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1.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
2.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615024

RESUMO

Inadequate maternal diet can adversely affect mother and child. Our aim was to assess adherence to the Spanish dietary guidelines and to the Mediterranean diet, to analyze changes in diet during pregnancy and post-partum, and to identify maternal factors associated with food consumption. A total of 793 healthy pregnant women were recruited during the first prenatal visit and followed until the post-partum period. Data from the clinical history, anthropometric measurements, and lifestyle habits were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. The results show that in pregnant women the consumption of healthy foods did not meet recommendations, whereas consumption of red and processed meat and sweet food exceeded recommendations. The results also show a medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet that remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. A significant decrease was observed in the consumption of fruits, followed by vegetables and then salted and sweet cereals from pregnancy to post-partum. A better adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been reported by pregnant women that are older, of higher social class, and higher education level, and who do not smoke nor drink (p < 0.005). In conclusion, the diet of pregnant women from Spain departs from recommendations, medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet was maintained throughout the pregnancy and post-partum, and a decreasing consumption of healthy food from the first trimester to the post-partum period was observed. Maternal factors such as age, social class, education, and smoking influence diet quality.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658725

RESUMO

Iron deficiency (ID), anemia, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and excess iron (hemoconcentration) harm maternal-fetal health. We evaluated the effectiveness of different doses of iron supplementation adjusted for the initial levels of hemoglobin (Hb) on maternal iron status and described some associated prenatal determinants. The ECLIPSES study included 791 women, randomized into two groups: Stratum 1 (Hb = 110-130g/L, received 40 or 80mg iron daily) and Stratum 2 (Hb > 130g/L, received 20 or 40mg iron daily). Clinical, biochemical, and genetic information was collected during pregnancy, as were lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics. In Stratum 1, using 80 mg/d instead of 40 mg/d protected against ID on week 36. Only women with ID on week 12 benefited from the protection against anemia and IDA by increasing Hb levels. In Stratum 2, using 20 mg/d instead of 40 mg/d reduced the risk of hemoconcentration in women with initial serum ferritin (SF) ≥ 15 µg/L, while 40 mg/d improved SF levels on week 36 in women with ID in early pregnancy. Mutations in the HFE gene increased the risk of hemoconcentration. Iron supplementation should be adjusted to early pregnancy levels of Hb and iron stores. Mutations of the HFE gene should be evaluated in women with high Hb levels in early pregnancy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501028

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The Life's Simple 7 strategy of the American Heart Association proposes 7 metrics of ideal cardiovascular health: body mass index (BMI) <25mg/m2, not smoking, healthy diet, moderate physical activity ≥ 150min/wk, total blood cholesterol <200mg/dL, systolic and diastolic blood pressures <120 and <80mmHg, respectively, and fasting blood glucose <100mg/dL. It is important to assess the combined effect of these 7 metrics in the Spanish population. We prospectively analyzed the impact of baseline Life's Simple 7 metrics on the incidence of major cardiovascular events in the PREDIMED cohort (57.5% women, average baseline age, 67 years). METHODS: The healthy diet metric was defined as attaining ≥ 9 points on a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence screener. An incident major cardiovascular event was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for successive categories of health metrics. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.8 years in 7447 participants, there were 288 major cardiovascular events. After adjustment for age, sex, center, and intervention group, HRs (95%CI) were 0.73 (0.54-0.99), 0.57 (0.41-0.78), and 0.34 (0.21-0.53) for participants with 2, 3, and ≥ 4 metrics, respectively, compared with participants with only 0 to 1 metrics. CONCLUSIONS: In an elderly Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to Life's Simple 7 metrics was progressively associated with a substantially lower rate of major cardiovascular events.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405209

RESUMO

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) mortality remains high. The best survival rates are achieved when trained people provide OHCA victims with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); however, it is estimated that only 25% of victims receive CPR. This community health study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a training programme in basic CPR and in the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) on knowledge and skills for lay people, and its social impact. The training courses were based on Catalan Council of Resuscitation guidelines. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, evaluation of knowledge and practical skills at baseline and at the end of the training courses, and also on the social impact of the programme. A total of 36 training courses with 482 participants were carried out, and most participants achieved a qualification of suitable. The mean score in knowledge was 3.1 ± 1.1 at baseline and 3.8 ± 1.2 (p = 0.001) at the end of the programme. Participants rated the training courses as very satisfactory, considered the training useful, and felt more qualified to respond to an emergency. This study shows that a high percentage of participants acquired skills in basic CPR and use of an AED, which confirms the usefulness and effectiveness of training courses and its important social impact.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Participação da Comunidade , Desfibriladores , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Mudança Social
6.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035497

RESUMO

Dietary guidelines emphasize the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, an older age is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient intake adequacy and to identify demographic variables associated with DD, we cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial: 6587 Spanish adults aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity who also had MetS. An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the dietary reference intake (DRI) forat least four of 17 nutrients proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between DDS and the risk of nutritionally inadequate intakes. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake: odds ratio (OR) = 28.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.80-39.21). When we estimated food varietyfor each of the food groups, participants in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake for the groups of vegetables, OR = 14.03 (95% CI 10.55-18.65), fruits OR = 11.62 (95% CI 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR = 6.54 (95% CI 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR = 6.60 (95% CI 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreased, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rose. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow(er)s.


Assuntos
Dieta , Síndrome Metabólica , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais
7.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disparities and lifestyle factors are likely to determine the overall quality of the diet. In addition, overeating is compatible with inadequate micronutrient intake and it can lead to adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of dietary nutrient intake and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on nutrient density in a large primary cardiovascular prevention trial conducted in healthy participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) to assess the cardiovascular effects of an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (PREDIMED-Plus). METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial with 6646 Spanish participants (aged 55-75 years in men and 60-75 years in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS. Energy and nutrient intake (for 10 nutrients) were calculated using a validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrient density was estimated dividing the absolute nutrient intake by total energy intake. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to dietary reference intakes. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine associations between socioeconomic status or lifestyle factors and nutrient density. RESULTS: A considerable proportion of the screened participants showed a deficient intake of vitamins A, D, E, B9, calcium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Inadequate intake of four or more of the ten nutrients considered was present in 17% of participants. A higher nutrient density was directly and significantly associated with female sex, higher educational level and a better adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Lifestyle factors such as non-smoking and avoidance of sedentary lifestyles were also independently associated with better nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MetS, despite being overweight, exhibited suboptimal nutrient intake, especially among men. Low nutrient density diet can be largely explained by differences in socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. These results highlight the importance of focussing on nutritional education in vulnerable populations, taking into account nutrient requirements.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 572, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) is a health emergency with high mortality. Mortality depends on time of initiation and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) manoeuvres and the use of the automated external defibrillator (AED). METHODS: The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of an automatically activated network of volunteers using smartwatch and smartphone applications on the reduction of time of initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation manoeuvres. The protocol will be developed in four phases: 1) validation of an application (App) for smartwatch that automatically generates a health alert in case of out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest (OHCA); 2) training course for laypersons on CPR manoeuvres and AED use; 3) creation of a network of volunteers trained in CPR and AED use that covers our city; and 4) simulation in which the network of volunteers is automatically activated via smartphone to attend simulated OHCAs. A total of 134 health alerts will be generated; on 67 occasions the alert will be directed to the emergency health services and to the network of trained volunteers (Intervention Group) and on 67 occasions the alert will be solely directed to the emergency health services (Control Group). The arrival time of the first rescuer, category of first rescuer (emergency services versus network of volunteers), initiation time of manoeuvres and competence will be recorded. DISCUSSION: CPR training for laypersons is advised, especially for relatives and people close to patients with heart disease, to reduce time of initiation of CPR and to improve OHCA survival rates. This study aims to verify that the initiation time of CPR manoeuvres and AED use is shorter in the intervention than in the control group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT03828305 . Trial registered on February 1, 2019 (retrospective register).


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Socorristas/educação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/educação , Adulto , Desfibriladores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Smartphone , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have compared micronutrient intake and fulfilment of average requirements (EAR) in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic adults at high cardiovascular risk. We assessed these variables in a large sample of participants in the PREDIMED-PLUS randomized trial of primary cardiovascular prevention with diet and physical activity. DESIGN: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in n = 5792 men and women, aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and some metabolic syndrome features. METHODS: Participants were categorised as non-diabetic (n = 2390), pre-diabetic (n = 1322) or diabetic (n = 2080) by standard criteria. Food and nutrient intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Micronutrients examined were vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine. The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was evaluated using the EAR or adequate intake (AI) cut-offs. Diet quality was also determined using a 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) questionnaire. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants, those with pre-diabetes had lower intakes of total carbohydrates (CHO) and higher intakes of total fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and were more likely to be below EAR for folic, while diabetic participants had lower intakes of total CHO and higher intakes of protein, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, SFA and cholesterol and were less likely to be below EAR for vitamins B2, and B6, Ca, Zn and iodine. Diabetic participants disclosed higher adherence to the MedDiet than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mediterranean individuals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes had better nutrient adequacy and adherence to the MedDiet than those with pre-diabetes or no diabetes.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55⁻75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0⁻25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Nozes , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781525

RESUMO

The primary aim of the Obemat2.0 trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent motivational program for the treatment of childhood obesity, coordinated between primary care and hospital specialized services, compared to the usual intervention performed in primary care. This was a cluster randomized clinical trial conducted in Spain, with two intervention arms: motivational intervention group vs. usual care group (as control), including 167 participants in each. The motivational intervention consisted of motivational interviewing, educational materials, use of an eHealth physical activity monitor and three group-based sessions. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI) z score increments before and after the 12 (+3) months of intervention. Secondary outcomes (pre-post intervention) were: adherence to treatment, waist circumference (cm), fat mass index (z score), fat free mass index (z score), total body water (kg), bone mineral density (z score), blood lipids profile, glucose metabolism, and psychosocial problems. Other assessments (pre and post-intervention) were: sociodemographic information, physical activity, sedentary activity, neuropsychological testing, perception of body image, quality of the diet, food frequency consumption and foods available at home. The results of this clinical trial could open a window of opportunity to support professionals at the primary care to treat childhood obesity. The clinicaltrials.gov identifier was NCT02889406.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Espanha , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 619-627, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589119

RESUMO

PROPOSAL: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the consumption of total and specific types of dairy products and the risk of incident cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 5860 subjects from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study. The time to cataract surgery was calculated as the time between recruitment and the date of the surgery, last visit of the follow-up, date of death, or until the end of the study. Dairy products intake was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of cataract surgery according to average dietary energy-adjusted total dairy products, milk, yogurt and cheese consumption. RESULTS: We documented a total of 768 new cataract events after a median of 5.6 years of follow-up. Subjects in the second [hazard ratio (HR) 0.62; 95% CI 0.52, 0.74] and third tertile (HR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.60, 0.85) of skimmed yogurt intake had a significantly lower risk of cataracts after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant associations were observed for total dairy products, whole and skimmed milk, whole yogurt and cheese consumption. CONCLUSION: The intake of skimmed yogurt was associated with a reduced risk of cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population with high cardiovascular risk. No significant associations were observed for other type of dairy product. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Catarata/epidemiologia , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Diabetes Care ; 42(5): 777-788, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The long-term impact of intentional weight loss on cardiovascular events remains unknown. We describe 12-month changes in body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a trial designed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention on primary cardiovascular prevention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome aged 55-75 years (n = 626) were randomized to an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet, physical activity promotion, and behavioral support (IG) or a control group (CG). The primary and secondary outcomes were changes in weight and cardiovascular risk markers, respectively. RESULTS: Diet and physical activity changes were in the expected direction, with significant improvements in IG versus CG. After 12 months, IG participants lost an average of 3.2 kg vs. 0.7 kg in the CG (P < 0.001), a mean difference of -2.5 kg (95% CI -3.1 to -1.9). Weight loss ≥5% occurred in 33.7% of IG participants compared with 11.9% in the CG (P < 0.001). Compared with the CG, cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, significantly improved in IG participants (P < 0.002). Reductions in insulin resistance, HbA1c, and circulating levels of leptin, interleukin-18, and MCP-1 were greater in IG than CG participants (P < 0.05). IG participants with prediabetes/diabetes significantly improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, along with triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels compared with their CG counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: PREDIMED-Plus intensive lifestyle intervention for 12 months was effective in decreasing adiposity and improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight/obese older adults with metabolic syndrome, as well as in individuals with or at risk for diabetes.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Idoso , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(12): e11071, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the most significant factors contributing to low life expectancy, health inequalities, and illness at the worldwide scale. Smoking cessation attempts benefit from social support. Mobile phones have changed the way we communicate through the use of freely available message-oriented apps. Mobile app-based interventions for smoking cessation programs can provide interactive, supportive, and individually tailored interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify emotions, coping strategies, beliefs, values, and cognitive evaluations of smokers who are in the process of quitting, and to analyze online social support provided through the analysis of messages posted to a chat function integrated into a mobile app. METHODS: In this descriptive qualitative study, informants were smokers who participated in the chat of Tobbstop. The technique to generate information was documentary through messages collected from September 2014 through June 2016, specifically designed to support a smoking cessation intervention. A thematic content analysis of the messages applied 2 conceptual models: the Lazarus and Folkman model to assess participant's experiences and perceptions and the Cutrona model to evaluate online social support. RESULTS: During the study period, 11,788 text messages were posted to the chat by 101 users. The most frequent messages offered information and emotional support, and all the basic emotions were reported in the chat. The 3 most frequent coping strategies identified were physical activity, different types of treatment such as nicotine replacement, and humor. Beliefs about quitting smoking included the inevitability of weight gain and the notion that not using any type of medications is better for smoking cessation. Health and family were the values more frequently described, followed by freedom. A smoke-free environment was perceived as important to successful smoking cessation. The social support group that was developed with the app offered mainly emotional and informational support. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that a chat integrated into a mobile app focused on supporting smoking cessation provides a useful tool for smokers who are in the process of quitting, by offering social support and a space to share concerns, information, or strategies.

16.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400355

RESUMO

Inadequate diet influences chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in Spain. CVD figures vary from one geographical region to another; this could be associated with different food choices. Our aim was to analyse the influence of geographical area on nutrient intakes among the Spanish adult population with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). We analysed cross-sectional baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study: 6646 Spanish adults, aged 55⁻75 years, with overweight/obesity and MetS in four geographical areas. A validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess energy and nutrient intakes. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was estimated according to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between geographical area (North, Central, East and South areas) and inadequate nutrient intake. People in the North area consumed significantly lower amounts of vegetables and fish but more sugar and alcohol (p < 0.001) than other areas. Dietary fibre, vitamin A, E, calcium and magnesium intakes were all lower among men of North area than in the other areas (p < 0.001). Sex (women), non-smoker and physical activity were also associated to adequate nutrient intake. Geographical area influences nutrient intakes. Its effect on dietary quality should be taken into account when planning food policies.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Geografia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 110, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development and implementation of effective physical activity (PA) intervention programs is challenging, particularly in older adults. After the first year of the intervention program used in the ongoing PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial, we assessed the initial effectiveness of the PA component. METHODS: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing randomized clinical trial including 6874 participants randomized to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), physical activity promotion and behavioral support and to a control group using MedDiet recommendations but without calorie restriction or PA advice. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are measured by standard clinical protocols. Duration and intensity of PA is self-reported using the validated REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. The primary endpoint of the PREDIMED-Plus trial is a combined cardiovascular outcome: myocardial infarction (acute coronary syndromes with positive troponin test), stroke, or cardiovascular mortality. The present study involved secondary analysis of PA data (n = 6059; mean age 65 ± 4.9 years) with one-year changes in total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA within and between intervention groups as the outcome. Generalized estimating equation models were fitted to evaluate time trends of PA, BMI, and WC within groups and differences between intervention and control groups. RESULTS: After 12 months, average daily MVPA increased by 27.2 (95%CI 5.7;48.7) METs-min/day and 123.1 (95%CI 109.7-136.6) METs-min/day in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Total-PA, light-PA, and MVPA increased significantly (p < 0.01) in both groups. A significant (p < 0.001) time*intervention group interaction was found for Total-PA and MVPA, meaning the PA trajectory over time differed between the intervention and control groups. Age, sex, education level, and BMI did not moderate the effectiveness of the PA intervention. BMI and WC decreased significantly with increasing MVPA, compared with participants who reported no changes in MVPA. CONCLUSION: After one year of follow-up, the PREDIMED-Plus PA intervention has been effective in increasing daily PA in older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870 ), registration date: 24 July 2014.


Assuntos
Exercício , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/dietoterapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Tamanho da Amostra , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 184, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) promotes cardiovascular health and health related quality of life (HRQoL), although the effect of that on blood pressure (BP) control has rarely been studied in hypertensive subjects. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PA intervention programme on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, HRQoL and BP control in hypertensive subjects. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial, with a PA intervention programme of 9 months duration, comprising a walking group of 120 min/week, supervised, and with socio-cultural activities. Participants were 207 hypertensive subjects (68.2 years, 76.8% women). PA (IPAQ-s), diet, CVD risk, BP, BMI, smoking, and HRQoL (SF-36) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Changes in CVD risk and in HRQoL during the intervention was calculated (end-baseline score). Multivariate models were applied. RESULTS: In multivariate models, the PA intervention programme, with no modification of the diet, decreased CVD risk (- 1.19 points) and the systolic BP (- 8.68 mmHg), and increased some areas of HRQoL (4.45 to 14.62 points). An increase in the percentage of subjects with controlled BP was observed by the PA programme itself (OR 5.395 to 5.785 according to multivariate models), and by the changes during the intervention in the decrease in CVD risk (OR 0.609) and in the increase in the HRQoL in physical component summary (OR 1.041), role physical (OR 1.010), and bodily pain (OR 1.014), independently of controlled BP at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This PA intervention programme improved cardiovascular health and HRQoL, and favoured BP control in primary care users with hypertension. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02767739 ; Trial registered on May 5th, 2016. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Hipertensão/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
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