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1.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has traditionally been considered a cause of increased surgical complexity and poor outcomes following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). This study aimed at evaluating the role of obesity in terms of mortality and failure to rescue (FTR), with a particular focus on nonmalignant tumors. METHODS: All patients undergoing elective PD over 10 consecutive years were analyzed. Patients were stratified according to their BMI and categorized into two groups. Predictors of mortality and FTR were assessed through logistic regression. RESULTS: Out of 1865 patients included, 151 were obese (8.1%). Overall mortality and FTR were 3.1% and 14.1%, respectively. In obese patients, mortality was 6.0% and FTR 26.5%, significantly higher compared to nonobese (p < 0.05). In the multivariable analysis, obesity, age > 70 years, and ASA-PS score were independent predictors of mortality and FTR. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (35.8% vs. 25.8%), postpancreatectomy acute pancreatitis (24.5% vs. 12.5%), and chyle leak (6.0% vs. 3.2%) were more frequent among obese patients. In the subgroup of patients with nonmalignant tumors (n = 443), obesity was the only independent predictor of FTR. CONCLUSION: PD performed in obese patients was associated with higher surgical morbidity and mortality. When dealing with nonmalignant tumors, deferring surgery in obese patients should be strongly considered.

2.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely limited the access to cancer surgery, but it is not known to what extent referral centers for pancreatic diseases were affected by its outbreak. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on a third-level referral center for pancreatic surgery in Italy. METHODS: The 2020 activity of The Pancreas Institute of the University of Verona was reviewed, comparing different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks using the pre-COVID era as a control. Endpoints were the overall caseload of pancreatic resections, surgical waiting list, administration of preoperative therapy, major morbidity and mortality, residents' training; number of inpatients beds, outpatient visits/procedures/diagnostics. RESULTS: In 2020, there was an overall significant reduction of pancreatic resections performed (394 vs. 506 in 2019), particularly during the first (March-May) and second (October-December) COVID-19 outbreaks, with an all-time-low of 16 resections/months in April (compared to 43 average resection/month in 2019). The rates of major morbidity (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) and mortality were similar to 2019 (16 vs 12%, p = 0.11 and 3 vs 2%, p = 0.29, respectively). During the first and second outbreaks resident's training, inpatient beds, outpatient visits, diagnostics, and procedures were severely impaired, while the waiting list for up-front cancer resections and the use of preoperative chemotherapy concomitantly raised. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the activity of a third-level referral center for pancreatic surgery, affecting the access to cancer surgical procedures and raising concerns regarding the solidity of the current centralization model.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ISGPS aimed to develop a universally accepted definition for PPAP for standardized reporting and outcome comparison. BACKGROUND: PPAP is an increasingly recognized complication after partial pancreatic resections, but its incidence and clinical impact, and even its existence are variable because an internationally accepted consensus definition and grading system are lacking. METHODS: The ISGPS developed a consensus definition and grading of PPAP with its members after an evidence review and after a series of discussions and multiple revisions from April 2020 to May 2021. RESULTS: We defined PPAP as an acute inflammatory condition of the pancreatic remnant beginning within the first 3 postoperative days after a partial pancreatic resection. The diagnosis requires (1) a sustained postoperative hyperamylasemia greater than the institutional upper limit of normal for at least the first 48 hours postoperatively, (2) associated with clinically relevant features, and (3) radiologic alterations consistent with PPAP. Three different PPAP grades were defined based on the clinical impact: (1) grade postoperative hyperamylasemia, biochemical changes only; (2) grade B, mild or moderate complications; and (3) grade C, severe life-threatening complications. DISCUSSIONS: The present definition and grading scale of PPAP, based on biochemical, radiologic, and clinical criteria, are instrumental for a better understanding of PPAP and the spectrum of postoperative complications related to this emerging entity. The current terminology will serve as a reference point for standard assessment and lend itself to developing specific treatments and prevention strategies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596765

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many aspects of surgical therapy for chronic pancreatitis (CP), including the correct indication and timing, as well as the most appropriate operative techniques, are still a matter of debate in the surgical community and vary widely across different centers. The aim of the present study was to uncover and analyze these differences by comparing the experiences of two specialized surgical units in Italy and Austria. METHODS: All patients operated for CP between 2000 and 2018 at the two centers involved were included in this retrospective analysis. Data regarding the clinical history and the pre- and perioperative surgical course were analyzed and compared between the two institutions. RESULTS: Our analysis showed a progressive decrease in the annual rate of pancreatic surgical procedures performed for CP in Verona (no. = 91) over the last two decades (from 3% to less than 1%); by contrast, this percentage increased from 3 to 9% in Vienna (no. = 77) during the same time frame. Considerable differences were also detected with regard to the timing of surgery from the first diagnosis of CP - 4 years (IQR 5.5) in the Austrian series vs two (IQR 4.0) in the Italian series -, and of indications for surgery, with a 12% higher prevalence of groove pancreatitis among patients in the Verona cohort. CONCLUSION: The comparison of the surgical attitude towards CP between two surgical centers proved that a consistent approach to this pathology still is lacking. The identification of common guidelines and labels of surgical eligibility is advisable in order to avoid interinstitutional treatment disparities.

5.
Pancreatology ; 21(8): 1472-1475, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No data exist on the actual application of pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN) guidelines in clinical practice. AIM: Disseminate knowledge on existing PCN guidelines and determine which guidelines are prospectively chosen by iCyst app users for different case scenarios. METHODS: iCyst is a digital tool providing access to the three main existing guidelines (European, IAP, and AGA). Through a case simulation system, for one year, the app prospectively registered users' guideline choices. RESULTS: During the study period, 276 users downloaded iCyst and entered 1020 completed simulations. Most users were European (88%) and were either surgeons (69%) or gastroenterologists (29%). Six different representative scenarios were identified. Overall, the European guidelines were the most commonly preferred (52%). In 16% of cases, the users did not choose any of the available guidelines. CONCLUSION: Digital apps can be used to disseminate guidelines in clinical practice. Guideline dissemination might serve as the basis for future research lines on specific clinical scenarios that iCyst identifies as critical.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557940

RESUMO

PURPOSE: No accepted benchmarks for open pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) exist. The study assessed the time to functional recovery after open PD and how this could be affected by the magnitude of midline incision (MI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective snapshot study during 1 year. Time to functional recovery (TtFR) was assessed for the entire cohort. Further analyses were conducted after excluding patients developing a Clavien-Dindo ≥ 2 morbidity and after stratifying for the relative length of MI. RESULTS: The overall median TtFR was 7 days (n = 249), 6 days for uncomplicated patients (n = 124). A short MI (SMI, < 60% of xipho-pubic distance, n = 62) was compared to a long MI (LMI, n = 62) in uncomplicated patients. The choice of a SMI was not affected by technical issues and provided a significantly shorter TtFR (5 vs 6 days, p = 0.002) especially for pain control (4 vs. 5 days, p = 0.048) and oral food intake (5 vs. 6 days, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Functional recovery after open PD with MI is achieved within 1 week from surgery in half of the patients. This should be the appropriate benchmark for comparison with minimally invasive PD. Moreover, PD with a SMI is feasible, safe, and associated with a faster recovery.

7.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pancreatic transection method during distal pancreatectomy is thought to influence postoperative fistula rates. Yet, the optimal technique for minimizing fistula occurrence is still unclear. The present randomized controlled trial compared stapled versus ultrasonic transection in elective distal pancreatectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy from July 2018 to July 2020 at two high-volume institutions were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were contiguous organ resection and a parenchymal thickness > 17 mm on intraoperative ultrasound. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to stapled transection (Endo GIA Reinforced Reload with Tri-Staple Technology®) or ultrasonic transection (Harmonic Focus® + or Harmonic Ace® + shears). The primary endpoint was postoperative pancreatic fistula. Secondary endpoints included overall complications, abdominal collections, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Overall, 72 patients were randomized in the stapled transection arm and 73 patients in the ultrasonic transection arm. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 23 patients (16%), with a comparable incidence between groups (12% in stapled transection versus 19% in ultrasonic dissection arm, p = 0.191). Overall complications did not differ substantially (35% in stapled transection versus 44% in ultrasonic transection arm, p = 0.170). There was an increased incidence of abdominal collections in the ultrasonic dissection group (32% versus 14%, p = 0.009), yet the need for percutaneous drain did not differ between randomization arms (p = 0.169). The median length of stay was 8 days in both groups (p = 0.880). Intraoperative blood transfusion was the only factor independently associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula on logistic regression analysis (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.2-20.0, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The present randomized controlled trial of stapled versus ultrasonic transection in elective distal pancreatectomy demonstrated no significant difference in postoperative pancreatic fistula rates and no substantial clinical impact on other secondary endpoints.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We designed a retrospective computational study to evaluate the effects of hemodynamics on portal confluence remodeling in real models of patients with malignancies of the pancreatic head. METHODS: Patient-specific models were created according to computed tomography data. Fluid dynamics was simulated by using finite-element methods. Computational results were compared to morphological findings. RESULTS: Five patients underwent total pancreatectomy, one had duodenopancreatectomy. Vein resection was performed en-bloc with the specimen. Histopathological findings showed that in patients without a vein stenosis and a normal hemodynamics, the three-layered wall of the vein was preserved. In patients with a stenosis > 70% of vein diameter and modified hemodynamics, the three-layered structure of the resected vein was replaced by a dense inflammatory infiltrate in absence of tumor infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: The portal confluence involved by malignancies of the pancreatic head undergoes a remodeling that is not mainly due to a wall infiltration by the tumor but instead to a persistent pathological hemodynamics that disrupts the balance between eutrophic remodeling and degradative process of the vein wall that can lead to the complete upheaval of the three-layered vein wall. This finding can have useful surgical application in planning resection of the vein involved by tumor growth.

9.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): 721-728, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) critically influenced microscopically complete resection (R0) rates and long-term outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with portomesenteric vein resection (PVR) from a diverse, world-wide group of high-volume centers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Limited size studies suggest that NAT improves R0 rates and overall survival compared to upfront surgery in R/BR-PDAC patients. METHODS: This multicenter study analyzed consecutive patients with R/BR-PDAC who underwent PD with PVR in 23 high-volume centers from 2009 to 2018. RESULTS: Data from 1192 patients with PD and PVR were collected and analyzed. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 60-73] years and 52% were males. Some 186 (15.6%) and 131 (10.9%) patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) alone and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, respectively. The R0/R1/R2 rates were 57%, 39.3%, and 3.2% in patients who received NAT compared to 46.6%, 49.9%, and 3.5% in patients who did not, respectively (P =0.004). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in patients receiving NAT was 79%, 41%, and 29%, while for those that did not it was 73%, 29%, and 18%, respectively (P <0.001). Multivariable analysis showed no administration of NAT, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, R1/R2 resection, no adjuvant chemotherapy, occurrence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher postoperative complications within 90 days, preoperative diabetes mellitus, male sex and portal vein involvement were negative independent predictive factors for OS. CONCLUSION: Patients with PDAC of the pancreatic head expected to undergo venous reconstruction should routinely be considered for NAT.


Assuntos
Veias Mesentéricas/cirurgia , Pâncreas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Pancreatology ; 21(7): 1342-1348, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local ablation of pancreatic cancer has been suggested as an option to manage locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) although no robust evidence has been published to date to support its application. The aim of this study is to compare overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients receiving both radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and conventional chemoradiotherapy (CHRT) with patients receiving CHRT only. METHODS: This is a multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients with LAPC diagnosed by the Pancreas-Ablation-Team-Verona were randomly assigned to open RFA (Group A) or CHRT (Group B). Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred LAPC patients were enrolled from January 2014 to August 2016. 33% of patients in Group A did not receive the designated procedure because of intraoperative findings of liver (18.7%) or peritoneal metastases (43.8%), or technical contraindications (37.5%). We did not observe any statistically significant survival benefit from RFA compared to CHRT, neither in terms of OS (medians of 14.2 months and 18.1 months, respectively, p = 0.639) nor PFS (medians of 8 months and 6 months respectively, p = 0.570). Mortality was nil and RFA-related morbidity was 15.6%. In 13% of subjects, conversion to surgery occurred (2 after RFA and 11 after CHRT). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first RCT evaluating the impact of upfront RFA in the multimodal treatment of LAPC. Compared to CHRT, RFA alone did not provide any advantage in terms of OS or PFS. It could be considered as a therapeutic option for LAPC within a multimodal context and after neoadjuvant therapies.

11.
Surgery ; 170(6): 1596-1601, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing postoperative pancreatic fistula risk scores rely on intraoperative parameters, which limits their value in the preoperative setting. A preoperative predictive model to stratify the risk of developing postoperative pancreatic fistula before pancreatoduodenectomy was built and externally validated. METHODS: A regression risk-tree model for preoperative postoperative pancreatic fistula risk stratification was developed in the Verona University Hospital training cohort using preoperative variables and then tested prospectively in a validation cohort of patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy at San Raffaele Hospital of Milan. RESULTS: In the study period 566 (training cohort) and 456 (validation cohort) patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. In the multivariable analysis body mass index, radiographic main pancreatic duct diameter and American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 were independently associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula. The regression tree analysis allocated patients into 3 preoperative risk groups with an 8%, 21%, and 32% risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula (all P < .01) based on main pancreatic duct diameter (≥ or <5 mm) and body mass index (≥ or <25). The 3 groups were labeled low, intermediate, and high risk and consisted of 206 (37%), 188 (33%), and 172 (30%) patients, respectively. The risk-tree was applied to validation cohort, successfully reproducing 3 risk groups with significantly different postoperative pancreatic fistula risks (all P < .01). CONCLUSION: In candidates for pancreatoduodenectomy, the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula can be quickly and accurately determined in the preoperative setting based on the body mass index and main pancreatic duct diameter at radiology. Preoperative risk stratification could potentially guide clinical decision-making, improve patient counseling and allow the establishment of personalized preoperative protocols.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14922, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290274

RESUMO

The GNA15 gene is ectopically expressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer cells. The encoded Gα15 protein can promiscuously redirect GPCR signaling toward pathways with oncogenic potential. We sought to describe the distribution of GNA15 in adenocarcinoma from human pancreatic specimens and to analyze the mechanism driving abnormal expression and the consequences on signaling and clinical follow-up. We detected GNA15 expression in pre-neoplastic pancreatic lesions and throughout progression. The analysis of biological data sets, primary and xenografted human tumor samples, and clinical follow-up shows that elevated expression is associated with poor prognosis for GNA15, but not any other GNA gene. Demethylation of the 5' GNA15 promoter region was associated with ectopic expression of Gα15 in pancreatic neoplastic cells, but not in adjacent dysplastic or non-transformed tissue. Down-modulation of Gα15 by shRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 affected oncogenic signaling, and reduced adenocarcimoma cell motility and invasiveness. We conclude that de novo expression of wild-type GNA15 characterizes transformed pancreatic cells. The methylation pattern of GNA15 changes in preneoplastic lesions coincident with the release a transcriptional blockade that allows ectopic expression to persist throughout PDAC progression. Elevated GNA15 mRNA correlates with poor prognosis. In addition, ectopic Gα15 signaling provides an unprecedented mechanism in the early steps of pancreas carcinogenesis distinct from classical G protein oncogenic mutations described previously in GNAS and GNAQ/GNA11.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2617-2631, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HRD in PDAC from PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, and online cancer genomic data sets. The main outcome was pooled prevalence of somatic and germline mutations in the better characterized HRD genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, ATR, CHEK2, RAD51, and the FANC genes). The secondary outcomes were prevalence of germline mutations overall, and in sporadic and familial cases; prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ); and prevalence of HRD based on other definitions (ie, alterations in other genes, genomic scars, and mutational signatures). Random-effects modeling with the Freeman-Tukey transformation was used for the analyses. PROSPERO registration number: (CRD42020190813). RESULTS: Sixty studies with 21,842 participants were included in the systematic review and 57 in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of germline and somatic mutations was BRCA1: 0.9%, BRCA2: 3.5%, PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2.2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, FANC: 0.5%, RAD51: 0.0%, and ATR: 0.1%. Prevalence of germline mutations was BRCA1: 0.9% (2.4% in AJ), BRCA2: 3.8% (8.2% in AJ), PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, and FANC: 0.4%. No significant differences between sporadic and familial cases were identified. HRD prevalence ranged between 14.5%-16.5% through targeted next-generation sequencing and 24%-44% through whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing allowing complementary genomic analysis, including genomic scars and other signatures (surrogate markers of HRD). CONCLUSION: Surrogate readouts of HRD identify a greater proportion of patients with HRD than analyses limited to gene-level approaches. There is a clear need to harmonize HRD definitions and to validate the optimal biomarker for treatment selection. Universal HRD screening including integrated somatic and germline analysis should be offered to all patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Prevalência
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063347

RESUMO

Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), the major driver of morbidity and mortality following pancreatectomy, is caused by an abnormal communication between the pancreatic ductal epithelium and another epithelial surface containing pancreas-derived, enzyme-rich fluid. There is a strong correlation between the amylase content in surgically-placed drains early in the postoperative course and the development of POPF. A simple and cheap method to determine the amylase content from the drain effluent has been eagerly advocated. Here, we developed an amylase optical biosensor, based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) plastic optical fiber (POF), metallized with a 60 nm layer of gold and interrogated with white light. The sensor was made specific by coupling it with an anti-amylase antibody. Each surface derivatization step was optimized and studied by XPS, contact angle, and fluorescence. The POF-biosensor was tested for its response to amylase in diluted drain effluents. The volume of sample required was 50 µL and the measurement time was 8 min. The POF-biosensor showed selectivity for amylase, a calibration curve log-linear in the range of 0.8-25.8 U/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of ~0.5 U/L. In preliminary tests, the POF-biosensor allowed for the measurement of the amylase content of diluted surgically-placed drain effluents with an accuracy of >92% with respect to the gold standard. The POF-biosensor allows for reliable measurement and could be implemented to allow for a rapid bedside assessment of amylase value in drains following pancreatectomy.


Assuntos
Amilases/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Drenagem , Humanos , Fibras Ópticas , Pancreatectomia , Plásticos
15.
Surgery ; 170(5): 1517-1524, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic surgery is associated with considerable morbidity and, consequently, offers a large and complex field for research. To prioritize relevant future scientific projects, it is of utmost importance to identify existing evidence and uncover research gaps. Thus, the aim of this project was to create a systematic and living Evidence Map of Pancreatic Surgery. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were systematically searched for all randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on pancreatic surgery. Outcomes from every existing randomized controlled trial were extracted, and trial quality was assessed. Systematic reviews were used to identify an absence of randomized controlled trials. Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on identical subjects were grouped according to research topics. A web-based evidence map modeled after a mind map was created to visualize existing evidence. Meta-analyses of specific outcomes of pancreatic surgery were performed for all research topics with more than 3 randomized controlled trials. For partial pancreatoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy, pooled benchmarks for outcomes were calculated with a 99% confidence interval. The evidence map undergoes regular updates. RESULTS: Out of 30,860 articles reviewed, 328 randomized controlled trials on 35,600 patients and 332 systematic reviews were included and grouped into 76 research topics. Most randomized controlled trials were from Europe (46%) and most systematic reviews were from Asia (51%). A living meta-analysis of 21 out of 76 research topics (28%) was performed and included in the web-based evidence map. Evidence gaps were identified in 11 out of 76 research topics (14%). The benchmark for mortality was 2% (99% confidence interval: 1%-2%) for partial pancreatoduodenectomy and <1% (99% confidence interval: 0%-1%) for distal pancreatectomy. The benchmark for overall complications was 53% (99%confidence interval: 46%-61%) for partial pancreatoduodenectomy and 59% (99% confidence interval: 44%-80%) for distal pancreatectomy. CONCLUSION: The International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery Evidence Map of Pancreatic Surgery, which is freely accessible via www.evidencemap.surgery and as a mobile phone app, provides a regularly updated overview of the available literature displayed in an intuitive fashion. Clinical decision making and evidence-based patient information are supported by the primary data provided, as well as by living meta-analyses. Researchers can use the systematic literature search and processed data for their own projects, and funding bodies can base their research priorities on evidence gaps that the map uncovers.

16.
Front Oncol ; 11: 662205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959509

RESUMO

Background and Objective: To assess the efficacy of a Risk-Adapted Ablative Radiotherapy (RAdAR) approach, after intensive induction chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Material and Methods: Patients with LAPC who received RAdAR following induction chemotherapy from January 2017 to December 2019 were included in this observational study. The RAdAR approach consisted of an anatomy- and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-based dose prescription strategy. RAdAR was delivered with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SAbR), administering 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the tumor volume (PTVt) and 50 Gy SIB (BED10 100 Gy) to the vascular involvement, or with (hypo-)fractionated ablative radiotherapy (HART) prescribing 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the PTVt, with a vascular SIB of 78.4 Gy (BED10 100 Gy). Primary end points were freedom from local progression (FFLP), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sixty-four LAPC patients were included. Induction chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel in 60.9% and FOLFIRINOX in 39.1% of cases. SAbR was used in 52 (81.2%) patients, and HART in 12 (18.8%). After RAdAR, surgery was performed in 17 (26.6%) patients. Median follow-up was 16.1 months. Overall local control (LC) rate was 78.1%, with no difference between resected and non-resected patients (2-year FFLP 75.3% vs 56.4%; p = 0.112). Median OS and PFS were 29.7 months and 8.7 months, respectively, for the entire cohort. Resected patients had a better median OS (not reached versus 26.1 months; p = 0.0001) and PFS (19 versus 5.6 months; p < 0.0001) compared to non-resected patients. In non-resected patients, no significant difference was found between SAbR and HART for median FFLP (28.1 versus 18.5 months; p = 0.614), OS (27.4 versus 25.3 months; p = 0.624), and PFS (5.7 versus 4.3 months; p = 0.486). One patient (1.6%) experienced acute grade 4 gastro-intestinal bleeding. No other acute or late grade ≥ 3 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The RAdAR approach, following intensive induction chemotherapy, is an effective radiation treatment strategy for selected LAPC patients, representing a promising therapeutic option in a multimodality treatment regimen.

17.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize early postoperative serum pancreatic amylase (spAMY) trends after pancreatic resections. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A postoperative spAMY elevation is a common finding but uncertainties remain about its meaning and prognostic implications. METHODS: Analysis of patients who consecutively underwent pancreatectomy from 2016 to 2019. spAMY activity was assessed from postoperative day (POD) 0 to 3. Different patterns of spAMY have been identified based on the spAMY standard range (10-52 U/l). RESULTS: Three patterns were identified: (#1) spAMY values always< the lower limit of normal/within the reference range /a single increase in spAMY >upper limit of normal at any POD; (#2) Sustained increase in spAMY activity on POD 0 + 1; (#3) Sustained increase in spAMY activity including POD 1 + 2. Shifting through spAMY patterns was associated with increase morbidity (21% in #1 to 68% in #3 at POD 7; log rank < 0.001). Almost all severe complications (at least Clavien-Dindo ≥3) occurred in patients with pattern #3 (15% vs. 3% vs. 5% in #1 and #2 at POD 7, p = 0.006), without difference considering >3-times or >the spAMY normal limit (p = 0.85). POPF (9% in #1 vs. 48% in #3, p< 0.001) progressively increased across patterns. Pre-operative diabetes (OR 0.19), neoadjuvant therapy (OR 0.22), pancreatic texture (OR 8.8), duct size (OR 0.78), and final histology (OR 2.2) were independent predictors of pattern #3. CONCLUSIONS: A sustained increase in spAMY activity including POD 1 + 2 (#3) represents an early postoperative predictor of overall and severe early morbidity. An early and dynamic evaluation of spAMY could crucially impact the subsequent clinical course with relevant prognostic implications.

18.
JAMA Surg ; 156(7): 654-661, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009303

RESUMO

Importance: The progression of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas to malignant disease is still poorly understood. Observational and surgical series have failed to provide comprehensive information. Objective: To identify dynamic variables associated with the development of malignant neoplasms by combining pathological features with data from preoperative repeated observations. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Crossover Observational Multicentric Study included a retrospective cohort of patients with branch-duct IPMNs (BD IPMNs) enrolled in a surveillance program from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2019. Patients were enrolled from 5 referral centers: the Pancreas Institute, Verona, Italy; Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston. Patients underwent a minimum of 12 months of preoperative surveillance (median, 37 [interquartile range (IQR), 20-68] months). Main Outcomes and Measures: Dynamic variables associated with malignant disease were explored to estimate the presence of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and invasive cancer at final pathological examination. Results: A total of 292 patients were included in the analysis (137 women [46.9%] and 155 men [53.1%]; median age, 64 [IQR, 56-71] years). During surveillance, 27 patients (9.2%) developed a worrisome feature after 5 years, and 46 of 276 (16.7%) developed high-risk stigmata (HRS). At final pathological evaluation, 107 patients (36.6%) had HGD or invasive cancer, and 16 (5.5%) had IPMNs with concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Rates of HGD and invasive cancer at pathological evaluation significantly differed between those without worrisome features and those developing HRS from a previous worrisome feature (9 [27.3%] vs 13 [61.9%]; P < .001). Developing an additional worrisome feature during surveillance (odds ratio [OR], 3.24 [95% CI, 1.38-7.60]; P = .007) or an HRS from a baseline worrisome feature (OR, 2.87 [95% CI, 1.01-8.17]; P = .048) was associated with HGD at final pathological evaluation. Among HRS, development of jaundice on a low-risk cyst was independently associated with invasive cancer (OR, 16.04 [95% CI, 2.94-87.40]; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that in BD IPMNs under surveillance, harboring a stable worrisome feature carries the lowest risk of malignant disease. Development of additional worrisome features or HRS is associated with the presence of HGD, whereas the occurrence of jaundice is associated with invasive cancer.

19.
Surgery ; 170(4): 1195-1204, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between intraoperative estimated blood loss and outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy has, thus far, been rarely explored. METHODS: In total, 7,706 pancreatoduodenectomies performed at 18 international institutions composing the Pancreas Fistula Study Group were examined (2003-2020). High estimated blood loss (>700 mL) was defined as twice the median. Propensity score matching (1:1 exact-match) was employed to adjust for variables associated with high estimated blood loss and clinically relevant pancreatic fistula occurrence. The study was powered to detect a 33% clinically relevant pancreatic fistula increase in the high estimated blood loss group, with α = 0.05 and ß = 0.2. RESULTS: The propensity score model included 966 patients with high estimated blood loss and 966 patients with lower estimated blood loss; all covariate imbalantces were solved. Patients with high estimated blood loss patients experienced higher clinically relevant pancreatic fistula rates (19.4 vs 12.6%, odds ratio 1.66; P < .001), as well as higher severe complication rates (27.8 vs 15.6%), transfusions (50.1 vs 14.3%), reoperations (9.2 vs 4.0%), intensive care unit transfers (9.9 vs 4.8%) and 90-day mortality (4.7 vs 2.0%, all P < .001). High estimated blood loss was an independent predictor for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.37-2.32), as were prophylactic Octreotide administration (odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.46-2.61) and soft pancreatic texture (odds ratio 5.32, 95% confidence interval 3.74-5.57; all P < .001). Moreover, a second model including 1,126 pancreatoduodenectomies was derived including vascular resections as additional confounder (14.0% vascular resections performed in each group). On multivariable regression, high estimated blood loss was confirmed an independent predictor for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula reduction (odds ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.32-2.44; P < .001), whereas vascular resection was not (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.88; P = .156). CONCLUSION: This study better establishes the relationship between estimated blood loss and outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy. Despite inherent contributions to blood loss, its minimization is an actionable opportunity for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula reduction and performance optimization in pancreatoduodenectomy. Accordingly, practical insights are offered to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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