Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 213
Filtrar
1.
Hepatology ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418225

RESUMO

We would like to thank Selck et al. for their letter. The issue they raise has both methodological and scientific interest. We clearly acknowledge in our discussion the limitations of our approach to estimate the causal impact of cold weather on alcoholic cirrhosis at a population level. In addition, as highlighted in the accompanying editorial, these associations at a population level might not hold at an individual level, and the causes of differences in alcohol intake between populations and individuals might not be the same.

2.
J Lipid Res ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398264

RESUMO

Alcohol's impairment of both hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) are key drivers of alcoholic steatosis, the initial stage of alcoholic liver disease (ALD).  Pharmacologic reduction of lipotoxic ceramide prevents alcoholic steatosis and glucose intolerance in mice, but potential off-target effects limit its strategic utility.  Here, we employed a hepatic-specific acid-ceramidase (ASAH) overexpression model to reduce hepatic ceramides in a Lieber-DeCarli model of experimental alcoholic steatosis.  We examined effects of alcohol on hepatic lipid metabolism, body composition, energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity as measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.  Our results demonstrate that hepatic ceramide reduction ameliorates the effects of alcohol on hepatic lipid droplet accumulation by promoting VLDL secretion and lipophagy, the latter of which involves ceramide cross-talk between the lysosomal and lipid droplet compartments.  We additionally demonstrate that hepatic ceramide reduction prevents alcohol's inhibition of hepatic insulin signaling.  These effects on the liver are associated with a reduction in oxidative stress markers and are relevant to humans, as we observe peri-lipid droplet ASAH expression in human ALD.  Together, our results suggest a potential role for hepatic ceramide inhibition in preventing ALD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393626

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) accounts for the majority of cirrhosis and liver-related deaths worldwide. Activation of IFN-regulatory factor (IRF3) initiates alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, which fuels a robust secondary inflammatory response that drives ALD. The dominant molecular mechanism by which alcohol activates IRF3 and the pathways that amplify inflammatory signals in ALD remains unknown. Here we show that cytoplasmic sensor cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase (cGAS) drives IRF3 activation in both alcohol-injured hepatocytes and the neighboring parenchyma via a gap junction intercellular communication pathway. Hepatic RNA-seq analysis of patients with a wide spectrum of ALD revealed that expression of the cGAS-IRF3 pathway correlated positively with disease severity. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated increased hepatic expression of the cGAS-IRF3 pathway. Mice genetically deficient in cGAS and IRF3 were protected against ALD. Ablation of cGAS in hepatocytes only phenocopied this hepatoprotection, highlighting the critical role of hepatocytes in fueling the cGAS-IRF3 response to alcohol. We identified connexin 32 (Cx32), the predominant hepatic gap junction, as a critical regulator of spreading cGAS-driven IRF3 activation through the liver parenchyma. Disruption of Cx32 in ALD impaired IRF3-stimulated gene expression, resulting in decreased hepatic injury despite an increase in hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results identify cGAS and Cx32 as key factors in ALD pathogenesis and as potential therapeutic targets for hepatoprotection.

4.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429478

RESUMO

In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), many lines of investigation have reported a dysregulation in lipid homeostasis, leading to intrahepatic lipid accumulation. Recently, the role of dysfunctional sphingolipid metabolism has also been proposed. Human and animal models of NASH have been associated with elevated levels of long chain ceramides and pro-apoptotic sphingolipid metabolites, implicated in regulating fatty acid oxidation and inflammation. Importantly, inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis or knock-down of ceramide synthases reverse some of the pathology of NASH. In contrast, cell permeable, short chain ceramides have shown anti-inflammatory actions in multiple models of inflammatory disease. Here, we investigated non-apoptotic doses of a liposome containing short chain C6-Ceramide (Lip-C6) administered to human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC), a key effector of hepatic fibrogenesis, and an animal model characterized by inflammation and elevated liver fat content. On the basis of the results from unbiased liver transcriptomic studies from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, we chose to focus on adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling pathways, which showed an abnormal profile. Lip-C6 administration inhibited hHSC proliferation while improving anti-oxidant protection and energy homeostasis, as indicated by upregulation of Nrf2, activation of AMPK and an increase in ATP. To confirm these in vitro data, we investigated the effect of a single tail-vein injection of Lip-C6 in the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet mouse model. Lip-C6, but not control liposomes, upregulated phospho-AMPK, without inducing liver toxicity, apoptosis, or exacerbating inflammatory signaling pathways. Alluding to mechanism, mass spectrometry lipidomics showed that Lip-C6-treatment reversed the imbalance in hepatic phosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerides species induced by the MCD-fed diet. These results reveal that short-term Lip-C6 administration reverses energy/metabolic depletion and increases protective anti-oxidant signaling pathways, possibly by restoring homeostatic lipid function in a model of liver inflammation with fat accumulation.

5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of NLRP3 in liver macrophages contributes to alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). Molecular chaperone heat shock protein (HSP) 90 facilitates NLRP3 inflammasome activity during infections and inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that HSP90 is induced in ALD and regulates proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6. Whether HSP90 affects IL-1ß and IL-18 regulated by NLRP3 inflammasome in ALD is unknown. Here, we hypothesize that HSP90 modulated NLRP3 inflammasome activity and affects IL-1ß and IL-18 secretion in ALD. METHODS: The expression of HSP90AA1 and NLRP3 inflammasome genes was evaluated in human alcoholic livers and in mouse model of ALD. The importance of HSP90 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in ALD was evaluated by administering HSP90 inhibitor, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) to mice subjected to ALD, and in vitro to bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) stimulated with LPS and ATP. The effect of activation of HSF1/HSPA1A axis during HSP90 inhibition or direct activation during heat shock of BMDMs on NLRP3 activity and secretion of downstream cytokines was evaluated. RESULTS: We found positive correlation between induction of HSP90 and NLRP3 inflammasome genes in human alcoholic cirrhotic livers. Administration of 17-DMAG in mouse model of ALD significantly down-regulated NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 (CASP-1) activity and cytokine secretion, with reduction in ALD. 17-DMAG-mediated decrease in NLRP3 was restricted to liver macrophages. Using BMDMs, we show that inhibition of HSP90 prevented CASP-1 activity, and Gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage, important in release of active IL-1ß and IL-18. Interestingly, activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)/HSPA1A axis, either during HSP90 inhibition or by heat shock, decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activity and reduced secretion of cytokines. CONCLUSION: Our studies indicate that inhibition of HSP90 and activation of HSF1/HSPA1A reduce IL-1ß and IL-18 via decrease in NLRP3/CASP-1 and GSDMD activity in ALD.

6.
Hepatology ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is diagnosed by clinical criteria, although several objective scores facilitate risk stratification. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as novel biomarkers for many diseases and are also implicated in the pathogenesis of AH. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma EV concentration and sphingolipid cargo could serve as diagnostic biomarkers for AH and inform prognosis to permit dynamic risk profiling of AH subjects. APPROACH & RESULTS: EVs were isolated and quantified from plasma samples from healthy controls, heavy drinkers, and subjects with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) due to cholestatic liver diseases and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) and AH. Sphingolipids were quantified by tandem mass spectroscopy. The median plasma EV concentration was significantly higher in AH subjects (5.38X1011 /ml) compared to healthy controls (4.38X1010 /ml, p<0.0001), heavy drinkers (1.28X1011 /ml, p<0.0001), and ESLD (5.35X1010 /ml, p<0.0001) and decompensated AC (9.2X1010 /ml, p<0.0001) disease controls. Among AH subjects, EV concentration correlated with MELD score. When EV counts were dichotomized at the median, survival probability for AH subjects at 90 days was 63.0% in the high EV group and 90.0% in the low EV group (logrank p-value=0.015). Interestingly, EV sphingolipid cargo was significantly enriched in AH when compared with healthy controls, heavy drinkers, ESLD and decompensated AC (p=0.0001). Multiple sphingolipids demonstrated good diagnostic and prognostic performance as biomarkers for AH. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating EV concentration and sphingolipid cargo signature can be used in the diagnosis and differentiation of AH from heavy drinkers, decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis, and other etiologies of end-stage liver disease and predict 90-day survival permitting dynamic risk profiling.

7.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(4): 856-865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The preservation of functional mitochondria during toxic alcohol insults is essential for cell survival and is maintained by key processes known as mitochondrial dynamics, including fragmentation and fusion, which are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins (MSP). We have shown mitochondrial dynamics to be distorted by alcohol in cellular and animal models, but the effect in humans remains unknown. METHODS: Hepatic gene expression of the main MSP involved in the mitochondrial fusion and fragmentation pathways was evaluated in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) by DNA microarray (n = 15) and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (n = 32). The activation of dynamin-1-like protein (Drp1) was also investigated in mitochondria isolated from liver biopsies of ALD patients (n = 8). The effects of alcohol on mitochondrial dynamics and on MSP protein expression were studied in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed for 24 hours to increasing doses of ethanol (EtOH; 50 to 250 mM). RESULTS: A profound hyperactivation of the fragmentation pathway was observed in AH patients, with a significant increase in the expression of Drp1 and its adapters/receptors. The translocation of Drp1 to the mitochondria was also induced in patients with severe ALD and was affected in the PCLS with short-term exposure to EtOH but only mildly. The fusion pathway was not altered in ALD, and this was confirmed in the PCLS model. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the role of mitochondrial dynamics in human ALD, confirming our previous observations in animal and cell culture models of ALD. Taken together, we show that alcohol has a significant impact on the fragmentation pathway, and we confirm Drp1 as a potential therapeutic target in severe ALD.

8.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089834

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis is the severest clinical presentation of alcoholic liver disease. Lacking an effective pharmacologic treatment, alcoholic hepatitis is associated with a poor prognosis and its recovery relies mostly on abstinence. With alcohol use disorder being universally on the rise, the impact of alcoholic hepatitis on society and health-care costs is expected to increase significantly. Prognostic factors and liver biopsy can help with timely diagnosis, to determine eligibility and response to corticosteroids, and for prognostication and transplant referral. Although recent discoveries in the pathophysiology of alcoholic hepatitis are encouraging and could pave the way for novel treatment modalities, a multidisciplinary approach considering timely identification and treatment of liver-related complications, infectious and metabolic disease, malnutrition, and addiction counseling should be emphasized. Apart from proper selection of candidates, transplant programs should provide adequate post-transplant addiction support in order to make of early liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis the ultimate sobering experience in the next decade.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(3): 398-405, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH) confers substantial mortality, but the disease course is difficult to predict. As iron parameters are attractive outcome predictors in other liver diseases, we tested their prognostic ability in sAH. METHODS: Serum ferritin, transferrin, iron, transferrin saturation, nontransferrin-bound iron, soluble transferrin receptor, and hepcidin were measured in 828 patients with sAH recruited prospectively through the STOPAH trial. The cohort was randomly divided into exploratory (n = 200) and validation sets (n = 628). RESULTS: Patients with sAH had diminished serum transferrin but increased transferrin saturation. Among iron parameters, baseline transferrin was the best predictor of 28-day (area under the receiver operated characteristic 0.72 [95% confidence interval 0.67-0.78]) and 90-day survival (area under the receiver operated characteristic 0.65 [0.61-0.70]). Transferrin's predictive ability was comparable with the composite scores, namely model of end-stage liver disease, Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, and discriminant function, and was independently associated with survival in multivariable analysis. These results were confirmed in a validation cohort. Transferrin did not correlate with markers of liver synthesis nor with non-transferrin-bound iron or soluble transferrin receptor (as markers of excess unbound iron and functional iron deficiency, respectively). DISCUSSION: In patients with sAH, serum transferrin predicts mortality with a performance comparable with commonly used composite scoring systems. Hence, this routinely available parameter might be a useful marker alone or as a component of prognostic models.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transferrina/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
J Hepatol ; 72(6): 1052-1061, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is associated with a high risk of infection. The IL-33/ST2 pathway is involved in sepsis control but data regarding its role in alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are lacking. We aimed to characterize the role of IL-33/ST2 in the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of patients with ALD and SAH. METHODS: Serum and circulating neutrophils were collected from patients with SAH, alcoholic cirrhosis and healthy controls. We quantified IL-33/ST2 pathway activity and CXCR2 at baseline and after exposure to IL-33. We also determined the migration capacity of PMNs. RESULTS: The decoy receptor of IL-33 (soluble ST2 [sST2]) was increased in SAH vs. cirrhosis and controls, demonstrating the defect in this pathway during ALD. The sST2 level was associated with response to treatment, 2-month survival, infection-free survival and probability of infection in SAH. Endotoxemia was weakly correlated with sST2. GRK2, a negative regulator of CXCR2, was overexpressed in PMNs of patients with SAH and cirrhosis and was decreased by IL-33. CXCR2 levels on PMNs were lower in SAH vs. cirrhosis and controls. Treatment with IL-33 partially restored CXCR2 expression in SAH and cirrhosis. PMN migration upon IL-8 was lower in patients with SAH and cirrhosis vs. controls. Treatment with IL-33 partially restored migration in those with SAH and cirrhosis. Interestingly, the migration capacity of PMNs and the response to IL-33 were enhanced in responders to corticosteroids (Lille <0.45) compared to non-responders. CONCLUSION: The IL33/ST2 pathway is defective in SAH and predicts outcome. This defect is associated with decreased CXCR2 expression on the surface of PMNs and lower migration capacity, which can be corrected by IL-33, especially in patients responding to steroids. These results suggest that IL-33 has therapeutic potential for SAH and its infectious complications. LAY SUMMARY: The neutrophils of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis are associated with a defect in the IL-33/ST2 pathway. This defect is associated with lower migration capacities in neutrophils and a higher probability of getting infected. Administration of IL-33 to the neutrophils at least partly restores this defect and may be effective at reducing the risk of infection in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis.

11.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 522-538, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228214

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption causes increased intestinal permeability and changes in the intestinal microbiota composition, which contribute to the development and progression of alcohol-related liver disease. In this setting, little is known about commensal fungi in the gut. We studied the intestinal mycobiota in a cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, patients with alcohol use disorder, and nonalcoholic controls using fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. We further measured serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) as a systemic immune response to fungal products or fungi. Candida was the most abundant genus in the fecal mycobiota of the two alcohol groups, whereas genus Penicillium dominated the mycobiome of nonalcoholic controls. We observed a lower diversity in the alcohol groups compared with controls. Antibiotic or steroid treatment was not associated with a lower diversity. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis had significantly higher ASCA levels compared to patients with alcohol use disorder and to nonalcoholic controls. Within the alcoholic hepatitis cohort, patients with levels of at least 34 IU/mL had a significantly lower 90-day survival (59%) compared with those with ASCA levels less than 34 IU/mL (80%) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.13 (95% CI, 1.11-8.82; P = 0.031). Conclusion: Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have a lower fungal diversity with an overgrowth of Candida compared with controls. Higher serum ASCA was associated with increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Intestinal fungi may serve as a therapeutic target to improve survival, and ASCA may be useful to predict the outcome in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(1): 87-101, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related liver disease is the main cause of liver-related mortality worldwide. The development of novel targeted therapies for patients with advanced forms (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis, AH) is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. Here, we developed a novel mouse model of acute-on-chronic alcohol liver injury with cholestasis and fibrosis and performed an extensive molecular comparative analysis with human AH. METHODS: For the mouse model of acute-on-chronic liver injury, we used 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC, 0.05% w/w) diet for 8 weeks to establish cholestatic liver fibrosis. After 1-week washout period, male mice were fed intragastrically for 4 weeks with up to 24 g/kg of ethyl alcohol in a high-fat diet. This animal model was phenotyped using histopathology, clinical chemistry, microbiome, and gene expression approaches. Data were compared to the phenotypes of human alcohol-related liver disease, including AH. RESULTS: Mice with cholestatic liver fibrosis and subsequent alcohol exposure (DDC + EtOH) exhibited exacerbated liver fibrosis with a pericellular pattern, increased neutrophil infiltration, and ductular proliferation, all characteristics of human AH. DDC administration had no effect on urine alcohol concentration or liver steatosis. Importantly, DDC- and alcohol-treated mice showed a transcriptomic signature that resembled that of patients with AH. Finally, we show that mice in the DDC + EtOH group had an increased gut barrier dysfunction, mimicking an important pathophysiological mechanism of human AH. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a novel mouse model of acute-on-chronic cholestatic alcoholic liver injury that has considerable translational potential and can be used to test novel therapeutic modalities for AH.

14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(1): 79-87, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In contrast with other developed nations, life expectancy is decreasing in the United States, in part due to increasing mortality from alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). Up-to-date estimates of ALD mortality are necessary for setting public health priorities to reverse this concerning trend. We therefore aimed to assess current (2017) estimates of ALD mortality and temporal trends from 1999 to 2017. METHODS: Using national data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we analyzed stratified ALD mortality rates between 1999 and 2017. We determined the age-adjusted death rates, stratified by sex and categorized by age, race/ethnicity, urbanization, and census region. We also identified statistically significant changes in the annual rate difference (ARD), annual percentage change (APC), and average APC in ALD mortality. RESULTS: In 2017, mortality from ALD was higher than any other year since 1999 with age-adjusted rates of 13.1 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-13.3) in men and 5.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 5.4-5.7) in women. Mortality was highest among men and women who were middle aged, Native American, and from rural areas. Since 2006, ALD mortality has increased in almost every age group and race with the exception of non-Hispanic black men. Absolute increases in mortality rates have been particularly pronounced in Native American women (2005-2017 ARD 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), non-Hispanic/white men (2006-2017 ARD 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.4), and non-Hispanic/white women (2013-2017 ARD 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5). DISCUSSION: Mortality from ALD is increasing over time in most demographic groups. Increased effort is needed to develop targeted public health strategies to address high and increasing ALD mortality.

15.
Gut ; 69(4): 764-780, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879281

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), which includes a range of disorders of different severity and is one of the most prevalent types of liver disease worldwide, has recently regained increased attention. Among other reasons, the realisation that any alcohol intake, regardless of type of beverage represents a health risk, and the new therapeutic strategies tested in recently published or undergoing clinical trials spur scientific interest in this area.In April 2019, Gut convened a round table panel of experts during the European Association for the Study of the Liver International Liver Congress in Vienna to discuss critical and up-to-date issues and clinical trial data regarding ALD, its epidemiology, diagnosis, management, pathomechanisms, possible future treatments and prevention. This paper summarises the discussion and its conclusions.

16.
Clin Case Rep ; 7(11): 2174-2176, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788273

RESUMO

A subset of patients with alcoholic hepatitis present with atypical imaging resembling hepatic tumor infiltration. Our case involves a patient who was initially thought to have multiple large hepatic metastases, ultimately found to have alcoholic hepatitis. It is essential to ask about alcohol use when clinical suspicion is high.

17.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(10): 657-676, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188200

RESUMO

La enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA) es la causa más prevalente de enfermedad hepática avanzada y cirrosis hepática en Europa incluyendo a España. De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud la fracción de cirrosis hepática atribuible al uso de alcohol en España es del 73,8% entre varones y del 56,3% entre mujeres. La EHA incluye diversos estadios como la esteatohepatitis, la cirrosis y el cáncer hepatocelular. Además, enfermos con EHA de base e ingesta abundante de alcohol pueden desarrollar hepatitis alcohólica, que cursa con una elevada mortalidad. Hasta la fecha, el único tratamiento efectivo para tratar la EHA es la abstinencia prolongada. No existen tratamientos específicos, y el único tratamiento que aumenta la esperanza de vida en la hepatitis alcohólica es la prednisolona. Para enfermos con hepatitis alcohólica que no responden al tratamiento, algunos centros ofrecen la posibilidad de un trasplante precoz. Estas guías de práctica clínica tienen como objetivo proponer recomendaciones sobre la EHA teniendo en cuenta su relevancia como causa de hepatopatía crónica avanzada y cirrosis hepática en nuestro medio. En el presente trabajo se propone como objetivo responder las preguntas claves para la práctica clínica de Gastroenterología, Hepatología, así como de Medicina Interna y centros de salud primaria, poniendo al servicio del profesional de la salud la información más actualizada respecto al manejo y tratamiento de la EHA. Estas guías proporcionan recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para el manejo clínico de esta enfermedad


Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatite Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Consenso , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/terapia , Saúde Pública , História Natural , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Fatores de Risco
18.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(10): 657-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771785

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease and liver cirrhosis in Europe, including Spain. According to the World Health Organization the fraction of liver cirrhosis attributable to alcohol use in Spain is 73.8% among men and 56.3% among women. ARLD includes various stages such as steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. In addition, patients with underlying ARLD and heavy alcohol intake may develop alcoholic hepatitis, which is associated with high mortality. To date, the only effective treatment to treat ARLD is prolonged withdrawal. There are no specific treatments, and the only treatment that increases life expectancy in alcoholic hepatitis is prednisolone. For patients with alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to treatment, some centres offer the possibility of an early transplant. These clinical practice guidelines aim to propose recommendations on ARLD taking into account their relevance as a cause of advanced chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis in our setting. This paper aims to answer the key questions for the clinical practice of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, as well as Internal Medicine and Primary Health Centres, making the most up-to-date information regarding the management and treatment of ARLD available to health professionals. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of this disease.

19.
Hepatology ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758811

RESUMO

Despite significant medical and economic consequences of coexisting alcohol use disorder (AUD) in patients with cirrhosis, little is known about AUD treatment patterns and their impact on clinical outcomes in this population. We aimed to characterize the use of and outcomes associated with AUD treatment in patients with cirrhosis. This retrospective cohort study included Veterans with cirrhosis who received Veterans Health Administration (VA) care and had an index diagnosis of AUD between 2011 and 2015. We assessed the baseline factors associated with AUD treatment (pharmacotherapy or behavioral therapy) and clinical outcomes for 180 days following the first AUD diagnosis code within the study time frame. Among 93,612 Veterans with cirrhosis, we identified 35,682 with AUD, after excluding 2,671 who had prior diagnoses of AUD and recent treatment. Over 180 days following the index diagnosis of AUD, 5,088 (14%) received AUD treatment, including 4,461 (12%) who received behavioral therapy alone, 159 (0.4%) who received pharmacotherapy alone, and 468 (1%) who received both behavioral and pharmacotherapy. In adjusted analyses, behavioral and/or pharmacotherapy-based AUD treatment was associated with a significant reduction in incident hepatic decompensation (6.5% vs. 11.6%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.52-0.76) and a non-significant decrease in short-term all-cause mortality (2.6% vs. 3.9%, AOR=0.79, 95% CI=0.57-1.08), and a significant decrease in long-term all-cause mortality (51% vs. 58%, AOR=0.87, 95% CI=0.80, 0.96). CONCLUSION: Most patients with cirrhosis and coexisting AUD did not receive behavioral or pharmacotherapy treatment for AUD over a 6-month follow-up. The reductions in hepatic decompensation and mortality suggest that future studies should focus on delivering evidence-based AUD treatments to patients with coexisting AUD and cirrhosis.

20.
Nature ; 575(7783): 505-511, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723265

RESUMO

Chronic liver disease due to alcohol-use disorder contributes markedly to the global burden of disease and mortality1-3. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe and life-threatening form of alcohol-associated liver disease. The gut microbiota promotes ethanol-induced liver disease in mice4, but little is known about the microbial factors that are responsible for this process. Here we identify cytolysin-a two-subunit exotoxin that is secreted by Enterococcus faecalis5,6-as a cause of hepatocyte death and liver injury. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals or patients with alcohol-use disorder, patients with alcoholic hepatitis have increased faecal numbers of E. faecalis. The presence of cytolysin-positive (cytolytic) E. faecalis correlated with the severity of liver disease and with mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Using humanized mice that were colonized with bacteria from the faeces of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the therapeutic effects of bacteriophages that target cytolytic E. faecalis. We found that these bacteriophages decrease cytolysin in the liver and abolish ethanol-induced liver disease in humanized mice. Our findings link cytolytic E. faecalis with more severe clinical outcomes and increased mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We show that bacteriophages can specifically target cytolytic E. faecalis, which provides a method for precisely editing the intestinal microbiota. A clinical trial with a larger cohort is required to validate the relevance of our findings in humans, and to test whether this therapeutic approach is effective for patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA