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IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 40(5): 1363-1376, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507867


To better understand early brain development in health and disorder, it is critical to accurately segment infant brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Deep learning-based methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance; h owever, one of the major limitations is that the learning-based methods may suffer from the multi-site issue, that is, the models trained on a dataset from one site may not be applicable to the datasets acquired from other sites with different imaging protocols/scanners. To promote methodological development in the community, the iSeg-2019 challenge ( provides a set of 6-month infant subjects from multiple sites with different protocols/scanners for the participating methods. T raining/validation subjects are from UNC (MAP) and testing subjects are from UNC/UMN (BCP), Stanford University, and Emory University. By the time of writing, there are 30 automatic segmentation methods participated in the iSeg-2019. In this article, 8 top-ranked methods were reviewed by detailing their pipelines/implementations, presenting experimental results, and evaluating performance across different sites in terms of whole brain, regions of interest, and gyral landmark curves. We further pointed out their limitations and possible directions for addressing the multi-site issue. We find that multi-site consistency is still an open issue. We hope that the multi-site dataset in the iSeg-2019 and this review article will attract more researchers to address the challenging and critical multi-site issue in practice.

BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1090, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888522


BACKGROUND: In most developing countries, smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) often gets missed from the diagnosis of consideration, though it accounts 30-65% of total PTB cases, due to deficient or inaccessible molecular diagnostic modalities. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 360 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH). The patient selection was done as per the algorithm of Nepal's National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) for Xpert MTB/RIF testing. Participants' demographic and clinical information were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The specimens were collected, processed directly for Xpert MTB/RIF test according to the manufacturer's protocol. The same samples were stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen technique then observed microscopically. Both findings were interpreted; rifampicin-resistant, if obtained, on Xpert testing was confirmed with a Line Probe Assay. RESULT: Of 360 smear-negative sputum samples analyzed, 85(23.61%) found positive while 3(0.8%) of them were rifampicin resistance. The infection was higher in males, i.e. 60(25.3%) compared to female 25(20.3%). The age group, > 45(nearly 33%) with median age 42 ± 21.5, were prone to the infection. During the study period, 4.6% (515/11048) sputum samples were reported as smear-positive in TUTH. Consequently, with Xpert MTB/RIF assay, the additional case 16.5% (n = 85/515) from smear-negative presumptive TB cases were detected. Among the most occurring clinical presentations, cough and chest pain were positively associated with SNPT. While upper lobe infiltrates (36.4%) and pleural effusion (40.4%) were the most peculiar radiological impression noted in PTB patient. 94 multi-drug resistant(MDR) suspected cases were enrolled; of total suspects, 29(30.8%) samples were rifampicin sensitive, 1(1.06%) indeterminate, 3(3.19%) rifampicin-resistant while remaining of them were negative. 2(2.2%) MDR cases were recovered from the patient with a previous history of ATT, of total 89 previously treated cases enrolled However, a single rifampicin-resistant from the new suspects. CONCLUSION: With an application of the assay, the additional cases, missed with smear microscopy, could be sought and exact incidence of the diseases could be revealed.

Bioensaio/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Dor no Peito/complicações , Tosse/complicações , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Países em Desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Derrame Pleural/complicações , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 488, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016976


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in an immunocompromised patient; however, often neglected in the immunocompetent patient from the diagnosis considerations. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis masquerading renascence of tuberculosis, in a 51-years-Nepali farmer. After a 6 month of presumed successful antitubercular therapy; the patient develops the clinical presentations and radiological features showing similarities with that of tuberculosis and malignancy. MTB complex was not detected with Xpert MTB/RIF assay and cytological examinations were negative for the malignant cells, however. The Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the broncho-alveolar-lavage revealed acid-fast, thin branching filamentous organisms suggestive Nocardia spp. Further, identifications and susceptibility pattern against recommended antibiotics were assessed as per the CLSI guidelines. The case was then, subsequently, diagnosed as pulmonary nocardiosis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed for 12 months. The patient underwent progressive changes and no relapse was noted in a periodic follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This case underscores that pulmonary nocardiosis requires diagnostic considerations, regardless of a patient's immunologic status and other mimicking infections.

Nocardiose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Nocardia/isolamento & purificação
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 505, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045768


Following publication of the original article [1], a typesetting mistake is reported. The captions of Figure 2 and Figure 3 were interchanged. The incorrect and correct combination of the figures and captions are given in this Correction and the original article has been updated.

BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 83, 2017 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159010


BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in a patient with underlying immune suppression and organ transplant. Clinical syndromes are varied and ranges from pulmonary, disseminated, cutaneous along with central nervous system involvement. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a rare case of disseminated pulmonary nocardiosis with cerebral manifestation in a 66 year-old-Nepali farmer; with a history of renal transplantation and undergoing therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic imaging revealed multiple opacities of varying sizes in bilateral lung field mediastinal, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, and ill-defined lesion with surrounding edema seen in left occipitoparietal region of brain. Bacteriological assessments of bronchoalveolar lavage and purulent fluid extracted intra-operatively from the lesion confirmed the case as Nocardiosis. CONCLUSION: Disseminated Pulmonary nocardiosis with central nervous system involvement carries a poor prognosis. However, early diagnosis of the case, the administration of appropriate antibiotic, stereotactic aspiration alone or craniotomy has a successful outcomes even in a post renal transplant patient treated with anti tuberculosis treatment.

Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Nocardiose/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Idoso , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Nepal , Nocardia , Nocardiose/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia