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1.
JCI Insight ; 6(11)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945507

RESUMO

The chemokine system of ligands and receptors is implicated in the progression of alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). Finding upstream regulators could lead to novel therapies. This study involved coordinated expression of chemokines in livers of healthy controls (HC) and patients with AH in 2 distinct cohorts of patients with various chronic liver diseases. Studies in cultured hepatocytes and in tissue-specific KO were used for mechanistic insight into a potential upstream regulator of chemokine expression in AH. Selected C-X-C chemokine members of the IL-8 chemokine family and C-C chemokine CCL20 were highly associated with AH compared with HC but not in patients with liver diseases of other etiologies (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]). Our previous studies implicate macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as a pleiotropic cytokine/chemokine with the potential to coordinately regulate chemokine expression in AH. LPS-stimulated expression of multiple chemokines in cultured hepatocytes was dependent on MIF. Gao-binge ethanol feeding to mice induced a similar coordinated chemokine expression in livers of WT mice; this was prevented in hepatocyte-specific Mif-KO (MifΔHep) mice. This study demonstrates that patients with AH exhibit a specific, coordinately expressed chemokine signature and that hepatocyte-derived MIF might drive this inflammatory response.

2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although coexistence of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) and pancreatitis (ALP) is seen in clinical practice, a clear understanding of the overlap between these diseases is lacking. Moreover, the relative risks for certain population groups have not been studied. We determined the prevalence and coexistence of ALD and ALP in patients with an alcohol use disorder using retrospective analysis of a large patient cohort from Western Pennsylvania. We specifically emphasized the analysis of underrepresented populations, including women and blacks. METHODS: We identified all unique patients who received care in UPMC health system during 2006-2017 with at least one International Classification of Diseases versions 9 and/or 10 codes for alcohol misuse, ALD and pancreatitis. We noted their sex, race and age of first diagnosis and duration of contact. RESULTS: Among 89,774 patients that fit our criteria, the prevalence of ALD, ALP and coexistent ALD and ALP in patients with alcohol misuse was 11.7%, 7.4% and 2.5%, respectively. Prevalence of ALP in ALD was 16.4%, and ALD in ALP was 33.1%. Prevalence of ALP in ALD was slightly more prevalent in women (18.6% vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001). Prevalence of ALP in ALD was 2-4 folds greater in blacks than other races. DISCUSSION: A sizeable fraction of patients with ALD or ALP has coexistent disease. This is the first study to identify that blacks are at a higher risk for ALP in the presence of ALD. Future studies should define the clinical impact of coexistent disease on clinical presentation and short- and long-term outcomes.

3.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition characterized by a marked inflammatory response and high short-term mortality. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early event in vascular and inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate ED in AH patients. METHODS: Prognostic value of ED biomarkers was evaluated in patients with severe AH (n = 67), compensated alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 15), heavy drinkers without liver disease (n = 15) and controls (n = 9), and in a validation cohort of 50 patients with AH. Gene expression of ED markers was analyzed in liver tissue. RESULTS: Plasma levels of ED markers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) increased along alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) progression. Intergroup analysis showed a significant increase of these markers in AH patients. In addition, VCAM-1 showed a positive correlation with Maddrey, MELD and ABIC scores and inflammation parameters (i.e. C-reactive protein and LPS levels). Importantly, levels of VCAM-1 were higher in patients with increased mortality and were independently associated with short-term survival (90-day) when adjusted by ABIC score. These results were confirmed in an independent cohort of AH patients. In addition, severe AH patients showed altered hepatic expression of ED markers. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we show that advanced ALD and particularly severe AH is associated with an increase of ED biomarkers, which correlate with patient outcomes. These results suggest that ED may be a pathogenic event in AH and highlight endothelial factors as potential biomarkers in AH.

5.
Transpl Int ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780554

RESUMO

The prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT), renal dysfunction (RD), and simultaneous PVT/RD in liver transplantation (LT) is poorly understood. We analyzed the prevalence of PVT, RD, simultaneous PVT/RD, and the outcomes of adult recipients of LT for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) between 2006 and 2016 in the United States. We found that the prevalence of PVT (7.2% â†’ 11.3%), RD (33.8% â†’ 39.2%), and simultaneous PVT/RD (2.4% â†’ 4.5%) has increased significantly over the study period (all P-values <0.05). NAFLD patients had a higher proportion of PVT (14.8% vs. 9.2%), RD (45.0% vs. 42.1%), and simultaneous PVT/RD (6.5% vs. 3.9%; all P-values <0.05). 90-day mortality was 3.8%, 6.3%, 6.8%, and 9.8% for PVT(-)/RD(-), PVT(-)/RD(+), PVT(+)/RD(-), and PVT(+)/RD(+) recipients, respectively (P < 0.01). 5-year survival was 82.1%, 75.5%, 74.8%, and 71.1% for PVT(-)/RD(-), PVT(-)/RD(+), PVT(+)/RD(-), and PVT(+)/RD(+) recipients, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of PVT, RD, and simultaneous PVT/RD has increased among LT recipients, especially for those with NAFLD. The short- and long-term outcomes of recipients with PVT, RD, and simultaneous PVT/RD were inferior to patients without those risk factors irrespective of their indication for LT. No differences in patient outcomes were found between ALD and NAFLD recipients after stratification by risk factors.

6.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672832

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases in the United States. Early stages of alcohol-related liver disease are characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of alcohol-related liver disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify patients who are at greatest risk of death using serum lipids. First, we performed lipidomics analysis on serum samples collected from 118 patients with alcoholic hepatitis to identify lipid markers that are associated with high risk of death. Next, we performed gene set enrichment analysis on liver transcriptomics data to identify dysregulated lipid metabolism in patients who received liver transplantation. Finally, we built a random forest model to predict 30-day mortality using serum lipids. A total of 277 lipids were annotated in the serum of patients with alcoholic hepatitis, among which 25 were significantly different between patients in the deceased and alive groups. Five chemical clusters were significantly altered between the two groups. In particular, acylcarnitine cluster was enriched in the deceased group. Several hepatic lipid metabolism pathways were dysregulated in patients with alcoholic hepatitis who received liver transplantation. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the fatty acid transport into mitochondria and ß-oxidation were also dysregulated. When predicting 30-day mortality in alcoholic hepatitis patients using serum lipids, we found that the area under the curve achieved 0.95. Serum lipids such as acylcarnitines may serve as biomarkers to identify alcoholic hepatitis patients at the greatest risk of death.

7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 39, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum transferrin levels represent an independent predictor of mortality in patients with liver failure. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) is a master regulator of hepatocyte functions. The aim of this study was to explore whether serum transferrin reflects HNF4α activity. METHODS: Factors regulating transferrin expression in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) were assessed via transcriptomic/methylomic analysis as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA sequencing. The findings were corroborated in primary hepatocytes. Serum and liver samples from 40 patients with advanced liver disease of multiple etiologies were also studied. RESULTS: In patients with advanced liver disease, serum transferrin levels correlated with hepatic transferrin expression (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical and biochemical tests confirmed reduced HNF4α and transferrin protein levels in individuals with cirrhosis. In AH, hepatic gene-gene correlation analysis in liver transcriptome revealed an enrichment of HNF4α signature in transferrin-correlated transcriptome while transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) negatively associated with transferrin signature. A key regulatory region in transferrin promoter was hypermethylated in patients with AH. In primary hepatocytes, treatment with TGFß1 or the HNF4α inhibitor BI6015 suppressed transferrin production, while exposure to TNFα, IL-1ß, and IL-6 had no effect. The correlation between hepatic HNF4A and transferrin mRNA levels was also seen in advanced liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Serum transferrin levels constitute a prognostic and mechanistic biomarker. Consequently, they may serve as a surrogate of impaired hepatic HNF4α signaling and liver failure.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe condition with poor short-term prognosis. Specific treatment with corticosteroids slightly improves short-term survival but is associated with infection and is not used in many centers. A reliable method to identify patients who will recover spontaneously will minimise the numbers of patients who experience side effects of available treatments. METHODS: We analysed the trajectory of serum bilirubin concentration over the course of hospital admissions in patients with AH to predict spontaneous survival and the need for treatment. RESULTS: data from 426 patients were analysed. Based on bilirubin trajectory, patients were categorized into three groups: 'fast fallers' (bilirubin <0.8 x admission value at day 7), 'static' (bilirubin of >0.9 - <1.2 x admission value) and 'rapid risers' (bilirubin of ≥1.2 x admission bilirubin). Fast fallers had significantly better 90-day survival compared to other groups (log rank p < .001), and showed no benefit of corticosteroid therapy (OR for survival at 28 days of treatment, 0.94, 95% CI 0.06 - 8.41). These findings remained even amongst patients with severe disease based on initial DF, GAHS or MELD scores. CONCLUSIONS: We present an intuitive method of classifying patients with AH based on the trajectory of bilirubin over the first week of admission. It is complimentary to existing scores that identify candidates for corticosteroid treatment or assess response to treatment. This method identifies a group of patients with AH who recover spontaneously and can avoid corticosteroid therapy.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1725-1740.e2, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We recently showed that alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is characterized by dedifferentiation of hepatocytes and loss of mature functions. Glucose metabolism is tightly regulated in healthy hepatocytes. We hypothesize that AH may lead to metabolic reprogramming of the liver, including dysregulation of glucose metabolism. METHODS: We performed integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of liver tissue from patients with AH or alcoholic cirrhosis or normal liver tissue from hepatic resection. Focused analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA sequencing was performed. Functional in vitro studies were performed in primary rat and human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. RESULTS: Patients with AH exhibited specific changes in the levels of intermediates of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and monosaccharide and disaccharide metabolism. Integrated analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome showed the used of alternate energetic pathways, metabolite sinks and bottlenecks, and dysregulated glucose storage in patients with AH. Among genes involved in glucose metabolism, hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) was identified as the most up-regulated kinase in patients with AH. Histone active promoter and enhancer markers were increased in the HKDC1 genomic region. High HKDC1 levels were associated with the development of acute kidney injury and decreased survival. Increased HKDC1 activity contributed to the accumulation of glucose-6-P and glycogen in primary rat hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Altered metabolite levels and messenger RNA expression of metabolic enzymes suggest the existence of extensive reprogramming of glucose metabolism in AH. Increased HKDC1 expression may contribute to dysregulated glucose metabolism and represents a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for AH.

10.
Liver Transpl ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232547

RESUMO

Preserved physical function is key for successful liver transplantation (LT), however, prehabilitation strategies are underdeveloped. We created a smartphone app, EL-FIT (Exercise & Liver FITness), to facilitate exercise training in end-stage liver disease (ESLD). In this feasibility study, we tested EL-FIT app usage, accuracy of physical activity data transfer, and obtained feedback from initial users. Twenty-eight subjects used EL-FIT and wore a physical activity tracker for 38±12 days (age 60±8 years, 57% males, MELDNa 19±5). There was fidelity in data transfer from tracker to EL-FIT. Participants were sedentary (1957 [IQR: 873-4643] steps/day) at baseline. Level of training assigned by EL-FIT agreed with that from a physical therapist in 93% of cases. Participants interacted with all app features (videos, perceived exertion, and gamification/motivational features). We rearranged training data to generate heart rate-validated steps as a marker of performance and showed that 35% of subjects had a significant increase in their physical performance. Participants emphasized their interest in having choices to better engage in exercise and they appreciated the sense of community EL-FIT generated. Conclusion: We showed that ESLD patients are able to use and interact with EL-FIT. This novel smartphone app has the potential of becoming an invaluable tool for home-based prehabilitation in LT candidates.

11.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 112(11): 869-878, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198773

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of advanced chronic liver disease worldwide. Excessive and prolonged alcohol use leads to ALD, which ranges from early forms such as alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), through progressive fibrosis to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, patients with underlying ALD and continuous alcohol use can develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), which presents a rapid progression of liver failure and has a high short-term mortality. Genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors influence the progression of ALD to more severe forms. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Recent translational studies have demonstrated a key role of the gut-liver axis and innate immunity in hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. In severe forms, hepatocellular de-differentiation and systemic inflammation contribute to liver failure and multiorgan failure. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for ALD and the prevention of its complications, but the efficacy and accessibility of psycho-familial-social interventions is still poor and effective public health policies to limit problematic alcohol use need to be implemented. Prednisolone is the only current option for AH, with a transient beneficial effect over placebo. For patients with decompensated ALD-cirrhosis and/or development of HCC, liver transplantation (LT) may be required. In recent years, early LT is being increasingly offered to carefully selected AH patients, with excellent long-term survival. New trials of AH treatments are currently ongoing, and translational studies in human samples are paving the way to new promising targeted therapies


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ilustração Médica , Progressão da Doença , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo
13.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 112(11): 869-878, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054302

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of advanced chronic liver disease worldwide. Excessive and prolonged alcohol use leads to ALD, which ranges from early forms such as alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), through progressive fibrosis to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). In addition, patients with underlying ALD and continuous alcohol use can develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), which presents a rapid progression of liver failure and has a high short-term mortality. Genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors influence the progression of ALD to more severe forms. The pathogenesis of ALD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Recent translational studies have demonstrated a key role of the gut-liver axis and innate immunity in hepatocellular damage and fibrosis. In severe forms, hepatocellular de-differentiation and systemic inflammation contribute to liver failure and multiorgan failure. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy for ALD and the prevention of its complications, but the efficacy and accessibility of psycho-familial-social interventions is still poor and effective public health policies to limit problematic alcohol use need to be implemented. Prednisolone is the only current option for AH, with a transient beneficial effect over placebo. For patients with decompensated ALD-cirrhosis and/or development of HCC, liver transplantation (LT) may be required. In recent years, early LT is being increasingly offered to carefully selected AH patients, with excellent long-term survival. New trials of AH treatments are currently ongoing, and translational studies in human samples are paving the way to new promising targeted therapies.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15558, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968110

RESUMO

Advanced fibrosis and portal hypertension influence short-term mortality. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) regulates infection response and increases in liver injury. We explored the role of intrahepatic LCN2 in human alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with advanced fibrosis and portal hypertension and in experimental mouse fibrosis. We found hepatic LCN2 expression and serum LCN2 level markedly increased and correlated with disease severity and portal hypertension in patients with AH. In control human livers, LCN2 expressed exclusively in mononuclear cells, while its expression was markedly induced in AH livers, not only in mononuclear cells but also notably in hepatocytes. Lcn2-/- mice were protected from liver fibrosis caused by either ethanol or CCl4 exposure. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of matrisome, cell cycle and immune related gene sets in Lcn2-/- mice exposed to CCl4, along with decrease in Timp1 and Edn1 expression. Hepatic expression of COL1A1, TIMP1 and key EDN1 system components were elevated in AH patients and correlated with hepatic LCN2 expression. In vitro, recombinant LCN2 induced COL1A1 expression. Overexpression of LCN2 increased HIF1A that in turn mediated EDN1 upregulation. LCN2 contributes to liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in AH and could represent a new therapeutic target.

15.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(8): 1168-1182, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766476

RESUMO

Alcohol-related liver disease is a major public health burden, and the gut microbiota is an important contributor to disease pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to characterize functional alterations of the gut microbiota and test their performance for short-term mortality prediction in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. We integrated shotgun metagenomics with untargeted metabolomics to investigate functional alterations of the gut microbiota and host co-metabolism in a multicenter cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Profound changes were found in the gut microbial composition, functional metagenome, serum, and fecal metabolomes in patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared with nonalcoholic controls. We demonstrate that in comparison with single omics alone, the performance to predict 30-day mortality was improved when combining microbial pathways with respective serum metabolites in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. The area under the receiver operating curve was higher than 0.85 for the tryptophan, isoleucine, and methionine pathways as predictors for 30-day mortality, but achieved 0.989 for using the urea cycle pathway in combination with serum urea, with a bias-corrected prediction error of 0.083 when using leave-one-out cross validation. Conclusion: Our study reveals changes in key microbial metabolic pathways associated with disease severity that predict short-term mortality in our cohort of patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

16.
Pancreatology ; 20(6): 1069-1077, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available estimates of coexistent alcohol-related pancreatitis (ALP) and alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) vary widely, and factors that determine coexistent disease are largely unknown. We performed a systematic review of published literature with the primary aim to generate robust estimates for coexistent alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis (ACP) and alcohol-related cirrhosis (ALC). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases from inception until February 2018. Studies included were those in English-language, sample size ≥25 and allowed calculation of the coexistent disease. Pooled estimates were calculated using a random-effects model approach. RESULTS: Twenty-nine (including 5 autopsy studies) of 2000 eligible studies met inclusion criteria. Only 6.9% included patients were female. Fifteen studies enabled calculation of ACP in ALC, and 11 for ALC in ACP. Pooled prevalence of ACP in ALC was 16.2% (95% CI 10.4-24.5) overall, and 15.5% (95% CI 8.0-27.7) when data were limited to clinical studies. Corresponding prevalence for ALC in ACP was 21.5% (95% CI 12.0-35.6) and 16.9% (95% CI 11.5-24.3), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 - 65-92%). Pooled prevalence for ALP in ALD or ALD in ALP in clinical studies were 15.2% and 39%, respectively. None of the studies reported outcomes in patients with coexistent disease. CONCLUSION: A sizeable fraction of patients with ACP or ALC have coexistent disease. Future studies should define the prevalence of coexistent disease in women and minority populations, and the consequences of coexistent disease on clinical presentation and short- and long-term outcomes.

17.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe manifestation of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) with high mortality. Although gut bacteria and fungi modulate disease severity, little is known about the effects of the viral microbiome (virome) in patients with ALD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We extracted virus-like particles from 89 patients with AH who were enrolled in a multicenter observational study, 36 with alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 17 persons without AUD (controls). Virus-like particles from fecal samples were fractionated using differential filtration techniques, and metagenomic sequencing was performed to characterize intestinal viromes. We observed an increased viral diversity in fecal samples from patients with ALD, with the most significant changes in samples from patients with AH. Escherichia-, Enterobacteria-, and Enterococcus phages were over-represented in fecal samples from patients with AH, along with significant increases in mammalian viruses such as Parvoviridae and Herpesviridae. Antibiotic treatment was associated with higher viral diversity. Specific viral taxa, such as Staphylococcus phages and Herpesviridae, were associated with increased disease severity, indicated by a higher median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and associated with increased 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, intestinal viral taxa are altered in fecal samples from patients with AH and associated with disease severity and mortality. Our study describes an intestinal virome signature associated with AH.

18.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429478

RESUMO

In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), many lines of investigation have reported a dysregulation in lipid homeostasis, leading to intrahepatic lipid accumulation. Recently, the role of dysfunctional sphingolipid metabolism has also been proposed. Human and animal models of NASH have been associated with elevated levels of long chain ceramides and pro-apoptotic sphingolipid metabolites, implicated in regulating fatty acid oxidation and inflammation. Importantly, inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis or knock-down of ceramide synthases reverse some of the pathology of NASH. In contrast, cell permeable, short chain ceramides have shown anti-inflammatory actions in multiple models of inflammatory disease. Here, we investigated non-apoptotic doses of a liposome containing short chain C6-Ceramide (Lip-C6) administered to human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC), a key effector of hepatic fibrogenesis, and an animal model characterized by inflammation and elevated liver fat content. On the basis of the results from unbiased liver transcriptomic studies from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, we chose to focus on adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling pathways, which showed an abnormal profile. Lip-C6 administration inhibited hHSC proliferation while improving anti-oxidant protection and energy homeostasis, as indicated by upregulation of Nrf2, activation of AMPK and an increase in ATP. To confirm these in vitro data, we investigated the effect of a single tail-vein injection of Lip-C6 in the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet mouse model. Lip-C6, but not control liposomes, upregulated phospho-AMPK, without inducing liver toxicity, apoptosis, or exacerbating inflammatory signaling pathways. Alluding to mechanism, mass spectrometry lipidomics showed that Lip-C6-treatment reversed the imbalance in hepatic phosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerides species induced by the MCD-fed diet. These results reveal that short-term Lip-C6 administration reverses energy/metabolic depletion and increases protective anti-oxidant signaling pathways, possibly by restoring homeostatic lipid function in a model of liver inflammation with fat accumulation.

19.
Hepatology ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418225
20.
J Lipid Res ; 61(7): 983-994, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398264

RESUMO

Alcohol's impairment of both hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance (IR) are key drivers of alcoholic steatosis, the initial stage of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Pharmacologic reduction of lipotoxic ceramide prevents alcoholic steatosis and glucose intolerance in mice, but potential off-target effects limit its strategic utility. Here, we employed a hepatic-specific acid ceramidase (ASAH) overexpression model to reduce hepatic ceramides in a Lieber-DeCarli model of experimental alcoholic steatosis. We examined effects of alcohol on hepatic lipid metabolism, body composition, energy homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity as measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Our results demonstrate that hepatic ceramide reduction ameliorates the effects of alcohol on hepatic lipid droplet (LD) accumulation by promoting VLDL secretion and lipophagy, the latter of which involves ceramide cross-talk between the lysosomal and LD compartments. We additionally demonstrate that hepatic ceramide reduction prevents alcohol's inhibition of hepatic insulin signaling. These effects on the liver are associated with a reduction in oxidative stress markers and are relevant to humans, as we observe peri- LD ASAH expression in human ALD. Together, our results suggest a potential role for hepatic ceramide inhibition in preventing ALD.

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