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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2054: 93-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482449

RESUMO

The revelation of stable microRNA (miRNA) species in body fluids has led to the speculation of disease-related alterations in miRNA expression levels as indicative of disease state making them attractive minimally invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and other diseases. Although miRNA expression profiling in body fluids holds great promise, working with low amounts of RNA in plasma and serum represents several challenges during purification, relative quantification, normalization, and data analysis. Here, we present an experimental protocol for miRNA profiling in plasma using plasma/serum-specific miRNA purification and RT-qPCR to identify potential miRNA biomarkers. We also discuss the challenges encountered during the miRNA profiling process and provide recommendations for robust purification and relative quantification of miRNAs in patient plasma samples.

2.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1090-1101, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to regulate cancer metabolism by regulating genes involved in metabolic pathways. Understanding this layer of complexity could lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. CONTENT: miRNAs are noncoding RNAs that have been implicated as master regulators of gene expression. Studies have revealed the role of miRNAs in the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, with several miRNAs both positively and negatively regulating multiple metabolic genes. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, aerobic glycolysis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and altered autophagy allow tumor cells to survive under adverse conditions. In addition, major signaling molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphatase and tensin homolog, and insulin signaling pathways facilitate metabolic adaptation in tumor cells and are all regulated by miRNAs. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNA mimics or inhibitors could be used to modulate the activity of miRNAs that drive tumor progression via altering their metabolism. Currently, several clinical trials investigating the role of miRNA-based therapy for cancer have been launched that may lead to novel therapeutic interventions in the future. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize cancer-related metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolism-related oncogenic signaling pathways, and their regulation by miRNAs that are known to lead to tumorigenesis. Further, we discuss the current state of miRNA therapeutics in the clinic and their future potential.

3.
Clin Chem ; 65(6): 771-780, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs mediate biological processes through preferential binding to the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of target genes. Studies have shown their association with prostate cancer (PCa) risk through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), known as miRSNPs. In a European cohort, 22 PCa risk-associated miRSNPs have been identified. The most significant miRSNP in the 3' UTR of Kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3) created a binding site for miR-3162-5p. Here we investigated the miR-3162-5p-KLK interaction and the clinical implication of miR-3162-5p in PCa. METHODS: We tested the role of miR-3162-5p in PCa etiology using IncuCyte live-cell imaging and anchorage-independent growth assays. The effect of miR-3162-5p on KLK and androgen receptor (AR) expression was measured by RT-quantitative (q)PCR and target pulldown assays. KLK3 proteolytic activity was determined by DELFIA® immunoassay. Mass spectrometry identified pathways affected by miR-3162-5p. miR-3162-5p expression was measured in clinical samples using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: miR-3162-5p affected proliferation, migration, and colony formation of LNCaP cells by regulating the expression of KLK2-4 and AR by direct targeting. KLK3 protein expression was regulated by miR-3162-5p consistent with lower KLK3 proteolytic activity observed in LNCaP-conditioned media. KLK/AR pulldown and mass spectrometry analysis showed a potential role of miR-3162-5p in metabolic pathways via KLK/AR and additional targets. Increased miR-3162-5p expression was observed in prostate tumor tissues with higher Gleason grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an insight into possible involvement of miR-3162-5p in PCa etiology by targeting KLKs and AR. It highlights clinical utility of miR-3162-5p and its interactive axis as a new class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets for PCa.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845775

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, accounting for almost 1 in 5 new cancer diagnoses in the US alone. The current non-invasive biomarker prostate specific antigen (PSA) has lately been presented with many limitations, such as low specificity and often associated with over-diagnosis. The dysregulation of miRNAs in cancer has been widely reported and it has often been shown to be specific, sensitive and stable, suggesting miRNAs could be a potential specific biomarker for the disease. Previously, we identified four miRNAs that are significantly upregulated in plasma from PCa patients when compared to healthy controls: miR-98-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-326 and miR-4289. This panel showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting PCa (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.88). To investigate the specificity of these miRNAs as biomarkers for PCa, we undertook an in depth analysis on these miRNAs in cancer from the existing literature and data. Additionally, we explored their prognostic value found in the literature when available. Most studies showed these miRNAs are downregulated in cancer and this is often associated with cancer progression and poorer overall survival rate. These results suggest our four miRNA signatures could potentially become a specific PCa diagnostic tool of which prognostic potential should also be explored.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Regulação para Cima , Área Sob a Curva , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
8.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 19(1): 46-59, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538273

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in deciphering the genetic component of predisposition to many human complex diseases including prostate cancer. Germline variants identified by GWAS progressively unravelled the substantial knowledge gap concerning prostate cancer heritability. With the beginning of the post-GWAS era, more and more studies reveal that, in addition to their value as risk markers, germline variants can exert active roles in prostate oncogenesis. Consequently, current research efforts focus on exploring the biological mechanisms underlying specific susceptibility loci known as causal variants by applying novel and precise analytical methods to available GWAS data. Results obtained from these post-GWAS analyses have highlighted the potential of exploiting prostate cancer risk-associated germline variants to identify new gene networks and signalling pathways involved in prostate tumorigenesis. In this Review, we describe the molecular basis of several important prostate cancer-causal variants with an emphasis on using post-GWAS analysis to gain insight into cancer aetiology. In addition to discussing the current status of post-GWAS studies, we also summarize the main molecular mechanisms of potential causal variants at prostate cancer risk loci and explore the major challenges in moving from association to functional studies and their implication in clinical translation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Clin Chem ; 65(1): e1-e9, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic association studies have reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 19q13.3 to be associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Recently, the rs61752561 SNP (Asp84Asn substitution) in exon 3 of the kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3) gene encoding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was reported to be strongly associated with PCa risk (P = 2.3 × 10-8). However, the biological contribution of the rs61752561 SNP to PCa risk has not been elucidated. METHODS: Recombinant PSA protein variants were generated to assess the SNP-mediated biochemical changes by stability and substrate activity assays. PC3 cell-PSA overexpression models were established to evaluate the effect of the SNP on PCa pathogenesis. Genotype-specific correlation of the SNP with total PSA (tPSA) concentrations and free/total (F/T) PSA ratio were determined from serum samples. RESULTS: Functional analysis showed that the rs61752561 SNP affects PSA stability and structural conformation and creates an extra glycosylation site. This PSA variant had reduced enzymatic activity and the ability to stimulate proliferation and migration of PCa cells. Interestingly, the minor allele is associated with lower tPSA concentrations and high F/T PSA ratio in serum samples, indicating that the amino acid substitution may affect PSA immunoreactivity to the antibodies used in the clinical immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: The rs61752561 SNP appears to have a potential role in PCa pathogenesis by changing the glycosylation, protein stability, and PSA activity and may also affect the clinically measured F/T PSA ratio. Accounting for these effects on tPSA concentration and F/T PSA ratio may help to improve the accuracy of the current PSA test.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1319, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505274

RESUMO

Alternative therapies against cancer cells with minimal or no effect on healthy tissues are highly sought after. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in males. The Carica papaya L. leaf extract has been traditionally used by Australian aboriginal people for anticancer properties. In this study, medium polar fraction of papaya leaf extract that had shown anti-proliferative activity in PCa cell lines in vitro, in earlier studies, was further fractionated to 28 fractions by semi-preparative HPLC. Nine of these fractions were identified to possess selective anti-proliferative responses on PCa cells in comparison to non-cancerous cells of prostate gland origin. When these nine sub-fractions were mixed in various combinations, a combination containing six of the specific fractions (FC-3) showed the best potency. FC3 inhibited the growth of BPH-1, PC-3, and LNCaP cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value <20 µg/mL, while (unlike paclitaxel, the positive control) minimal effect was observed on the proliferation of non-cancerous, WPMY-1 and RWPE-1cells. Furthermore, synergistic interaction of FC-3 with paclitaxel was observed with combination index values in the range of 0.89-0.98 and 0.85-1.10 on PC-3 and LNCaP cells, respectively. Untargeted qualitative analysis using UHPLC (Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography)-QToF (Quadrupole Time of-Flight) mass spectrometry and screening against the METLIN database indicated presence of multiple known anticancer compounds in the FC-3 extract. These outcomes show that the potent and selective anti-proliferative effects are due to a range of bio-active compounds within the medium polar fraction of papaya leaf juice.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4616, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397198

RESUMO

Chromosome 8q24 is a susceptibility locus for multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Here we combine genetic data across the 8q24 susceptibility region from 71,535 prostate cancer cases and 52,935 controls of European ancestry to define the overall contribution of germline variation at 8q24 to prostate cancer risk. We identify 12 independent risk signals for prostate cancer (p < 4.28 × 10-15), including three risk variants that have yet to be reported. From a polygenic risk score (PRS) model, derived to assess the cumulative effect of risk variants at 8q24, men in the top 1% of the PRS have a 4-fold (95%CI = 3.62-4.40) greater risk compared to the population average. These 12 variants account for ~25% of what can be currently explained of the familial risk of prostate cancer by known genetic risk factors. These findings highlight the overwhelming contribution of germline variation at 8q24 on prostate cancer risk which has implications for population risk stratification.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

13.
Front Genet ; 9: 428, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337939

RESUMO

With an estimated 1.1 million men worldwide diagnosed with prostate cancer yearly, effective and more specific biomarkers for early diagnosis could lead to better patient outcome. As such, novel genetic markers are sought for this purpose. The tribbles homologue 1 gene (TRIB1) has recently shown to have a role in prostate tumorigenesis and data-mining of prostate cancer expression data confirmed clinical significance of TRIB1 in prostate cancer. For the first time, a polymorphic microsatellite in this gene was studied for its potential association with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness. Genomic DNA was extracted from a cohort of 1,152 prostate cancer patients and 1,196 cancer-free controls and the TTTTG-TRIB1 microsatellite was genotyped. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed using the non-parametric t-test and two-way ANOVA. Association of the TTTTG-TRIB1 microsatellite and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness were analyzed by binary logistic regression and confirmed by bootstrapping. Total and prostate cancer mortality was analyzed using the Kaplan Meier test. Genotype and allele correlation with TRIB1 mRNA levels was analyzed using the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To predict the effect that the TTTTG-TRIB1 polymorphisms had on the mRNA structure, the in silico RNA folding predictor tool, mfold, was used. By analyzing the publicly available data, we confirmed a significant over-expression of TRIB1 in prostate cancer compared to other cancer types, and an over-expression in prostate cancerous tissue compared to adjacent benign. Three alleles (three-five repeats) were observed for TTTTG-TRIB1. The three-repeat allele was associated with prostate cancer risk at the allele (OR = 1.16; P = 0.044) and genotypic levels (OR = 1.70; P = 0.006) and this association was age-independent. The four-repeat allele was inversely associated with prosatet cancer risk (OR = 0.57; P < 0.0001). TRIB1 expression was upregulated in tumors when compared to adjacent cancer-free tissue but was not allele specific. In silico analysis suggested that the TTTTG-TRIB1 alleles may alter TRIB1 mRNA structure. In summary, the three-repeat allele was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, suggesting a biomarker potential for this microsatellite to predict prostate cancer. Further studies are needed to elucidate the functional role of this microsatellite in regulating TRIB1 expression, perhaps by affecting the TRIB1 mRNA structure and stability.

14.
Biol Chem ; 399(9): 983-995, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052511

RESUMO

The dysregulation of the serine-protease family kallikreins (KLKs), comprising 15 genes, has been reportedly associated with cancer. Their expression in several tissues and physiological fluids makes them potential candidates as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. There are several databases available to mine gene expression in cancer, which often include clinical and pathological data. However, these platforms present some limitations when comparing a specific set of genes and can generate considerable unwanted data. Here, several datasets that showed significant differential expression (p<0.01) in cancer vs. normal (n=118), metastasis vs. primary (n=15) and association with cancer survival (n=21) have been compiled in a user-friendly format from two open and/or publicly available databases Oncomine and OncoLnc for the 15 KLKs. The data have been included in a free web application tool: the KLK-CANMAP https://cancerbioinformatics.shinyapps.io/klk-canmap/. This tool integrates, analyses and visualises data and it was developed with the R Shiny framework. Using KLK-CANMAP box-plots, heatmaps and Kaplan-Meier graphs can be generated for the KLKs of interest. We believe this new cancer KLK focused web tool will benefit the KLK community by narrowing the data visualisation to only the genes of interest.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878078

RESUMO

Motivation: The use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions to predict complex diseases is getting more attention during the past decade, but related statistical methods are still immature. We previously proposed the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI) approach to evaluate 45 SNP interaction patterns/patterns. SIPI is statistically powerful but suffers from a large computation burden. For large-scale studies, it is necessary to use a powerful and computation-efficient method. The objective of this study is to develop an evidence-based mini-version of SIPI as the screening tool or solitary use and to evaluate the impact of inheritance mode and model structure on detecting SNP-SNP interactions. Results: We tested two candidate approaches: the 'Five-Full' and 'AA9int' method. The Five-Full approach is composed of the five full interaction models considering three inheritance modes (additive, dominant and recessive). The AA9int approach is composed of nine interaction models by considering non-hierarchical model structure and the additive mode. Our simulation results show that AA9int has similar statistical power compared to SIPI and is superior to the Five-Full approach, and the impact of the non-hierarchical model structure is greater than that of the inheritance mode in detecting SNP-SNP interactions. In summary, it is recommended that AA9int is a powerful tool to be used either alone or as the screening stage of a two-stage approach (AA9int+SIPI) for detecting SNP-SNP interactions in large-scale studies. Availability: The 'AA9int' and 'parAA9int' functions (standard and parallel computing version) are added in the SIPI R package, which is freely available at https://linhuiyi.github.io/LinHY_Software/. Contact: hlin1@lsuhsc.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

16.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2256, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892050

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6653, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703916

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is diagnosed in over 1 million men every year globally, yet current diagnostic modalities are inadequate for identification of significant cancer and more reliable early diagnostic biomarkers are necessary for improved clinical management of prostate cancer patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) modulate important cellular processes/pathways contributing to cancer and are stably present in body fluids. In this study we profiled 372 cancer-associated miRNAs in plasma collected before (~60% patients) and after/during commencement of treatment (~40% patients), from age-matched prostate cancer patients and healthy controls, and observed elevated levels of 4 miRNAs - miR-4289, miR-326, miR-152-3p and miR-98-5p, which were validated in an independent cohort. The miRNA panel was able to differentiate between prostate cancer patients and controls (AUC = 0.88). Analysis of published miRNA transcriptomic data from clinical samples demonstrated low expression of miR-152-3p in tumour compared to adjacent non-malignant tissues. Overexpression of miR-152-3p increased proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells, suggesting a role for this miRNA in prostate cancer pathogenesis, a concept that was supported by pathway analysis of predicted miR-152-3p target genes. In summary, a four miRNA panel, including miR-152-3p which likely targets genes with key roles in prostate cancer pathogenesis, has the potential to improve early prostate cancer diagnosis.

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