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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761058

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of severe immune dysregulation that encompasses a broad range of underlying genetic diseases and infectious triggers. Monogenic conditions, autoimmune diseases, and infections can all drive the phenotype of HLH and associated immune hyperactivation with hypercytokinemia. A diagnosis of HLH usually requires a combination of clinical and laboratory findings; there is no single sensitive and specific diagnostic test, which often leads to "diagnostic dilemmas" and delays in treatment initiation. Ferritin levels, one of the most commonly used screening tests, were collected across a large tertiary care pediatric hospital to identify the positive predictive value for HLH. Herein, we present several cases that illustrate the clinical challenges of confirming an HLH diagnosis. Additionally, we report on the utility of establishing a formal multi-disciplinary group to aid the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting with HLH-like pathophysiologies.

3.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653907

RESUMO

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells that correlated with the use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct from one another and implicate CD8+ T cells in the clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Leucopenia/imunologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586355

RESUMO

We thank Dr. Kotnik and colleagues for their commentary on the American College of Rheumatology's clinical guidance for pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The use of anticoagulation in this population remains an intensely debated topic with little clinical evidence to guide treatment decisions. For this reason, the task force was only able to achieve consensus on recommending anticoagulation in patients with larger coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) (z-score >10) and significant cardiac dysfunction (ejection fraction < 35%) based on the well-established risk for thrombosis in patients with these clinical features.(1, 2).

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 511, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479234

RESUMO

The ability to utilize preclinical models to predict the clinical toxicity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in solid tumors is tenuous, thereby necessitating the development and evaluation of gated systems. Here we found that murine GD2 CAR-T cells, specific for the tumor-associated antigen GD2, induce fatal neurotoxicity in a costimulatory domain-dependent manner. Meanwhile, human B7H3 CAR-T cells exhibit efficacy in preclinical models of neuroblastoma. Seeking a better CAR, we generated a SynNotch gated CAR-T, GD2-B7H3, recognizing GD2 as the gate and B7H3 as the target. GD2-B7H3 CAR-T cells control the growth of neuroblastoma in vitro and in metastatic xenograft mouse models, with high specificity and efficacy. These improvements come partly from the better metabolic fitness of GD2-B7H3 CAR-T cells, as evidenced by their naïve T-like post-cytotoxicity oxidative metabolism and lower exhaustion profile.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica , Neuroblastoma/imunologia , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
6.
Blood Adv ; 4(23): 6051-6063, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290544

RESUMO

Most children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have mild or minimal disease, with a small proportion developing severe disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that complement activation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and sought to understand if TMA was present in these patients. We enrolled 50 hospitalized pediatric patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 21, minimal coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; n = 11, severe COVID-19) or MIS-C (n = 18). As a biomarker of complement activation and TMA, soluble C5b9 (sC5b9, normal 247 ng/mL) was measured in plasma, and elevations were found in patients with minimal disease (median, 392 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 244-622 ng/mL), severe disease (median, 646 ng/mL; IQR, 203-728 ng/mL), and MIS-C (median, 630 ng/mL; IQR, 359-932 ng/mL) compared with 26 healthy control subjects (median, 57 ng/mL; IQR, 9-163 ng/mL; P < .001). Higher sC5b9 levels were associated with higher serum creatinine (P = .01) but not age. Of the 19 patients for whom complete clinical criteria were available, 17 (89%) met criteria for TMA. A high proportion of tested children with SARS-CoV-2 infection had evidence of complement activation and met clinical and diagnostic criteria for TMA. Future studies are needed to determine if hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for TMA, if TMA-directed management is helpful, and if there are any short- or long-term clinical consequences of complement activation and endothelial damage in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263756

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in children remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) possess higher SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers compared to those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), likely reflecting a longer time since onset of infection in MIS-C patients.

8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on the management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a condition characterized by fever, inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that manifests late in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Task Force also provided recommendations for children with hyperinflammation during COVID-19, the acute, infectious phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The Task Force was composed of 9 pediatric rheumatologists, 2 adult rheumatologists, 2 pediatric cardiologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease specialists, and 1 pediatric critical care physician. Preliminary statements addressing clinical questions related to MIS-C and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 were developed based on evidence reports. Consensus was built through a modified Delphi process that involved anonymous voting and discussion through webinars. A 9-point scale was used to determine the appropriateness of each statement (1-3, inappropriate; 4-6, uncertain; 7-9, appropriate), and consensus was rated as low (L), moderate (M), or high (H) based on dispersion of the votes along the numeric scale. Approved guidance statements had to be classified as appropriate with moderate or high levels of consensus, which were pre-specified prior to voting. RESULTS: The first version of the guidance was approved by the Task Force in June 2020 and consisted of 40 final guidance statements accompanied by a flow diagram depicting the diagnostic pathway for MIS-C. The document was revised in November 2020, and a new flow diagram with recommendations for initial immunomodulatory treatment of MIS-C was added. CONCLUSION: Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related syndromes in the pediatric population continues to evolve. This guidance document reflects currently available evidence coupled with expert opinion but is meant to be modified as additional data become available.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 5174-5183, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095872

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells directed against CD19 have drastically altered outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r ALL). Pediatric patients with r/r ALL treated with CAR-T are at increased risk of both cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and sepsis. We sought to investigate the biologic differences between CRS and sepsis and to develop predictive models which could accurately differentiate CRS from sepsis at the time of critical illness. We identified 23 different cytokines that were significantly different between patients with sepsis and CRS. Using elastic net prediction modeling and tree classification, we identified cytokines that were able to classify subjects as having CRS or sepsis accurately. A markedly elevated interferon γ (IFNγ) or a mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with a low IL1ß were associated with CRS. A normal to mildly elevated IFNγ in combination with an elevated IL1ß was associated with sepsis. This combination of IFNγ and IL1ß was able to categorize subjects as having CRS or sepsis with 97% accuracy. As CAR-T therapies become more common, these data provide important novel information to better manage potential associated toxicities.

10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995826

RESUMO

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells that correlated with use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct and implicate CD8 T cells in clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.

11.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(11): 554-558, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare presenting clinical and laboratory features among children meeting the surveillance definition for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) across a range of illness severities. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center study of patients younger than 21 years presenting between March 1 and May 15, 2020. Included patients met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for MIS-C (inflammation, fever, involvement of 2 organ systems, lack of alternative diagnoses). We defined 3 subgroups by clinical outcomes: (1) critical illness requiring intensive care interventions; (2) patients meeting Kawasaki disease (KD) criteria but not requiring critical care; and (3) mild illness not meeting either criteria. A comparator cohort included patients with KD at our institution during the same time frame in 2019. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were included (5, critical; 8, 2020 KD; 20, mild). The median age for the critical group was 10.9 years (2.7 for 2020 KD; 6.0 for mild, P = 0.033). The critical group had lower median absolute lymphocyte count (850 vs 3005 vs 2940/uL, P = 0.005), platelets (150 vs 361 vs 252 k/uL, P = 0.005), and sodium (129 vs 136 vs 136 mmol/L, P = 0.002), and higher creatinine (0.7 vs 0.2 vs 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.002). In the critical group, 60% required vasoactive medications, and 40% required mechanical ventilation. Clinical and laboratories features were similar between the 2020 and 2019 KD groups. CONCLUSIONS: We describe 3 groups with inflammatory syndromes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The initial profile of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and abnormal creatinine may help distinguish critically ill MIS-C patients from classic/atypical KD or more benign acute inflammation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28693, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885904

RESUMO

There are no proven safe and effective therapies for children who develop life-threatening complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma (CP) has demonstrated potential benefit in adults with SARS-CoV-2, but has theoretical risks.We present the first report of CP in children with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing data on four pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We measured donor antibody levels and recipient antibody response prior to and following CP infusion. Infusion of CP was not associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and did not suppress endogenous antibody response. We found CP was safe and possibly efficacious. Randomized pediatric trials are needed.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition of immune dysregulation. Children often suffer from primary genetic forms of HLH, which can be triggered by infection. Others suffer from secondary HLH as a complication of infection, malignancy, or rheumatologic disease. Identifying the exact cause of HLH is crucial, as definitive treatment for primary disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Adenoviruses have been associated with HLH but molecular epidemiology data are lacking. METHODS: We describe the clinical and virologic characteristics of 5 children admitted with adenovirus infection during 2018-2019 who developed HLH or HLH-like illness. Detailed virologic studies, including virus isolation and comprehensive molecular typing were performed. RESULTS: All patients recovered; clinical management varied but included immunomodulating and antiviral therapies. A genetic predisposition for HLH was not identified in any patient. Adenovirus isolates were recovered from 4/5 cases; all were identified as genomic variant 7d. Adenovirus type 7 DNA was detected in the fifth case. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences identified two clusters - one related to strains implicated in 2016-2017 outbreaks in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the other related to a 2009 Chinese strain. CONCLUSIONS: It can be challenging to determine whether HLH is the result of an infectious pathogen alone or genetic predisposition triggered by an infection. We describe 5 children from the same center presenting with an HLH-like illness after onset of adenovirus type 7 infection. None of the patients were found to have a genetic predisposition to HLH. These findings suggest that adenovirus 7 infection alone can result in HLH.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated lung injury and systemic hyperinflammation are characteristic of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults. Although the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infections in pediatric populations result in minimal or mild COVID-19 in the acute phase of infection, a small subset of children develop severe and even critical disease in this phase with concomitant inflammation that may benefit from immunomodulation. Therefore, guidance is needed regarding immunomodulatory therapies in the setting of acute pediatric COVID-19. This document does not provide guidance regarding the recently emergent multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of pediatric subspecialty physicians and pharmacists with expertise in infectious diseases, rheumatology, hematology/oncology, and critical care medicine was convened. Guidance statements were developed based on best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: The panel devised a framework for considering the use of immunomodulatory therapy based on an assessment of clinical disease severity and degree of multi-organ involvement combined with evidence of hyperinflammation. Additionally, the known rationale for consideration of each immunomodulatory approach and the associated risks and benefits was summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Immunomodulatory therapy is not recommended for the majority of pediatric patients, who typically develop mild or moderate COVID-19. For children with severe or critical illness, the use of immunomodulatory agents may be beneficial. The risks and benefits of such therapies are variable and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis with input from appropriate specialty services. When available, the panel strongly favors immunomodulatory agent use within the context of clinical trials. The framework presented herein offers an approach to decision-making regarding immunomodulatory therapy for severe or critical pediatric COVID-19 and is informed by currently available data, while awaiting results of placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials.

15.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839782

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in children remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) possess higher SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers compared to those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), likely reflecting a longer time since onset of infection in MIS-C patients.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 5967-5975, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730233

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDInitial reports from the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic described children as being less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than adults. Subsequently, a severe and novel pediatric disorder termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. We report on unique hematologic and immunologic parameters that distinguish between COVID-19 and MIS-C and provide insight into pathophysiology.METHODSWe prospectively enrolled hospitalized patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and classified them as having MIS-C or COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were classified as having either minimal or severe disease. Cytokine profiles, viral cycle thresholds (Cts), blood smears, and soluble C5b-9 values were analyzed with clinical data.RESULTSTwenty patients were enrolled (9 severe COVID-19, 5 minimal COVID-19, and 6 MIS-C). Five cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) contributed to the analysis. TNF-α and IL-10 discriminated between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19. The presence of burr cells on blood smears, as well as Cts, differentiated between patients with severe COVID-19 and those with MIS-C.CONCLUSIONPediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for critical illness with severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Cytokine profiling and examination of peripheral blood smears may distinguish between patients with MIS-C and those with severe COVID-19.FUNDINGFinancial support for this project was provided by CHOP Frontiers Program Immune Dysregulation Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Cancer Institute; the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; Cookies for Kids Cancer; Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer; Children's Oncology Group; Stand UP 2 Cancer; Team Connor; the Kate Amato Foundations; Burroughs Wellcome Fund CAMS; the Clinical Immunology Society; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Citocinas/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(11): 1791-1805, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on the management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a condition characterized by fever, inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that manifests late in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and to provide recommendations for children with hyperinflammation during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the acute, infectious phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A multidisciplinary task force was convened by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) to provide guidance on the management of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 and hyperinflammation in COVID-19. The task force was composed of 9 pediatric rheumatologists, 2 adult rheumatologists, 2 pediatric cardiologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease specialists, and 1 pediatric critical care physician. Preliminary statements addressing clinical questions related to MIS-C and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 were developed based on evidence reports. Consensus was built through a modified Delphi process that involved 2 rounds of anonymous voting and 2 webinars. A 9-point scale was used to determine the appropriateness of each statement (median scores of 1-3 for inappropriate, 4-6 for uncertain, and 7-9 for appropriate), and consensus was rated as low, moderate, or high based on dispersion of the votes along the numeric scale. Approved guidance statements were those that were classified as appropriate with moderate or high levels of consensus, as prespecified prior to voting. RESULTS: The ACR task force approved a total of 128 guidance statements addressing the management of MIS-C and hyperinflammation in pediatric COVID-19. These statements were refined into 40 final clinical guidance statements, accompanied by a flow diagram depicting the diagnostic pathway for MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related syndromes in the pediatric population continues to evolve. The guidance provided in this "living document" reflects currently available evidence, coupled with expert opinion, and will be revised as further evidence becomes available.

18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457760

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children and, in the high-risk group, has a 5-year mortality rate of ~50%. The high mortality rate and significant treatment-related morbidities associated with current standard of care therapies belie the critical need for more tolerable and effective treatments for this disease. While the monoclonal antibody dinutuximab has demonstrated the potential for immunotherapy to improve overall NB outcomes, the 5-year overall survival of high-risk patients has not yet substantially changed. The frequency and type of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) and natural killer cells (NKs) has been associated with improved outcomes in several solid and liquid malignancies, including NB. Indeed, iNKTs and NKs inhibit tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), kill cancer stem cells (CSCs) and neuroblasts, and robustly secrete cytokines to recruit additional immune effectors. These capabilities, and promising pre-clinical and early clinical data suggest that iNKT- and NK-based therapies may hold promise as both stand-alone and combination treatments for NB. In this review we will summarize the biologic features of iNKTs and NKs that confer advantages for NB immunotherapy, discuss the barriers imposed by the NB tumor microenvironment, and examine the current state of such therapies in pre-clinical models and clinical trials.

20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(9): 2497-2506, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the clinical effectiveness and safety of intravenous colistin for treatment of infections due to MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in paediatric ICUs (PICUs). METHODS: Systematic review of intravenous colistin use in critically ill paediatric patients with MDR-GNB infection in PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE (up to 31 January 2018). RESULTS: Out of 1181 citations, 7 studies were included on the use of intravenous colistin for 405 patients in PICUs. The majority of patients were diagnosed with lower respiratory tract infections, Acinetobacter baumannii being the predominant pathogen. Colistin dosages ranged between 2.6 and 18 mg/kg/day, with only one case reporting a loading dose. Emergence of colistin resistance during treatment was reported in two cases. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were reported in 6.1% and 0.5%, respectively, but concomitant medications and severe underlying illness limited our ability to definitively associate use of colistin with nephrotoxicity. Crude mortality was 29.5% (95% CI = 21.7%-38.1%), whereas infection-related mortality was 16.6% (95% CI = 12.2%-21.5%). CONCLUSIONS: While the reported incidence of adverse events related to colistin was low, reported mortality rates for infections due to MDR-GNB in PICUs were notable. In addition to severity of disease and comorbidities, inadequate daily dosage and the absence of a loading dose may have contributed to mortality. As the use of colistin for treatment of MDR-GNB infections increases, it is imperative to understand whether optimal dosing of colistin in paediatric patients differs across different age groups. Thus, future studies to establish the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin in different paediatric settings are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colistina/efeitos adversos , Colistina/farmacocinética , Estado Terminal , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino
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