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1.
Neurology ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether plasma ß-amyloid (Aß)42/Aß40, as measured by a high-precision assay, accurately diagnosed brain amyloidosis using amyloid PET or CSF p-tau181/Aß42 as reference standards. METHODS: Using an immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, we measured Aß42/Aß40 in plasma and CSF samples from 158 mostly cognitively normal individuals that were collected within 18 months of an amyloid PET scan. RESULTS: Plasma Aß42/Aß40 had a high correspondence with amyloid PET status (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-0.93) and CSF p-tau181/Aß42 (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92). The combination of plasma Aß42/Aß40, age, and APOE ε4 status had a very high correspondence with amyloid PET (AUC 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Individuals with a negative amyloid PET scan at baseline and a positive plasma Aß42/Aß40 (<0.1218) had a 15-fold greater risk of conversion to amyloid PET-positive compared to individuals with a negative plasma Aß42/Aß40 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma Aß42/Aß40, especially when combined with age and APOE ε4 status, accurately diagnoses brain amyloidosis and can be used to screen cognitively normal individuals for brain amyloidosis. Individuals with a negative amyloid PET scan and positive plasma Aß42/Aß40 are at increased risk for converting to amyloid PET-positive. Plasma Aß42/Aß40 could be used in prevention trials to screen for individuals likely to be amyloid PET-positive and at risk for Alzheimer disease dementia. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that plasma Aß42/Aß40 levels accurately determine amyloid PET status in cognitively normal research participants.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether amyloid imaging with the positron emission tomography (PET) agent Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) can detect vascular ß-amyloid (Aß) in the essentially pure form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with the Dutch-type hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy (D-CAA) mutation. METHODS: PiB retention in a cortical composite of frontal, lateral, and retrosplenial regions (FLR) was measured by PiB-PET in 19 D-CAA mutation carriers (M+ ; 13 without neurologic symptoms, 6 with prior lobar intracerebral hemorrhage) and 17 mutation noncarriers (M- ). Progression of PiB retention was analyzed in a subset of 18 serially imaged individuals (10 asymptomatic M+ , 8 M- ). We also analyzed associations between PiB retention and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aß concentrations in 17 M+ and 11 M- participants who underwent lumbar puncture and compared the findings to PiB-PET and CSF Aß in 37 autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers. RESULTS: D-CAA M+ showed greater age-dependent FLR PiB retention (p < 0.001) than M- , and serially imaged asymptomatic M+ demonstrated greater longitudinal increases (p = 0.004). Among M+ , greater FLR PiB retention associated with reduced CSF concentrations of Aß40 (r = -0.55, p = 0.021) but not Aß42 (r = 0.01, p = 0.991). Despite comparably low CSF Aß40 and Aß42, PiB retention was substantially less in D-CAA than ADAD (p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Increased PiB retention in D-CAA and correlation with reduced CSF Aß40 suggest this compound labels vascular amyloid, although to a lesser degree than amyloid deposits in ADAD. Progression in PiB signal over time suggests amyloid PET as a potential biomarker in trials of candidate agents for this untreatable cause of hemorrhagic stroke. ANN NEUROL 2019.

3.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 15(7): 419-427, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222062

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of several neurodegenerative diseases characterized by dysregulation, misfolding and accumulation of specific proteins in the CNS. The stable isotope labelling kinetics (SILK) technique is based on generating amino acids labelled with naturally occurring stable (that is, nonradioactive) isotopes of carbon and/or nitrogen. These labelled amino acids can then be incorporated into proteins, enabling rates of protein production and clearance to be determined in vivo and in vitro without the use of radioactive or chemical labels. Over the past decade, SILK studies have been used to determine the turnover of key pathogenic proteins amyloid-ß (Aß), tau and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy individuals, patients with AD and those with other neurodegenerative diseases. These studies led to the identification of several factors that alter the production and/or clearance of these proteins, including age, sleep and disease-causing genetic mutations. SILK studies have also been used to measure Aß turnover in blood and within brain tissue. SILK studies offer the potential to elucidate the mechanisms underlying various neurodegenerative disease mechanisms, including neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction, and to demonstrate target engagement of novel disease-modifying therapies.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2240, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110178

RESUMO

The beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is known primarily for its initial cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which ultimately leads to the generation of Aß peptides. Here, we provide evidence that altered BACE1 levels and activity impact the degradation of Aß40 and Aß42 into a common Aß34 intermediate. Using human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort, we show that Aß34 is elevated in individuals with mild cognitive impairment who later progressed to dementia. Furthermore, Aß34 levels correlate with the overall Aß clearance rates in amyloid positive individuals. Using CSF samples from the PREVENT-AD cohort (cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease), we further demonstrate that the Aß34/Aß42 ratio, representing Aß degradation and cortical deposition, associates with pre-clinical markers of neurodegeneration. We propose that Aß34 represents a marker of amyloid clearance and may be helpful for the characterization of Aß turnover in clinical samples.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteólise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(5): 655-665, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846386

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Four less well-studied but promising "emerging" cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are elevated in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD): neurogranin, synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40). METHODS: CSF neurogranin, SNAP-25, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 were measured in families carrying autosomal-dominant AD mutations. RESULTS: The four emerging CSF biomarkers were significantly elevated in the mutation carriers (n = 235) versus noncarriers (n = 145). CSF SNAP-25, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 were altered very early in the AD time course, approximately 15-19 years before estimated symptom onset. All CSF biomarkers predicted important AD-related outcomes including performance on a cognitive composite, brain amyloid burden as measured by amyloid positron emission tomography, and the estimated years from symptom onset. DISCUSSION: Early abnormalities in CSF tTau, pTau, SNAP-25, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 suggest that synaptic damage, neuronal injury, and neuroinflammation begin shortly after the commencement of brain amyloid accumulation.

7.
Brain ; 142(5): 1429-1440, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897203

RESUMO

Owing to an early and marked deposition of amyloid-ß in the basal ganglia, autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease could distinctly involve motor symptoms. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of motor signs in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Baseline Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part three scores (UPDRS-III) from 433 participants of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network observational study were analysed. Motor symptoms were scrutinized with respect to associations with mutation carrier status, mutation site within PSEN1, basal ganglia amyloid-ß as measured by Pittsburgh compound B PET, estimated years to symptom onset and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes. Motor findings in mutation carriers were compared to patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease using data of the National Alzheimer's Coordination Center. Mutation carriers showed motor findings at a higher frequency (28.4% versus 12.8%; P < 0.001) and severity (mean UPDRS-III scores 2.0 versus 0.4; P < 0.001) compared to non-carriers. Eleven of the 27 UPDRS-III items were statistically more frequently affected in mutation carriers after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Ten of these 11 items were subscale components of bradykinesia. In cognitively asymptomatic mutation carriers, dysdiadochokinesia was more frequent compared to non-carriers (right hand: 3.8% versus 0%; adjusted P = 0.023; left: 4.4% versus 0.6%; adjusted P = 0.031). In this cohort, the positive predictive value for mutation carrier status in cognitively asymptomatic participants (50% a priori risk) of dysdiadochokinesia was 100% for the right and 87.5% for the left side. Mutation carriers with motor findings more frequently were basal ganglia amyloid-ß positive (84% versus 63.3%; P = 0.006) and showed more basal ganglia amyloid-ß deposition (Pittsburgh compound B-standardized uptake value ratio 2.472 versus 1.928; P = 0.002) than those without. Frequency and severity of motor findings were greater in post-codon 200 PSEN1 mutations (36%; mean UPDRS-III score 3.03) compared to mutations pre-codon 200 PSEN1 (19.3%, P = 0.022; 0.91, P = 0.013). In mutation carriers, motor symptom severity was significantly positively correlated with basal ganglia amyloid-ß deposition, Clinical Dementia Rating scores and estimated years to symptom onset. Mutation carriers with a Clinical Dementia Rating global score of 2 exhibited more pronounced motor symptoms than sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients with the same Clinical Dementia Rating global score (mean UPDRS-III scores 20.71 versus 5.96; P < 0.001). With a prevalence of approximately 30% and increasing severity with progression of dementia, motor symptoms are proven as a clinically relevant finding in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, in particular in advanced dementia stages, that correlates with deposition of amyloid-ß in the basal ganglia. In a very small per cent of cognitively asymptomatic members of families with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, dysdiadochokinesia may increase the chance of an individual's status as mutation carrier.

8.
Brain ; 142(4): 1063-1076, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753379

RESUMO

Tauopathy is a hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease with a strong relationship with cognitive impairment. As such, understanding tau may be a key to clinical interventions. In vivo tauopathy has been measured using cerebrospinal fluid assays, but these do not provide information about where pathology is in the brain. The introduction of PET ligands that bind to paired helical filaments provides the ability to measure the amount and distribution of tau pathology. The heritability of the age of dementia onset tied to the specific mutations found in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease families provides an elegant model to study the spread of tau across the course of the disease as well as the cross-modal relationship between tau and other biomarkers. To better understand the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease we measured levels of tau PET binding in individuals with dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN). We examined cross-sectional measures of amyloid-ß, tau, glucose metabolism, and grey matter degeneration in 15 cognitively normal mutation non-carriers, 20 asymptomatic carriers, and 15 symptomatic mutation carriers. Linear models examined the association of pathology with group, estimated years to symptom onset, as well as cross-modal relationships. For comparison, tau PET was acquired on 17 older adults with sporadic, late onset Alzheimer disease. Tau PET binding was starkly elevated in symptomatic DIAN individuals throughout the cortex. The brain areas demonstrating elevated tau PET binding overlapped with those seen in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, but with a greater cortical involvement and greater levels of binding despite similar cognitive impairment. Tau PET binding was elevated in the temporal lobe, but the most prominent loci of pathology were in the precuneus and lateral parietal regions. Symptomatic mutation carriers also demonstrated elevated tau PET binding in the basal ganglia, consistent with prior work with amyloid-ß. The degree of tau tracer binding in symptomatic individuals was correlated to other biomarkers, particularly markers of neurodegeneration. In addition to the differences seen with tau, amyloid-ß was increased in both asymptomatic and symptomatic groups relative to non-carriers. Glucose metabolism showed decline primarily in the symptomatic group. MRI indicated structural degeneration in both asymptomatic and symptomatic cohorts. We demonstrate that tau PET binding is elevated in symptomatic individuals with dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. Tau PET uptake was tied to the onset of cognitive dysfunction, and there was a higher amount, and different regional pattern of binding compared to late onset, non-familial Alzheimer's disease.

9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(4): 506-514, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Staging preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) by the expected years to symptom onset (EYO) in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) through biomarker correlations is important. METHODS: We estimated the correlation matrix between EYO/cognition and imaging/CSF biomarkers, and searched for the EYO cutoff where a change in the correlations occurred before and after the cutoff among the asymptomatic mutation carriers of ADAD. We then estimated the longitudinal rate of change for biomarkers/cognition within each preclinical stage defined by the EYO. RESULTS: Based on the change in the correlations, the preclinical ADAD was divided by EYOs -7 and -13 years. Mutation carriers demonstrated a temporal ordering of biomarker/cognition changes across the three preclinical stages. DISCUSSION: Duration of each preclinical stage can be estimated in ADAD, facilitating better planning of prevention trials with the EYO cutoffs under the recently released FDA guidance. The generalization of these results to sporadic AD warrants further investigation.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(8): 3251-3255, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718410

RESUMO

Sex differences influence brain morphology and physiology during both development and aging. Here we apply a machine learning algorithm to a multiparametric brain PET imaging dataset acquired in a cohort of 20- to 82-year-old, cognitively normal adults (n = 205) to define their metabolic brain age. We find that throughout the adult life span the female brain has a persistently lower metabolic brain age-relative to their chronological age-compared with the male brain. The persistence of relatively younger metabolic brain age in females throughout adulthood suggests that development might in part influence sex differences in brain aging. Our results also demonstrate that trajectories of natural brain aging vary significantly among individuals and provide a method to measure this.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 76: 18-23, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616208

RESUMO

Our objective was to assess the reported history of seizures in cognitively asymptomatic mutation carriers for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) and the predictive value of seizures for mutation carrier status in cognitively asymptomatic first-degree relatives of ADAD patients. Seizure occurrence in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study was correlated with mutation carrier status in cognitively asymptomatic subjects. Of 276 cognitively asymptomatic individuals, 11 (4%) had experienced seizures, and nine of these carried an ADAD mutation. Thus, in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network population, seizure frequency in mutation carriers was significantly higher than in noncarriers (p = 0.04), and the positive predictive value of seizures for the presence of a pathogenic mutation was 81.8%. Among cognitively asymptomatic ADAD family members, the occurrence of seizures increases the a priori risk of 50% mutation-positive status to about 80%. This finding suggests that ADAD mutations increase the risk of seizures.

12.
Nat Med ; 25(2): 277-283, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664784

RESUMO

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising fluid biomarker of disease progression for various cerebral proteopathies. Here we leverage the unique characteristics of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network and ultrasensitive immunoassay technology to demonstrate that NfL levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (n = 187) and serum (n = 405) are correlated with one another and are elevated at the presymptomatic stages of familial Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal, within-person analysis of serum NfL dynamics (n = 196) confirmed this elevation and further revealed that the rate of change of serum NfL could discriminate mutation carriers from non-mutation carriers almost a decade earlier than cross-sectional absolute NfL levels (that is, 16.2 versus 6.8 years before the estimated symptom onset). Serum NfL rate of change peaked in participants converting from the presymptomatic to the symptomatic stage and was associated with cortical thinning assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, but less so with amyloid-ß deposition or glucose metabolism (assessed by positron emission tomography). Serum NfL was predictive for both the rate of cortical thinning and cognitive changes assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Logical Memory test. Thus, NfL dynamics in serum predict disease progression and brain neurodegeneration at the early presymptomatic stages of familial Alzheimer's disease, which supports its potential utility as a clinically useful biomarker.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Degeneração Neural/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/genética
13.
Neurobiol Aging ; 75: 42-50, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530186

RESUMO

The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOE4 may have effects on cognition and brain atrophy years before the onset of symptomatic AD. We analyzed the effects of APOE4 in a unique cohort of young adults who had undergone comprehensive assessments as part of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), an international longitudinal study of individuals from families with autosomal dominant AD. We analyzed the effect of an APOE4 allele on cognitive measures, volumetric MRI, amyloid deposition, glucose metabolism, and on cerebrospinal fluid levels of AD biomarkers in 162 participants that did not carry the mutant gene (noncarriers). APOE4+ and APOE4- mutation noncarriers had similar performance on cognitive measures. Amyloid deposition began at an earlier age in APOE4+ participants, whereas hippocampal volume was similar between the groups. These preliminary findings are consistent with growing evidence that the APOE4 allele may exert effects in midlife years before symptom onset, promoting amyloid deposition before altering cognitive performance or brain structure.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neuroimagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alelos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Atrofia/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 10: 669-677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417072

RESUMO

Introduction: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is commonly used to estimate neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluate the utility of dynamic PET measures of perfusion using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to estimate neuronal injury in comparison to FDG PET. Methods: FDG, early frames of PiB images, and relative PiB delivery rate constants (PiB-R1) were obtained from 110 participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Voxelwise, regional cross-sectional, and longitudinal analyses were done to evaluate the correlation between images and estimate the relationship of the imaging biomarkers with estimated time to disease progression based on family history. Results: Metabolism and perfusion images were spatially correlated. Regional PiB-R1 values and FDG, but not early frames of PiB images, significantly decreased in the mutation carriers with estimated year to onset and with increasing dementia severity. Discussion: Hypometabolism estimated by PiB-R1 may provide a measure of brain perfusion without increasing radiation exposure.

15.
EMBO Mol Med ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482868

RESUMO

Progranulin (PGRN) is predominantly expressed by microglia in the brain, and genetic and experimental evidence suggests a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked whether PGRN expression is changed in a disease severity-specific manner in AD We measured PGRN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in two of the best-characterized AD patient cohorts, namely the Dominant Inherited Alzheimer's Disease Network (DIAN) and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). In carriers of AD causing dominant mutations, cross-sectionally assessed CSF PGRN increased over the course of the disease and significantly differed from non-carriers 10 years before the expected symptom onset. In late-onset AD, higher CSF PGRN was associated with more advanced disease stages and cognitive impairment. Higher CSF PGRN was associated with higher CSF soluble TREM2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) only when there was underlying pathology, but not in controls. In conclusion, we demonstrate that, although CSF PGRN is not a diagnostic biomarker for AD, it may together with sTREM2 reflect microglial activation during the disease.

16.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 130, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477568

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence demonstrating higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) α-synuclein (αSyn) levels and αSyn pathology in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suggests that αSyn is involved in the pathophysiology of AD. To investigate whether αSyn could be related to specific aspects of the pathophysiology present in both sporadic and familial disease, we quantified CSF levels of αSyn and assessed links to various disease parameters in a longitudinally followed cohort (n = 136) including patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, and in a cross-sectional sample from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (n = 142) including participants carrying autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) gene mutations and their non-mutation carrying family members.Our results show that sporadic MCI patients that developed AD over a period of two years exhibited higher baseline αSyn levels (p = 0.03), which inversely correlated to their Mini-Mental State Examination scores, compared to cognitively normal controls (p = 0.02). In the same patients, there was a dose-dependent positive association between CSF αSyn and the APOEε4 allele. Further, CSF αSyn levels were higher in symptomatic ADAD mutation carriers versus non-mutation carriers (p = 0.03), and positively correlated to the estimated years from symptom onset (p = 0.05) across all mutation carriers. In asymptomatic (Clinical Dementia Rating < 0.5) PET amyloid-positive ADAD mutation carriers CSF αSyn was positively correlated to 11C-Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) retention in several brain regions including the posterior cingulate, superior temporal and frontal cortical areas. Importantly, APOEε4-positive ADAD mutation carriers exhibited an association between CSF αSyn levels and mean cortical PiB retention (p = 0.032). In both the sporadic AD and ADAD cohorts we found several associations predominantly between CSF levels of αSyn, tau and amyloid-ß1-40.Our results suggest that higher CSF αSyn levels are linked to AD pathophysiology at the early stages of disease development and to the onset of cognitive symptoms in both sporadic and autosomal dominant AD. We conclude that APOEε4 may promote the processes driven by αSyn, which in turn may reflect on molecular mechanisms linked to the asymptomatic build-up of amyloid plaque burden in brain regions involved in the early stages of AD development.

17.
Brain ; 141(10): 3065-3080, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239611

RESUMO

White matter alterations are present in the majority of patients with Alzheimer's disease type dementia. However, the spatiotemporal pattern of white matter changes preceding dementia symptoms in Alzheimer's disease remains unclear, largely due to the inherent diagnostic uncertainty in the preclinical phase and increased risk of confounding age-related vascular disease and stroke in late-onset Alzheimer's disease. In early-onset autosomal-dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease, participants are destined to develop dementia, which provides the opportunity to assess brain changes years before the onset of symptoms, and in the absence of ageing-related vascular disease. Here, we assessed mean diffusivity alterations in the white matter in 64 mutation carriers compared to 45 non-carrier family non-carriers. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we mapped the interaction of mutation status by estimated years from symptom onset on mean diffusivity. For major atlas-derived fibre tracts, we determined the earliest time point at which abnormal mean diffusivity changes in the mutation carriers were detectable. Lastly, we assessed the association between mean diffusivity and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of amyloid, tau, phosphorylated-tau, and soluble TREM2, i.e. a marker of microglia activity. Results showed a significant interaction of mutations status by estimated years from symptom onset, i.e. a stronger increase of mean diffusivity, within the posterior parietal and medial frontal white matter in mutation carriers compared with non-carriers. The earliest increase of mean diffusivity was observed in the forceps major, forceps minor and long projecting fibres-many connecting default mode network regions-between 5 to 10 years before estimated symptom onset. Higher mean diffusivity in fibre tracts was associated with lower grey matter volume in the tracts' projection zones. Global mean diffusivity was correlated with lower cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-ß1-42 but higher levels of tau, phosphorylated-tau and soluble TREM2. Together, these results suggest that regionally selective white matter degeneration occurs years before the estimated symptom onset. Such white matter alterations are associated with primary Alzheimer's disease pathology and microglia activity in the brain.

18.
Neurology ; 91(14): e1295-e1306, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the onset, sequence, and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease (AD) using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, CSF, and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 [±1.1] visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals' estimated years to symptom onset and to compare mutation carriers and noncarriers. RESULTS: Longitudinal ß-amyloid measures changed first (starting 25 years before estimated symptom onset), followed by declines in measures of cortical metabolism (approximately 7-10 years later), then cognition and hippocampal atrophy (approximately 20 years later). There were significant differences in the estimates of CSF p-tau181 and tau, with elevations from cross-sectional estimates preceding longitudinal estimates by over 10 years; further, longitudinal estimates identified a significant decline in CSF p-tau181 near symptom onset as opposed to continued elevations. CONCLUSION: These longitudinal estimates clarify the sequence and temporal dynamics of presymptomatic pathologic changes in autosomal dominant AD, information critical to a better understanding of the disease. The pattern of biomarker changes identified here also suggests that once ß-amyloidosis begins, additional pathologies may begin to develop less than 10 years later, but more than 15 years before symptom onset, an important consideration for interventions meant to alter the disease course.

19.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(11): 1427-1437, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about effects of physical activity (PA) in genetically driven early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 372 individuals participating at the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network study were examined to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship of PA with cognitive performance, functional status, cognitive decline, and AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Mutation carriers were categorized as high or low exercisers according to WHO recommendations. RESULTS: Mutation carriers with high PA showed significantly better cognitive and functional performance and significantly less AD-like pathology in cerebrospinal fluid than individuals with low PA. Mutation carriers with high PA scored 3.4 points better on Mini Mental State Examination at expected symptom onset and fulfilled the diagnosis of very mild dementia 15.1 years later compared with low exercisers. DISCUSSION: These results support a beneficial effect of PA on cognition and AD pathology even in individuals with genetically driven autosomal dominant AD.

20.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 10(1): 69, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) cause autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer disease (ADAD). More than 280 pathogenic mutations have been reported in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. However, understanding of the basic biological mechanisms that drive the disease are limited. The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international observational study of APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutation carriers with the goal of determining the sequence of changes in presymptomatic mutation carriers who are destined to develop Alzheimer disease. RESULTS: We generated a library of 98 dermal fibroblast lines from 42 ADAD families enrolled in DIAN. We have reprogrammed a subset of the DIAN fibroblast lines into patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. These cells were thoroughly characterized for pluripotency markers. CONCLUSIONS: This library represents a comprehensive resource that can be used for disease modeling and the development of novel therapeutics.

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