P < 0.0001; OR 13.2; 95% CI 6.7-25.8). Among the variables examined, parity, rate of caesarean delivery in the index pregnancy, and birthweight differed significantly between IVF and spontaneous pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: The odds of developing PA are significantly higher in IVF pregnancies than in spontaneous pregnancies. These differences may stem from differences in the endometrial environment, or from changes to the endometrium wrought by IVF treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Perinatol ; 31(9): 586-92, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21273989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sick young infants are at high risk of mortality in developing countries, but families often decline hospital referral. Our objective was to identify the predictors of acceptance of referral for hospital care among families of severely ill newborns and infants <59 days old in three low-income communities of Karachi, Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 541 newborns and infants referred from home by community health workers conducting household surveillance, and diagnosed with a serious illness at local community clinics between 1 January and 31 December 2007, was followed-up within 1 month of referral to the public hospital. RESULT: Only 24% of families accepted hospital referral. Major reasons for refusal were financial difficulties (67%) and father/elder denying permission (65%). Religious/cultural beliefs were cited by 20% of families. Referral acceptance was higher with recognition of severity of the illness by mother (odds ratio=12.7; 95% confidence interval=4.6 to 35.2), family's ability to speak the dominant language at hospital (odds ratio=2.0; 95% confidence interval=1.3-3.1), presence of grunting in the infant (odds ratio=3.3; 95% confidence interval=1.2-9.0) and infant temperature <35.5 °C (odds ratio=4.1; 95% confidence interval=2.3 to 7.4). No gender differential was observed. CONCLUSION: Refusal of hospital referral for sick young infants is very common. Interventions that encourage appropriate care seeking, as well as community-based management of young infant illnesses when referral is not feasible are needed to improve neonatal survival in low-income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão , Pobreza , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 103(8): 671-7, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20030991

RESUMO

The lymphocytic phenotypes involved in the pathogenesis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Iraqi children have recently been investigated, in a study based on cluster-of-differentiation (CD) markers. Each case of VL investigated was confirmed parasitologically by the observation of amastigotes in a bone-marrow smear. Compared with the values for the healthy children used as controls, a lymphocyte from an untreated VL case was significantly less likely to be CD3+ or CD4+, significantly more likely to be CD8+, and more (but not significantly more) likely to be CD22+. The untreated cases also had significantly lower CD4+/CD8+ ratios than the controls. Among the untreated cases, gender and age had no apparent effect on any of these variables. After 28 days of treatment with sodium stibogluconate, there was a trend towards normalization in the lymphocytic phenotypes of the VL cases, with significant increases in the CD4+/CD8+ ratios and the percentages of lymphocytes that were CD3+ or CD4+, and a significant decrease in the percentages of lymphocytes that were CD22+.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 16(11): 1277-88, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18417375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Conventional treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with serious gastrointestinal side effects and in view of the recent withdrawal of some cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, identifying safer alternative treatment options is needed. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the existing evidence from randomised controlled trials of two chemically related nutritional supplements, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of OA to determine their efficacy and safety profile. METHODS: The electronic databases [Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl and NeLH (1950 to November 2007)] were searched. The search strategy combined terms: osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disorder, dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, methylsulfonylmethane, MSM, clinical trial; double-blind, single blind, RCT, placebo, randomized, comparative study, evaluation study, control. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Data were extracted and quality was assessed using the JADAD scale. RESULTS: Six studies were included [evaluating a total of 681 patients with OA of the knee for DMSO (N=297 on active treatment); 168 patients for MSM (N=52 on active treatment)]. Two of the four DMSO trials, and both MSM trials reported significant improvement in pain outcomes in the treatment group compared to comparator treatments, however, methodological issues and concerns over optimal dosage and treatment period, were highlighted. CONCLUSION: No definitive conclusion can currently be drawn for either supplement. The findings from all the DMSO studies need to be viewed with caution because of poor methodology including; possible unblinding, and questionable treatment duration and dose. The data from the more rigorous MSM trials provide positive but not definitive evidence that MSM is superior to placebo in the treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee. Further studies are now required to identify both the optimum dosage and longer-term safety of MSM and DMSO, and definitive efficacy trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dimetil Sulfóxido/uso terapêutico , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
QJM ; 101(3): 167-79, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18222988

RESUMO

Complementary treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are sought by patients for symptomatic relief and to avoid the iatrogenic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel, GLM) in the treatment of OA and substantially adds to previous work by focussing solely on GLM use in OA as well providing a re-analysis of the original trial data. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (comparative, placebo-controlled or crossover) were considered for inclusion from Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, Scopus and NeLH databases where adults with OA of any joint were randomized to receive either GLM vs. placebo, no additional intervention (usual care), or an active intervention. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the JADAD scale. Four RCTs were included, three placebo controlled, the fourth a comparative trial of GLM lipid extract vs. stabilized powder extract. No RCTs comparing GLM to conventional treatment were identified. All four studies assessed GLM as an adjunctive treatment to conventional medication for a clinically relevant time in mild to moderate OA. All trials reported clinical benefits in the GLM treatment group but the findings from two studies cannot be included in this review because of possible un-blinding and inappropriate statistical analysis. The data from the two more rigorous trials, in conjunction with our re-analysis of original data suggests that GLM may be superior to placebo for the treatment of mild to moderate OA. As a credible biological mechanism exists for this treatment, further rigorous investigations are required to assess efficacy and optimal dosage.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Osteoartrite/terapia , Perna (Organismo) , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Placebos
16.
Acta Virol ; 52(4): 237-42, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19143480

RESUMO

To monitor genetic variation between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates of northwest Iran, samples of cucurbitaceous plants expressing symptoms similar to those caused by CMV were collected. The samples were first screened by ELISA to detect CMV and to determine its subgroup. All detected CMV isolates appeared to be subgroup I (S-I). When total RNA from the samples was subjected to RT-PCR with a pair of primers corresponding to the CMV coat protein (CP) flanking regions, the expected ~870 bp DNA fragment was amplified at 18 samples of 34 tested. MspI restriction analysis of 18 amplified products produced two DNA fragments with sizes about 530 and 330 bp corresponding to MspI profile of CMV S-I. The amplification products of four representative samples were cloned and nucleotide sequences of 1-5 clones from each isolate were determined. The clones from each isolate were over 99% identical and also the isolates themselves were only up to 2% divergent. These isolates clustered in subgroup IA clade on a consensus phylogenetic tree and formed a distinct subclade suggesting that the isolates have originated from a common source.


Assuntos
Cucumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Cucumis sativus/virologia , Cucumovirus/classificação , Cucumovirus/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
17.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 99(2): 131-9, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15814032

RESUMO

When used in vitro, zinc sulphate has a direct antileishmanial effect. To see if this effect involved the inhibition of the parasites' enzymes, extracts of the promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania major (MHOM/IQ/93/MRC6) and L. tropica (MHOM/IQ/93/MRC2) were prepared. Zinc sulphate, at various concentrations, was then added to samples of these extracts before the activities, in the samples, of certain key enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, hexose-monophosphate shunt and citric-acid cycle, and of two enzymes associated with virulence (protease and acid phosphatase), were determined. The zinc was found to inhibit every enzyme investigated, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Thus the direct antileishmanial effect of zinc may result, partially or entirely, from the inhibition of enzymes that are necessary for the parasites' carbohydrate metabolism and virulence.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Hexoquinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Leishmania/enzimologia , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania major/enzimologia , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania tropica/enzimologia , Malato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Virulência
18.
Ann Trop Med Parasitol ; 99(1): 27-36, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15701252

RESUMO

In an attempt to determine the possible mechanism(s) behind the antileishmanial activity of zinc sulphate, promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of both Leishmania major and L. tropica were incubated with different concentrations of the compound. For each of the two Leishmania species, all three forms were found to be inhibited by the zinc sulphate, in a dose-dependent manner, the promastigotes being the most resistant form, followed by the axenic amastigotes. These results indicate that zinc sulphate has a direct antileishmanial effect. Compared with macrophages from starch-treated mice, the macrophages recovered from mice that had been injected intraperitoneally with zinc sulphate (daily for the 4 days prior to the macrophage collection) or BCG (once, 4 days before the cell collection) showed increased phagocytosis and increased killing of L. major and L. tropica. As the effects of the zinc sulphate were not statistically different from those of the known immunomodulating agent BCG, zinc sulphate appears to have an immunomodulating effect, in addition to its direct antileishmanial effect.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Meios de Cultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania major/imunologia , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania tropica/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Amido/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Zinco/imunologia
19.
Phytopathology ; 94(7): 722-9, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18943904

RESUMO

ABSTRACT We previously have reported that infection of tobacco protoplasts or leaf tissue with the cucumovirus Peanut stunt virus (PSV) induced the production of unusual cytoplasmic ribbon-like inclusions. The formation of these novel inclusions is strain-specific, because infection of tobacco with subgroup II PSV strains, but not subgroup I strains, induced the production of inclusions. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that induction of the ribbon-like inclusions maps to PSV subgroup II RNA3, which codes for the coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP). We have now extended these studies using chimeric constructs containing CP and MP open reading frames (ORFs) from PSV strains ER and W that belong to subgroups I and II, respectively. Additionally, recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) vectors containing translatable and untranslatable PSV CP ORF were constructed. Plants inoculated with infectious chimeric PSV or recombinant PVX transcripts were analyzed for CP expression by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and for inclusion production by electron microscopy. The results of these experiments indicated that translation of the CP ORF alone is essential and sufficient for inclusion production. In immunogold labeling experiments using an antiserum to PSV virions, abundant gold labeling of the inclusions was observed, suggesting that PSV CP is probably a major component of the inclusions. Because inclusion production is host specific, a host factor is likely to be involved. In addition to their diagnostic importance, these novel inclusions may also prove valuable in identifying the host factors that interact with PSV CP.

20.
Int J Dev Biol ; 45(4): 685-8, 2001 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11461006

RESUMO

A novel developmental mutant in the Mexican axolotl is described. Designated redneck (rn), the mutant gene is inherited as a simple Mendelian recessive. In homozygotes, rn causes massive haemorrhage in the posterior head, rostrocaudal compression of the craniovisceral skeleton, abnormal differentiation of vertebral cartilage, micrognathia, aglossia, microphthalmia and abnormal hepatic development. Affected larvae become evident at the onset of feeding, and eventually die of starvation. Based on the tissues affected, we propose that rn affects later developmental events in the differentiation and morphogenesis of a subset of cranial neural crest cells. Thus, rn may prove a valuable model system for examining the role of neural crest cells in the development of cranial and endodermal derivatives.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Crista Neural/embriologia , Ambystoma , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Homozigoto , Hibridização In Situ , Masculino , Mutação , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Linhagem
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