Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the state of omics science specific to asthma and allergic diseases and discuss the current and potential applicability of omics in clinical disease prediction, treatment, and management DATA SOURCES: Studies and reviews focused on the use of omics technologies in asthma and allergic disease research and clinical management were identified using PubMed STUDY SELECTIONS: Publications were included based on relevance, with emphasis placed on the most recent findings RESULTS: Omics-based research is increasingly being used to differentiate asthma and allergic disease subtypes, identify biomarkers and pathological mediators, predict patient responsiveness to specific therapies, and monitor disease control. While most studies have focused on genomics and transcriptomics approaches, increasing attention is being placed on omics technologies that assess the effect of environmental exposures on disease initiation and progression. Studies utilizing omics data to identify biological targets and pathways involved in asthma and allergic disease pathogenesis have primarily focused on a specific omics subtype, providing only a partial view of the disease process. CONCLUSIONS: While omics technologies have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying asthma and allergic disease pathology, omics testing for these diseases are not standard of care at this point. Several important factors need to be addressed before these technologies can be effectively utilized in clinical practice. Use of clinical decision support systems and integration of these systems within electronic medical records will become increasingly.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(6): e686, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family screening of a 48-year-old male with recently diagnosed IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) revealed unanticipated elevations in plasma IgG4 in his two healthy teenaged sons. METHODS: We performed gene sequencing, immune cell studies, HLA typing, and analyses of circulating cytotoxic CD4+ T lymphocytes and plasmablasts to seek clues to pathogenesis. DNA from a separate cohort of 99 patients with known IgG4-RD was also sequenced for the presence of genetic variants in a specific gene, FGFBP2. RESULTS: The three share a previously unreported heterozygous single base deletion in fibroblast growth factor binding protein type 2 (FGFBP2), which causes a frameshift in the coding sequence. The FGFBP2 protein is secreted by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and binds fibroblast growth factor. The variant sequence in the FGFBP2 protein is predicted to form a disordered random coil rather than a helical-turn-helix structure, unable to adopt a stable conformation. The proband and the two sons had 5-10-fold higher numbers of circulating cytotoxic CD4 + T cells and plasmablasts compared to matched controls. The three members also share a homozygous missense common variant in FGFBP2 found in heterozygous form in ~40% of the population. This common variant was found in 73% of an independent, well characterized IgG4-RD cohort, showing enrichment in idiopathic IgG4-RD. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a shared deleterious variant and homozygous common variant in FGFBP2 in the proband and sons strongly implicates this cytotoxic T cell product in the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD. The high prevalence of a common FGFBP2 variant in sporadic IgG4-RD supports the likelihood of participation in disease.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 503-519, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827500

RESUMO

Although the use of model systems for studying the mechanism of mutations that have a large effect is common, we highlight here the ways that zebrafish-model-system studies of a gene, GRIK5, that contributes to the polygenic liability to develop eye diseases have helped to illuminate a mechanism that implicates vascular biology in eye disease. A gene-expression prediction derived from a reference transcriptome panel applied to BioVU, a large electronic health record (EHR)-linked biobank at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, implicated reduced GRIK5 expression in diverse eye diseases. We tested the function of GRIK5 by depletion of its ortholog in zebrafish, and we observed reduced blood vessel numbers and integrity in the eye and increased vascular permeability. Analyses of EHRs in >2.6 million Vanderbilt subjects revealed significant comorbidity of eye and vascular diseases (relative risks 2-15); this comorbidity was confirmed in 150 million individuals from a large insurance claims dataset. Subsequent studies in >60,000 genotyped BioVU participants confirmed the association of reduced genetically predicted expression of GRIK5 with comorbid vascular and eye diseases. Our studies pioneer an approach that allows a rapid iteration of the discovery of gene-phenotype relationships to the primary genetic mechanism contributing to the pathophysiology of human disease. Our findings also add dimension to the understanding of the biology driven by glutamate receptors such as GRIK5 (also referred to as GLUK5 in protein form) and to mechanisms contributing to human eye diseases.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 136-143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673079

RESUMO

Importance: Thyroid hormone levels are tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by thyrotropin, produced by the pituitary gland. Hyperthyroidism is overwhelmingly due to thyroid disorders and is well recognized to contribute to a wide spectrum of cardiovascular morbidity, particularly the increasingly common arrhythmia atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To determine the association between genetically determined thyrotropin levels and AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study scanned 1318 phenotypes associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels identified by a previously published genome-wide association study that included participants of European ancestry. North American individuals of European ancestry with longitudinal electronic health records were analyzed from May 2008 to November 2016. Analysis began March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical diagnoses associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels. Exposures: Genetically determined thyrotropin levels. Results: Of 37 154 individuals, 19 330 (52%) were men. The thyrotropin polygenic predictor was positively associated with hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14; P = 5 × 10-11) and inversely associated with diagnoses related to hyperthyroidism (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74; P = 2 × 10-8 for toxic multinodular goiter). Among nonthyroid associations, the top association was AF/flutter (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.9-0.95; P = 9 × 10-7). When the analyses were repeated excluding 9801 individuals with any diagnoses of a thyroid-related disease, the AF association persisted (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95; P = 2.9 × 10-6). To replicate this association, we conducted an inverse-variance weighted average meta-analysis using AF single-nucleotide variant weights from a genome-wide association study of 17 931 AF cases and 115 142 controls. As in the discovery analyses, each SD increase in predicted thyrotropin was associated with a decreased risk of AF (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P = 4.7 × 10-4). In a set of AF cases (n = 745) and controls (n = 1680) older than 55 years, directly measured thyrotropin levels that fell within the normal range were inversely associated with AF risk (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests a role for genetically determined variation in thyroid function within a physiologically accepted normal range as a risk factor for AF. The clinical decision to treat subclinical thyroid disease should incorporate the risk for AF as antithyroid medications to treat hyperthyroidism may reduce AF risk and thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism may increase AF risk.

8.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(12): 1579-1589, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have substantially improved clinical outcomes in multiple cancer types and are increasingly being used in early disease settings and in combinations of different immunotherapies. However, ICIs can also cause severe or fatal immune-related adverse-events (irAEs). We aimed to identify and characterise cardiovascular irAEs that are significantly associated with ICIs. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective, pharmacovigilance study, we used VigiBase, WHO's global database of individual case safety reports, to compare cardiovascular adverse event reporting in patients who received ICIs (ICI subgroup) with this reporting in the full database. This study included all cardiovascular irAEs classified by group queries according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, between inception on Nov 14, 1967, and Jan 2, 2018. We evaluated the association between ICIs and cardiovascular adverse events using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and the information component (IC). IC is an indicator value for disproportionate Bayesian reporting that compares observed and expected values to find associations between drugs and adverse events. IC025 is the lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval, and an IC025 value of more than zero is deemed significant. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03387540. FINDINGS: We identified 31 321 adverse events reported in patients who received ICIs and 16 343 451 adverse events reported in patients treated with any drugs (full database) in VigiBase. Compared with the full database, ICI treatment was associated with higher reporting of myocarditis (5515 reports for the full database vs 122 for ICIs, ROR 11·21 [95% CI 9·36-13·43]; IC025 3·20), pericardial diseases (12 800 vs 95, 3·80 [3·08-4·62]; IC025 1·63), and vasculitis (33 289 vs 82, 1·56 [1·25-1·94]; IC025 0·03), including temporal arteritis (696 vs 18, 12·99 [8·12-20·77]; IC025 2·59) and polymyalgia rheumatica (1709 vs 16, 5·13 [3·13-8·40]; IC025 1·33). Pericardial diseases were reported more often in patients with lung cancer (49 [56%] of 87 patients), whereas myocarditis (42 [41%] of 103 patients) and vasculitis (42 [60%] of 70 patients) were more commonly reported in patients with melanoma (χ2 test for overall subgroup comparison, p<0·0001). Vision was impaired in five (28%) of 18 patients with temporal arteritis. Cardiovascular irAEs were severe in the majority of cases (>80%), with death occurring in 61 (50%) of 122 myocarditis cases, 20 (21%) of 95 pericardial disease cases, and five (6%) of 82 vasculitis cases (χ2 test for overall comparison between pericardial diseases, myocarditis, and vasculitis, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Treatment with ICIs can lead to severe and disabling inflammatory cardiovascular irAEs soon after commencement of therapy. In addition to life-threatening myocarditis, these toxicities include pericardial diseases and temporal arteritis with a risk of blindness. These events should be considered in patient care and in combination clinical trial designs (ie, combinations of different immunotherapies as well as immunotherapies and chemotherapy). FUNDING: The Cancer Institut Thématique Multi-Organisme of the French National Alliance for Life and Health Sciences (AVIESAN) Plan Cancer 2014-2019; US National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health; the James C. Bradford Jr. Melanoma Fund; and the Melanoma Research Foundation.

10.
Chronobiol Int ; 35(12): 1702-1712, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183400

RESUMO

The electronic health record (EHR) contains rich histories of clinical care, but has not traditionally been mined for information related to sleep habits. Here, we performed a retrospective EHR study based on a cohort of 3,652 individuals with self-reported sleep behaviors documented from visits to the sleep clinic. These individuals were obese (mean body mass index 33.6 kg/m2) and had a high prevalence of sleep apnea (60.5%), however we found sleep behaviors largely concordant with prior prospective cohort studies. In our cohort, average wake time was 1 hour later and average sleep duration was 40 minutes longer on weekends than on weekdays (p < 10-12). Sleep duration varied considerably as a function of age and tended to be longer in females and in whites. Additionally, through phenome-wide association analyses, we found an association of long weekend sleep with depression, and an unexpectedly large number of associations of long weekday sleep with mental health and neurological disorders (q < 0.05). We then sought to replicate previously published genetic associations with morning/evening preference on a subset of our cohort with extant genotyping data (n = 555). While those findings did not replicate in our cohort, a polymorphism (rs3754214) in high linkage disequilibrium with a previously published polymorphism near TARS2 was associated with long sleep duration (p < 0.01). Collectively, our results highlight the potential of the EHR for uncovering the correlates of human sleep in real-world populations.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3522, 2018 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166544

RESUMO

Defining the full spectrum of human disease associated with a biomarker is necessary to advance the biomarker into clinical practice. We hypothesize that associating biomarker measurements with electronic health record (EHR) populations based on shared genetic architectures would establish the clinical epidemiology of the biomarker. We use Bayesian sparse linear mixed modeling to calculate SNP weightings for 53 biomarkers from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We use the SNP weightings to computed predicted biomarker values in an EHR population and test associations with 1139 diagnoses. Here we report 116 associations meeting a Bonferroni level of significance. A false discovery rate (FDR)-based significance threshold reveals more known and undescribed associations across a broad range of biomarkers, including biometric measures, plasma proteins and metabolites, functional assays, and behaviors. We confirm an inverse association between LDL-cholesterol level and septicemia risk in an independent epidemiological cohort. This approach efficiently discovers biomarker-disease associations.

12.
Nat Genet ; 50(9): 1335-1341, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104761

RESUMO

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for thousands of phenotypes in large biobanks, most binary traits have substantially fewer cases than controls. Both of the widely used approaches, the linear mixed model and the recently proposed logistic mixed model, perform poorly; they produce large type I error rates when used to analyze unbalanced case-control phenotypes. Here we propose a scalable and accurate generalized mixed model association test that uses the saddlepoint approximation to calibrate the distribution of score test statistics. This method, SAIGE (Scalable and Accurate Implementation of GEneralized mixed model), provides accurate P values even when case-control ratios are extremely unbalanced. SAIGE uses state-of-art optimization strategies to reduce computational costs; hence, it is applicable to GWAS for thousands of phenotypes by large biobanks. Through the analysis of UK Biobank data of 408,961 samples from white British participants with European ancestry for > 1,400 binary phenotypes, we show that SAIGE can efficiently analyze large sample data, controlling for unbalanced case-control ratios and sample relatedness.

13.
PLoS Med ; 15(8): e1002642, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observations from statin clinical trials and from Mendelian randomization studies suggest that low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the findings from statin clinical trials and genetic studies, there is little direct evidence implicating low LDL-C concentrations in increased risk of T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) at Vanderbilt University Medical Center to compare the risk of T2DM in a cross-sectional study among individuals with very low (≤60 mg/dl, N = 8,943) and normal (90-130 mg/dl, N = 71,343) LDL-C levels calculated using the Friedewald formula. LDL-C levels associated with statin use, hospitalization, or a serum albumin level < 3 g/dl were excluded. We used a 2-phase approach: in 1/3 of the sample (discovery) we used T2DM phenome-wide association study codes (phecodes) to identify cases and controls, and in the remaining 2/3 (validation) we identified T2DM cases and controls using a validated algorithm. The analysis plan for the validation phase was constructed at the time of the design of that component of the study. The prevalence of T2DM in the very low and normal LDL-C groups was compared using logistic regression with adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and duration of care. Secondary analyses included prespecified stratification by sex, race, BMI, and LDL-C level. In the discovery cohort, phecodes related to T2DM were significantly more frequent in the very low LDL-C group. In the validation cohort (N = 33,039 after applying the T2DM algorithm to identify cases and controls), the risk of T2DM was increased in the very low compared to normal LDL-C group (odds ratio [OR] 2.06, 95% CI 1.80-2.37; P < 2 × 10-16). The findings remained significant in sensitivity analyses. The association between low LDL-C levels and T2DM was significant in males (OR 2.43, 95% CI 2.00-2.95; P < 2 × 10-16) and females (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.42-2.12; P = 6.88 × 10-8); in normal weight (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.59-2.98; P = 1.1× 10-6), overweight (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.65-2.83; P = 1.73× 10-8), and obese (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.65-2.41; P = 8 × 10-13) categories; and in individuals with LDL-C < 40 mg/dl (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.71-3.10; P = 3.01× 10-8) and LDL-C 40-60 mg/dl (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71-2.32; P < 2.0× 10-16). The association was significant in individuals of European ancestry (OR 2.67, 95% CI 2.25-3.17; P < 2 × 10-16) but not in those of African ancestry (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.81-1.46; P = 0.56). A limitation was that we only compared groups with very low and normal LDL-C levels; also, since this was not an inception cohort, we cannot exclude the possibility of reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: Very low LDL-C concentrations occurring in the absence of statin treatment were significantly associated with T2DM risk in a large EHR population; this increased risk was present in both sexes and all BMI categories, and in individuals of European ancestry but not of African ancestry. Longitudinal cohort studies to assess the relationship between very low LDL-C levels not associated with lipid-lowering therapy and risk of developing T2DM will be important.

15.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 80(2): e12971, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726581

RESUMO

Obstetric diseases remain underserved and understudied. Drug repurposing-utilization of a drug whose use is accepted in one condition for a different condition-could represent a rapid and low-cost way to identify new therapies that are known to be safe. In diseases of pregnancy, the known safety profile is a strong additional incentive. We describe the techniques and steps used in the use of 'omics data for drug repurposing. We illustrate these techniques using case studies of published drug repurposing projects. We provide a set of available databases with low barriers to entry which investigators can use to perform their own projects. The promise of 'omics techniques is unbiased screening, either of all drug targets or of all patients using particular drugs to find which are likely to alter disease risk or progression. However, we caution that reproducibility across the underlying studies, and thus the drugs suggested for repurposing, can be poor. We suggest that improved nosology, for example correlating patient clinical conditions with placental pathology, could yield more robust associations. We conclude that 'omics-driven drug repurposing represents a potential fruitful path to discover new, safe treatments of obstetric diseases.

16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 188: 94-101, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and tobacco use are heritable phenotypes. However, only a small number of common genetic variants have been identified, and common variants account for a modest proportion of the heritability. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low-frequency and rare variants in alcohol and tobacco use. METHODS: We meta-analyzed ExomeChip association results from eight discovery cohorts and included 12,466 subjects and 7432 smokers in the analysis of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, respectively. The ExomeChip interrogates low-frequency and rare exonic variants, and in addition a small pool of common variants. We investigated top variants in an independent sample in which ICD-9 diagnoses of "alcoholism" (N = 25,508) and "tobacco use disorder" (N = 27,068) had been assessed. In addition to the single variant analysis, we performed gene-based, polygenic risk score (PRS), and pathway analyses. RESULTS: The meta-analysis did not yield exome-wide significant results. When we jointly analyzed our top results with the independent sample, no low-frequency or rare variants reached significance for alcohol consumption or tobacco use. However, two common variants that were present on the ExomeChip, rs16969968 (p = 2.39 × 10-7) and rs8034191 (p = 6.31 × 10-7) located in CHRNA5 and AGPHD1 at 15q25.1, showed evidence for association with tobacco use. DISCUSSION: Low-frequency and rare exonic variants with large effects do not play a major role in alcohol and tobacco use, nor does the aggregate effect of ExomeChip variants. However, our results confirmed the role of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in tobacco use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Éxons/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Uso de Tabaco/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/genética
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(6): 2234-2243, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659871

RESUMO

Context: Mutations in alkaline phosphatase (AlkP), liver/bone/kidney (ALPL), which encodes tissue-nonspecific isozyme AlkP, cause hypophosphatasia (HPP). HPP is suspected by a low-serum AlkP. We hypothesized that some patients with bone or dental disease have undiagnosed HPP, caused by ALPL variants. Objective: Our objective was to discover the prevalence of these gene variants in the Vanderbilt University DNA Biobank (BioVU) and to assess phenotypic associations. Design: We identified subjects in BioVU, a repository of DNA, that had at least one of three known, rare HPP disease-causing variants in ALPL: rs199669988, rs121918007, and/or rs121918002. To evaluate for phenotypic associations, we conducted a sequential phenome-wide association study of ALPL variants and then performed a de-identified manual record review to refine the phenotype. Results: Out of 25,822 genotyped individuals, we identified 52 women and 53 men with HPP disease-causing variants in ALPL, 7/1000. None had a clinical diagnosis of HPP. For patients with ALPL variants, the average serum AlkP levels were in the lower range of normal or lower. Forty percent of men and 62% of women had documented bone and/or dental disease, compatible with the diagnosis of HPP. Forty percent of the female patients had ovarian pathology or other gynecological abnormalities compared with 15% seen in controls. Conclusions: Variants in the ALPL gene cause bone and dental disease in patients with and without the standard biomarker, low plasma AlkP. ALPL gene variants are more prevalent than currently reported and underdiagnosed. Gynecologic disease appears to be associated with HPP-causing variants in ALPL.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1613, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691411

RESUMO

Less than 3% of protein-coding genetic variants are predicted to result in loss of protein function through the introduction of a stop codon, frameshift, or the disruption of an essential splice site; however, such predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants provide insight into effector transcript and direction of biological effect. In >400,000 UK Biobank participants, we conduct association analyses of 3759 pLOF variants with six metabolic traits, six cardiometabolic diseases, and twelve additional diseases. We identified 18 new low-frequency or rare (allele frequency < 5%) pLOF variant-phenotype associations. pLOF variants in the gene GPR151 protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes, in the gene IL33 against asthma and allergic disease, and in the gene IFIH1 against hypothyroidism. In the gene PDE3B, pLOF variants associate with elevated height, improved body fat distribution and protection from coronary artery disease. Our findings prioritize genes for which pharmacologic mimics of pLOF variants may lower risk for disease.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA