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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445313

RESUMO

High levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in tumors correlate with poor outcomes with several types of cancers due to HA-driven support of adhesion, migration and proliferation of cells. In this study we explored how to enhance the degradation of HA into low-molecular fragments, which cannot prevent the immune system to fight tumor proliferation and metastases. The physiological solution of HA was exposed to oxidative degradation by ascorbate and cupric ions in the presence of either one of three ortho isomeric Mn(III) substituted N-alkyl- and alkoxyalkylpyridylporphyrins or para isomeric Mn(III) N-methylpyridyl analog, commonly known as mimics of superoxide dismutase. The changes in hyaluronan degradation kinetics by four Mn(III) porphyrins were monitored by measuring the alteration in the dynamic viscosity of the HA solution. The ortho compounds MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010, AEOL10113), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001) and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ are able to redox cycle with ascorbate whereby producing H2O2 which is subsequently coupled with Cu(I) to produce the •OH radical essential for HA degradation. Conversely, with the para analog, MnTM-4-PyP5+, no catalysis of HA degradation was demonstrated, due to its inertness towards redox cycling with ascorbate. The impact of different Mn(III)-porphyrins on the HA decay was further clarified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. The ability to catalyze the degradation of HA in a biological milieu, in the presence of cupric ions and ascorbate under the conditions of high tumor oxidative stress provides further insight into the anticancer potential of redox-active ortho isomeric Mn(III) porphyrins.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Cobre/química , Magnésio/química , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Redox Rep ; 26(1): 85-93, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how modifications at the periphery of the porphyrin ring affect the anticancer activity of Mn porphyrins (MnPs)-based SOD mimics. METHODS: Six compounds: MnTE-2-PyP with a short ethyl chain on the pyridyl ring; MnTnHexOE-2-PyP and MnTnOct-2-PyP with linear 8-atom alkyl chains, but the former with an oxygen atom within the alkyl chain; MnTE-2-PyPhP and MnTPhE-2-PyP with pyridyl and phenyl substituents, were investigated. Cytotoxicity was studied using pII and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. Viability was assessed by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and cell proliferation was determined by the sulforhodamine B assay. RESULTS: Cellular uptake was increased with the increase of the lipophilicity of the compounds, whereas reduction potential (E½) of the Mn(III)/Mn(II) redox couple shifted away from the optimal value for efficient redox cycling with ascorbate, necessary for ROS production. Amphiphilic MnPs, however, exerted anticancer activity by a mechanism not involving ROS. CONCLUSION: Two different processes account for MnPs cytotoxicity. MnPs with appropriate E½ act via a ROS-dependent mechanism. Amphiphilic MnPs with suitable structure damage sensitive cellular constituents, leading to the suppression of proliferation and loss of viability. Design of compounds interacting directly with sensitive cellular targets is highly promising in the development of anticancer drugs with high selectivity and specificity.

3.
J Inorg Biochem ; 219: 111431, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798828

RESUMO

Oxidative stress that results from an imbalance between the concentrations of reactive species (RS) and antioxidant defenses is associated with many pathologies. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase are among the key enzymes that maintain the low nanomolar physiological concentrations of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The increase in the levels of these species and their progeny could have deleterious effects. In this context, chemists have developed SOD and CAT mimics to supplement them when cells are overwhelmed with oxidative stress. However, the beneficial activity of such molecules in cells depends not only on their intrinsic catalytic activities but also on their stability in biological context, their cell penetration and their cellular localization. We have employed cellular assays to characterize several compounds that possess SOD and CAT activities and have been frequently used in cellular and animal models. We used cellular assays that address SOD and CAT activities of the compounds. Finally, we determined the effect of compounds on the suppression of the inflammation in HT29-MD2 cells challenged by lipopolysaccharide. When the assay requires penetration inside cells, the SOD mimics Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-(2'-n-butoxyethyl)pyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+) and Mn(II) dichloro[(4aR,13aR,17aR,21aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,12,13,13a,14,15,16,17,17a,18,19,20,21,21a-eicosahydro-11,7-nitrilo-7Hdibenzo[b,h] [1,4, 7,10] tetraazacycloheptadecine-κN5,κN13,κN18,κN21,κN22] (Imisopasem manganese, M40403, CG4419) were found efficacious at 10 µM, while Mn(II) chloro N-(phenolato)-N,N'-bis[2-(N-methyl-imidazolyl)methyl]-ethane-1,2-diamine (Mn1) requires an incubation at 100 µM. This study thus demonstrates that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+, M40403 and Mn1 were efficacious in suppressing inflammatory response in HT29-MD2 cells and such action appears to be related to their ability to enter the cells and modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.

4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6653790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815656

RESUMO

Mn(III) ortho-N-alkyl- and N-alkoxyalkyl porphyrins (MnPs) were initially developed as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics. These compounds were later shown to react with numerous reactive species (such as ONOO-, H2O2, H2S, CO3 •-, ascorbate, and GSH). Moreover, the ability of MnPs to oxidatively modify activities of numerous proteins has emerged as their major mechanism of action both in normal and in cancer cells. Among those proteins are transcription factors (NF-κB and Nrf2), mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs, antiapoptotic bcl-2, and endogenous antioxidative defenses. The lead Mn porphyrins, namely, MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010, AEOL10113), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001), and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+, were tested in numerous injuries of normal tissue and cellular and animal cancer models. The wealth of the data led to the progression of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ into four Phase II clinical trials on glioma, head and neck cancer, anal cancer, and multiple brain metastases, while MnTE-2-PyP5+ is in Phase II clinical trial on atopic dermatitis and itch.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Manganês/farmacologia , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Porfirinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Radiat Res ; 195(2): 128-139, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264413

RESUMO

Novel synthetic compounds, known as manganese porphyrins (MnPs), have been designed to shift the redox status of both normal cells and cancer cells. When MnPs are coupled with cancer therapies, such as radiation, they have been shown to sensitize tumor cells to treatment and protect normal tissues from damage through the modulation of the redox status of various tissue types. Until now, our preclinical studies have focused on local effects of MnPs and radiation; however, we recognize that successful outcomes for cancer patients involve control of tumor cells throughout the body. In this study, using murine orthotopic mammary tumor models, we investigated how MnPs and radiation influence the development of distant metastasis. We hypothesized that the combination of MnP (MnP/RT), such as MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ and radiation treatment (RT) would increase local tumor control via a shift in the intratumoral redox environment, leading to subsequent downregulation of HIF-1 in the primary tumor. Secondarily, we hypothesized that these primary tumor treatment effects would result in a reduction in pulmonary metastatic burden. Balb/c mice with orthotopic 4T1 mammary carcinomas were treated with saline, MnP, RT or MnP/RT. We found MnP/RT did extend local tumor growth delay and overall survival compared to controls and was associated with increased intratumoral oxidative stress. However, the primary tumor growth delay observed with MnP/RT was not associated with a reduced pulmonary metastatic burden. Future directions to investigate the effects of MnP/RT on the development of distant metastasis may include modifications to the radiation dose, the experimental timeline or using a murine mammary carcinoma cell line with a less aggressive metastatic behavior. Clinical trials are underway to investigate the clinical utility of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ for patients undergoing radiotherapy for various tumor types. The promising preclinical data from this study, as well as others, provides support that MnP/RT has the potential to improve local tumor control for these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Carcinoma/radioterapia , Metaloporfirinas/farmacologia , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Manganês/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Porfirinas/farmacologia
6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050461

RESUMO

Widespread antibiotic resistance demands new strategies for fighting infections. Porphyrin-based compounds were long ago introduced as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, but light-independent antimicrobial activity of such compounds has not been systematically explored. The results of this study demonstrate that synthetic cationic amphiphilic iron N-alkylpyridylporphyrins exert strong bactericidal action at concentrations as low as 5 µM. Iron porphyrin, FeTnHex-2-PyP, which is well tolerated by laboratory animals, efficiently killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. Its bactericidal activity was oxygen-independent and was controlled by the lipophilicity and accumulation of the compound in bacterial cells. Such behavior is in contrast with the anionic gallium protoporphyrin IX, whose efficacy depends on cellular heme uptake systems. Under aerobic conditions, however, the activity of FeTnHex-2-PyP was limited by its destruction due to redox-cycling. Neither iron released from the Fe-porphyrin nor other decomposition products were the cause of the bactericidal activity. FeTnHex-2-PyP was as efficient against antibiotic-sensitive E. coli and S. aureus as against their antibiotic-resistant counterparts. Our data demonstrate that development of amphiphilic, positively charged metalloporphyrins might be a promising approach in the introduction of new weapons against antibiotic-resistant strains.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492872

RESUMO

Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, (H2O)MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnHex) carrying long hexyl chains, is a lipophilic mimic of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a redox-active drug candidate. MnHex crosses the blood-brain barrier, and improved neurologic outcome and decreased infarct size and inflammation in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke model. Yet, the dose and the therapeutic efficacy of Mn porphyrin were limited by an adverse effect of arterial hypotension. An equally lipophilic Fe analog, (OH)FeTnHex-2-PyP4+ (FeHex), is as redox-active and potent SOD mimic in vitro. With different coordination geometry of the metal site, FeHex has one hydroxo (OH) ligand (instead of water) bound to the Fe center in the axial position. It has ~2 orders of magnitude higher efficacy than MnHex in an SOD-deficient E. coli model of oxidative stress. In vivo, it does not cause arterial hypotension and is less toxic to mice. We thus evaluated FeHex versus MnHex in a rodent MCAO model. We first performed short- and long-term pharmacokinetics (PK) of both porphyrins in the plasma, brain, and liver of rats and mice. Given that damage to the brain during stroke occurs very rapidly, fast delivery of a sufficient dose of drug is important. Therefore, we aimed to demonstrate if, and how fast after reperfusion, Fe porphyrin reaches the brain relative to the Mn analog. A markedly different plasma half-life was found with FeHex (~23 h) than with MnHex (~1.4 h), which resulted in a more than 2-fold higher plasma exposure (AUC) in a 7-day twice-daily treatment of rats. The increased plasma half-life is explained by the much lower liver retention of FeHex than typically found in Mn analogs. In the brain, a 3-day mouse PK study showed similar levels of MnHex and FeHex. The same result was obtained in a 7-day rat PK study, despite the higher plasma exposure of FeHex. Importantly, in a short-term PK study with treatment starting 2 h post MCAO, both Fe- and Mn- analogs distributed at a higher level to the injured brain hemisphere, with a more pronounced effect observed with FeHex. While a 3-day mouse MCAO study suggested the efficacy of Fe porphyrin, in a 7-day rat MCAO study, Mn-, but not Fe porphyrin, was efficacious. The observed lack of FeHex efficacy was discussed in terms of significant differences in the chemistry of Fe vs the Mn center of metalloporphyrin; relative to MnHex, FeHex has the propensity for axial coordination, which in vivo would preclude the reactivity of the Fe center towards small reactive species.

8.
Blood Adv ; 4(11): 2372-2386, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479589

RESUMO

In sickle cell disease (SCD), adhesion of sickle red blood cells (SSRBCs) and activated leukocytes in inflamed venules affects blood rheology, causing vaso-occlusive manifestations and vital reduction in microvascular blood flow. Recently, we found that NADPH oxidases (NOXs) create a vicious feedback loop within SSRBCs. This positive feedback loop mediates SSRBC adhesion to the endothelium. We show for the first time the therapeutic effectiveness of the redox-active manganese (Mn) porphyrins MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnBuOE; BMX-001) and MnTE-2-PyP5+ (MnE; BMX-010, AEOL10113) to treat established vaso-occlusion in a humanized sickle mouse model of an acute vaso-occlusive crisis using intravital microscopy. These Mn porphyrins can suppress SSRBC NOX activity. Subcutaneous administration of only 1 dose of MnBuOE or MnE at 0.1 to 2 mg/kg after the inflammatory trigger of vaso-occlusion, or simultaneously, reversed and reduced leukocyte and SSRBC adhesion, diminished leukocyte rolling, restored blood flow, and increased survival rate. Furthermore, MnBuOE and MnE administered to sickle mice subcutaneously at 0.1 to 1 mg/kg for 28 days (except on weekends) did not exacerbate anemia, which seemed to be due to downregulation of both SSRBC reactive oxygen species production and exposure of the eryptotic marker phosphatidylserine. In addition, Mn porphyrins ameliorated leukocytosis, venous blood gases, endothelial activation, and organ oxidative damage. Our data suggest that Mn porphyrins, likely by repressing NOX-mediated adhesive function of SSRBCs and activated leukocytes, could represent a novel, safe therapeutic intervention to treat or prevent the establishment of acute pain crises. These NOX-targeted antioxidants merit further assessment in SCD clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , NADPH Oxidases , Porfirinas , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Adesão Celular , Eritrócitos Anormais , Camundongos , Porfirinas/uso terapêutico
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4850697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273944

RESUMO

Background: Cardiomyopathies remain among the leading causes of death worldwide, despite all efforts and important advances in the development of cardiovascular therapeutics, demonstrating the need for new solutions. Herein, we describe the effects of the redox-active therapeutic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, AEOL10113, BMX-010 (MnTE-2-PyP5+), on rat heart as an entry to new strategies to circumvent cardiomyopathies. Methods: Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, to analyze intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, L-type Ca2+ currents, Ca2+ spark frequency, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cardiomyocyte and cardiac contractility, in control and MnTE-2-PyP5+-treated cells, hearts, or animals. Cells and hearts were treated with 20 µM MnTE-2-PyP5+ and animals with 1 mg/kg, i.p. daily. Additionally, we performed electrocardiographic and echocardiographic analysis. Results: Using isolated rat cardiomyocytes, we observed that MnTE-2-PyP5+ reduced intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude, without altering cell contractility. Whereas MnTE-2-PyP5+ did not alter basal ROS levels, it was efficient in modulating cardiomyocyte redox state under stress conditions; MnTE-2-PyP5+ reduced Ca2+ spark frequency and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load. Accordingly, analysis of isolated perfused rat hearts showed that MnTE-2-PyP5+ preserves cardiac function, increases SR Ca2+ load, and reduces arrhythmia index, indicating an antiarrhythmic effect. In vivo experiments showed that MnTE-2-PyP5+ treatment increased Ca2+ transient, preserved cardiac ejection fraction, and reduced arrhythmia index and duration. MnTE-2-PyP5+ was effective both to prevent and to treat cardiac arrhythmias. Conclusion: MnTE-2-PyP5+ prevents and treats cardiac arrhythmias in rats. In contrast to most antiarrhythmic drugs, MnTE-2-PyP5+ preserves cardiac contractile function, arising, thus, as a prospective therapeutic for improvement of cardiac arrhythmia treatment.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloporfirinas/uso terapêutico , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098303

RESUMO

Manganese porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+, are superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics and form a redox cycle between O2 and reductants, including ascorbic acid, ultimately producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We previously found that MnPs oxidize hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to polysulfides (PS; H2Sn, n = 2-6) in buffer. Here, we examine the effects of MnPs for 24 h on H2S metabolism and PS production in HEK293, A549, HT29 and bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSC) using H2S (AzMC, MeRho-AZ) and PS (SSP4) fluorophores. All MnPs decreased intracellular H2S production and increased intracellular PS. H2S metabolism and PS production were unaffected by cellular O2 (5% versus 21% O2), H2O2 or ascorbic acid. We observed with confocal microscopy that mitochondria are a major site of H2S production in HEK293 cells and that MnPs decrease mitochondrial H2S production and increase PS in what appeared to be nucleoli and cytosolic fibrillary elements. This supports a role for MnPs in the metabolism of H2S to PS, the latter serving as both short- and long-term antioxidants, and suggests that some of the biological effects of MnPs may be attributable to sulfur metabolism.


Assuntos
Manganês/química , Porfirinas/química , Enxofre/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Manganês/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/química , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Enxofre/química
11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842297

RESUMO

Manganese-centered porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (MnTE), MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnTnHex), and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnTnBuOE) have received considerable attention because of their ability to serve as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics thereby producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and oxidants of ascorbate and simple aminothiols or protein thiols. MnTE-2-PyP5+ and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ are now in five Phase II clinical trials warranting further exploration of their rich redox-based biology. Previously, we reported that SOD is also a sulfide oxidase catalyzing the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to hydrogen persulfide (H2S2) and longer-chain polysulfides (H2Sn, n = 3-7). We hypothesized that MnPs may have similar actions on sulfide metabolism. H2S and polysulfides were monitored in fluorimetric assays with 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin (AzMC) and 3',6'-di(O-thiosalicyl)fluorescein (SSP4), respectively, and specific polysulfides were further identified by mass spectrometry. MnPs concentration-dependently consumed H2S and produced H2S2 and subsequently longer-chain polysulfides. This reaction appeared to be O2-dependent. MnP absorbance spectra exhibited wavelength shifts in the Soret and Q bands characteristic of sulfide-mediated reduction of Mn. Taken together, our results suggest that MnPs can become efficacious activators of a variety of cytoprotective processes by acting as sulfide oxidation catalysts generating per/polysulfides.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627290

RESUMO

Clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cancer. The importance of oxidative stress in the context of this disease has been described, although there is only little information concerning the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. The importance of SOD in different pathological conditions promoted the development of SOD mimics (SODm). As such, manganese(III) porphyrins can mimic the natural SOD enzymes and scavenge different reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus modulating the cellular redox status. In this study, the exposure of 786-O human renal cancer cells to MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnP), a very promising SODm, led to a concentration and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and in the cell proliferation indices, as well as to an increase in apoptosis. No relevant effects in terms of micronuclei formation were observed. Moreover, the exposure to MnP resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular ROS, presumably due to the generation of H2O2 by the inherent redox mechanisms of MnP, along with the limited ability of cancer cells to detoxify this species. Although the MnP treatment did not result in a reduction in the collective cell migration, a significant decrease in chemotactic migration was observed. Overall, these results suggest that MnP has a beneficial impact on reducing renal cancer cell viability and migration and warrant further studies regarding SODm-based therapeutic strategies against human renal cancer.

13.
Redox Biol ; 25: 101139, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126869

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutases play an important role in human health and disease. Three decades of effort have gone into synthesizing SOD mimics for clinical use. The result is the Mn porphyrins which have SOD-like activity. Several clinical trials are underway to test the efficacy of these compounds in patients, particularly as radioprotectors of normal tissue during cancer treatment. However, aqueous chemistry data indicate that the Mn porphyrins react equally well with multiple redox active species in cells including H2O2, O2•-, ONOO-, thiols, and ascorbate among others. The redox potential of the Mn porphyrins is midway between the potentials for the oxidation and reduction of O2•-. This positions them to react equally well as oxidants and reductants in cells. The result of this unique chemistry is that: 1) the species the Mn porphyrins react with in vivo will depend on the relative concentrations of the reactive species and Mn porphyrins in the cell of interest, and 2) the Mn porphyrins will act as catalytic (redox cycling) agents in vivo. The ability of the Mn porphyrins to catalyze protein S-glutathionylation means that Mn porphyrins have the potential to globally modulate cellular redox regulatory signaling networks. The purpose of this review is to summarize the data that indicate the Mn porphyrins have diverse reactions in vivo that are the basis of the observed biological effects. The ability to catalyze multiple reactions in vivo expands the potential therapeutic use of the Mn porphyrins to disease models that are not SOD based.


Assuntos
Manganês/farmacologia , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Oxirredução , Termodinâmica
14.
J Biol Chem ; 294(17): 6831-6842, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858178

RESUMO

Mitochondria are major sites of energy metabolism that influence numerous cellular events, including immunity and cancer development. Previously, we reported that the mitochondrion-specific antioxidant enzyme, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), has dual roles in early- and late-carcinogenesis stages. However, how defective MnSOD impacts the chain of events that lead to cell transformation in pathologically normal epidermal cells that have been exposed to carcinogens is unknown. Here, we show that UVB radiation causes nitration and inactivation of MnSOD leading to mitochondrial injury and mitophagy. In keratinocytes, exposure to UVB radiation decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, increased glycolysis and the expression of autophagy-related genes, and enhanced AKT Ser/Thr kinase (AKT) phosphorylation and cell growth. Interestingly, UVB initiated a prosurvival mitophagy response by mitochondria-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling via the mammalian target of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) pathway. Knockdown of rictor but not raptor abrogated UVB-induced mitophagy responses. Furthermore, fractionation and proximity-ligation assays reveal that ROS-mediated mTOC2 activation in mitochondria is necessary for UVB-induced mitophagy. Importantly, pretreatment with the MnSOD mimic MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnP) attenuates mTORC2 activation and suppresses UVB-induced mitophagy. UVB radiation exposure also increased cell growth as assessed by soft-agar colony survival and cell growth assays, and pretreatment with MnP or the known autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine abrogated UVB-induced cell growth. These results indicate that MnSOD is a major redox regulator that maintains mitochondrial health and show that UVB-mediated MnSOD inactivation promotes mitophagy and thereby prevents accumulation of damaged mitochondria.


Assuntos
Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Mitofagia/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteína Companheira de mTOR Insensível à Rapamicina/fisiologia , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/fisiologia
15.
Redox Biol ; 25: 101097, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661992

RESUMO

In sickle cell disease (SCD), recurrent painful vasoocclusive crisis are likely caused by repeated episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation. The sickle erythrocyte (SSRBC) adhesion plays an active role in vasoocclusion. However, the effect of prolonged reoxygenation after hypoxic stress on the molecular mechanisms in SSRBCs involved in onset of episodic vasoocclusion remain unclear. Exposure of human SSRBCs to hypoxia followed by 2 h reoxygenation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using specific pharmacological inhibitors, we show that excess ROS production in both reticulocytes and mature SSRBCs is regulated by NADPH oxidases (NOXs), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2), and G-protein coupled-receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Consequently, SSRBC ROS create an intracellular positive feedback loop with ERK1/2 and GRK2 to mediate SSRBC adhesion to endothelium in vitro, and vasoocclusion in a mouse model of vasoocclusion in vivo. Importantly, reducing ROS levels in SSRBCs with redox-active manganese (Mn) porphyrins, commonly known as mimics of superoxide dismutase (SOD), disrupted the cycle created by ROS by affecting NOX and GRK2 activities and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, thus abrogating RBC-endothelial interactions. Inhibition adhesion assays show that LW (ICAM-4, CD242) blood group glycoprotein and CD44 are the RBC adhesion molecules mediating endothelial binding. Conversely, hypoxia/reoxygenation of normal RBCs failed to activate this feedback loop, and adhesion. These findings provide novel insights into the pathophysiological significance of the deleterious cycle created by NOX-dependent ROS, GRK2 and ERK1/2 within SSRBCs activated by hypoxia/reoxygenation, and involved in SSRBC adhesion and vasoocclusion. Thus, this loop in SSRBCs, which can be disrupted by Mn porphyrins, likely drives the profound SCD vasculopathy, and may point to new therapeutic targets to prevent chronic vasoocclusive events.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/enzimologia , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Doenças Vasculares/sangue , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Quinase 2 de Receptor Acoplado a Proteína G/metabolismo , Humanos , Nitrosação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Redox Biol ; 20: 367-378, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408752

RESUMO

Manganese(III) porphyrins (MnPs) are superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics with demonstrated beneficial effects in cancer treatment in combination with chemo- and radiotherapy regimens. Despite the ongoing clinical trials, little is known about the effect of MnPs on metastasis, being therefore essential to understand how MnPs affect this process. In the present work, the impact of the MnP MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ in metastasis-related processes was assessed in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), alone or in combination with doxorubicin (dox). The co-treatment of cells with non-cytotoxic concentrations of MnP and dox altered intracellular ROS, increasing H2O2. While MnP alone did not modify cell migration, the co-exposure led to a reduction in collective cell migration and chemotaxis. In addition, the MnP reduced the dox-induced increase in random migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with either MnP or dox decreased the proteolytic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, although the effect was more pronounced upon co-exposure with both compounds. Moreover, to explore the cellular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, cell adhesion, spreading, focal adhesions, and NF-κB activation were also studied. Although differential effects were observed according to the endpoints analysed, overall, the alterations induced by MnP in dox-treated cells were consistent with a therapeutically favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloporfirinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Metaloporfirinas/química , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
17.
Redox Biol ; 20: 307-320, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390545

RESUMO

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT), a widely used modality in the management of surgical and trauma wounds, offers clear benefits over conventional wound healing strategies. Despite the wide-ranging effects ascribed to NPWT, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the accelerated healing supported by NPWT remains poorly understood. Notably, cellular redox status-a product of the balance between cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and anti-oxidant defense systems-plays an important role in wound healing and dysregulation of redox homeostasis has a profound effect on wound healing. Here we investigated potential links between the use of NPWT and the regulation of antioxidant mechanisms. Using patient samples and a rodent model of acute injury, we observed a significant accumulation of MnSOD protein as well as higher enzymatic activity in tissues upon NPWT. As a proof of concept and to outline the important role of SOD activity in wound healing, we replaced NPWT by the topical application of a MnSOD mimetic, Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP5+, MnE, BMX-010, AEOl10113) in the rodent model. We observed that MnE is a potent wound healing enhancer as it appears to facilitate the formation of new tissue within the wound bed and consequently advances wound closure by two days, compared to the non-treated animals. Taken together, these results show for the first time a link between NPWT and regulation of antioxidant mechanism through the maintenance of MnSOD activity. Additionally this discovery outlined the potential role of MnSOD mimetics as topical agents enhancing wound healing.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mimetismo Biológico , Biomimética , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Metaloporfirinas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 29(1): 72-80, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573187

RESUMO

Symptomatic normal tissue injury is a common side effect following definitive therapeutic radiation and chemotherapy treatment for a variety of malignancies. These cancer therapy related toxicities may occur acutely during treatment resulting in reduced or missed therapy agent administration or after the completion of therapy resulting in significant chronic morbidities that significantly diminish patient quality of life. Radiation and chemotherapy induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) both in normal tissues and tumor cells. One type of ROS common to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy is the formation of superoxide (O2•-). Fortunately, due to metabolic differences between cancer and normal cell metabolism, as well as improved targeting techniques, ROS generation following radiation and chemotherapy is generally greater in cancer cells compared to normal tissues. However, the levels of ROS generated in normal tissues are capable of inducing significant toxicity. Thus, several groups are focusing on metabolism-based approaches to mitigate normal tissue effects occurring both during and following cancer therapy. This review will summarize the most current preclinical and clinical data available demonstrating the efficacy of small molecule, superoxide dismutase mimetics in minimizing radiation and chemotherapy-induced normal tissue injury, resulting in enhanced patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(20): e007861, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371255

RESUMO

Background Aortic valve sclerosis ( AVS c), the early asymptomatic presentation of calcific aortic valve (AV) disease, affects 25% to 30% of patients aged >65 years. In vitro and ex vivo experiments with antioxidant strategies and antagonists of osteogenic differentiation revealed that AVS c is reversible. In this study, we characterized the underlying changes in the extracellular matrix architecture and valve interstitial cell activation in AVSc and tested in vitro and in vivo the activity of a clinically approved SOD (superoxide dismutase) mimic and redox-active drug MnTnBu OE -2-PyP5+ ( BMX -001). Methods and Results After receiving informed consent, samples from patients with AVS c, AV stenosis, and controls were collected. Uniaxial mechanical stimulation and in vitro studies on human valve interstitial cells were performed. An angiotensin II chronic infusion model was used to impose AV thickening and remodeling. We characterized extracellular matrix structures by small-angle light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, histology, and mass spectrometry. Diseased human valves showed altered collagen fiber alignment and ultrastructural changes in AVS c, accumulation of oxidized cross-linking products in AV stenosis, and reversible expression of extracellular matrix regulators ex vivo. We demonstrated that MnTnBu OE -2-PyP5+ inhibits human valve interstitial cell activation and extracellular matrix remodeling in a murine model (C57 BL /6J) of AVS c by electron microscopy and histology. Conclusions AVS c is associated with architectural remodeling despite marginal effects on the mechanical properties in both human and mice. MnTnBu OE -2-PyP5+ controls AV thickening in a murine model of AVS c. Because this compound has been approved recently for clinical use, this work could shift the focus for the treatment of calcific AV disease, moving from AV stenosis to an earlier presentation ( AVS c) that could be more responsive to medical therapies.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/patologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Metaloporfirinas/farmacologia , Idoso , Animais , Valva Aórtica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/prevenção & controle , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose/prevenção & controle , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
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