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1.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580750

RESUMO

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta (HNF1 ß/B) exists as a homeobox transcription factor having a vital role in the embryonic development of organs mainly liver, kidney and pancreas. Initially described as a gene causing maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), HNF1ß expression deregulation and single nucleotide polymorphisms in HNF1ß have now been associated with several tumours including endometrial, prostate, ovarian, hepatocellular, renal and colorectal cancers. Its function has been studied either as homodimer or heterodimer with HNF1α. In this review, the role of HNF1B in different cancers will be discussed along with the role of its splice variants, and its emerging role as a potential biomarker in cancer.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

7.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195400

RESUMO

An acute respiratory disorder (COVID-19) that accelerated across the globe has been found to be caused by a novel strain of coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2). The absence of a specific antiviral drug or vaccination has promoted the development of immediate therapeutic responses against SARS-CoV-2. As increased levels of plasma chemokines and, cytokines and an uncontrolled influx of inflammatory cells were observed in lethal cases, it was concluded that the severity of the infection corresponded with the imbalanced host immunity against the virus. Tracing back the knowledge acquired from SERS and MERS infections, clinical evidence suggested similar host immune reactions and host ACE2 receptor-derived invasion by SARS-CoV-2. Further studies revealed the integral role of proteases (TMPRSS2, cathepsins, plasmin, etc.) in viral entry and the immune system. This review aims to provide a brief review on the latest research progress in identifying the potential role of proteases in SARS-CoV-2 viral spread and infection and combines it with already known information on the role of different proteases in providing an immune response. It further proposes a multidisciplinary clinical approach to target proteases specifically, through a combinatorial administration of protease inhibitors. This predictive review may help in providing a perspective to gain deeper insights of the proteolytic web involved in SARS-CoV-2 viral invasion and host immune response.

8.
Front Genet ; 11: 874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193569

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the third most common cancer among men in India, and no next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies have been attempted earlier. Recent advances in NGS have heralded the discovery of biomarkers from Caucasian/European and Chinese ancestry, but not much is known about the Indian phenotype/variant of PCa. In a pilot study using the whole exome sequencing of benign/PCa patients, we identified characteristic mutations specific to the Indian sub-population. We observed a large number of mutations in DNA repair genes, viz. helicases, TP53, and BRCA besides the variants of unknown significance with a possibly damaging rare variant (rs730881069/chr19:55154172C/TR136Q) in the TNNI3 gene that has been previously reported as a semi-conservative amino acid substitution. Our pilot study attempts to bring an understanding of PCa prognosis and recurrence for the Indian phenotype.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397189

RESUMO

Understanding the functional role of risk regions identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has made considerable recent progress and is referred to as the post-GWAS era. Annotation of functional variants to the genes, including cis or trans and understanding their biological pathway/gene network enrichments, is expected to give rich dividends by elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer. To this aim, we compiled and analysed currently available post-GWAS data that is validated through further studies in prostate cancer, to investigate molecular biological pathways enriched for assigned functional genes. In total, about 100 canonical pathways were significantly, at false discovery rate (FDR)< 0.05), enriched in assigned genes using different algorithms. The results have highlighted some well-known cancer signalling pathways, antigen presentation processes and enrichment in cell growth and development gene networks, suggesting risk loci may exert their functional effect on prostate cancer by acting through multiple gene sets and pathways. Additional upstream analysis of the involved genes identified critical transcription factors such as HDAC1 and STAT5A. We also investigated the common genes between post-GWAS and three well-annotated gene expression datasets to endeavour to uncover the main genes involved in prostate cancer development/progression. Post-GWAS generated knowledge of gene networks and pathways, although continuously evolving, if analysed further and targeted appropriately, will have an important impact on clinical management of the disease.

11.
Mol Oncol ; 14(1): 105-128, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630475

RESUMO

Kallikrein-related peptidase 14 (KLK14) is one of the several secreted KLK serine proteases involved in prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis. While relatively understudied, recent reports have identified KLK14 as overexpressed during PCa development. However, the modulation of KLK14 expression during PCa progression and the molecular and biological functions of this protease in the prostate tumor microenvironment remain unknown. To determine the modulation of KLK14 expression during PCa progression, we analyzed the expression levels of KLK14 in patient samples using publicly available databases and immunohistochemistry. In order to delineate the molecular mechanisms involving KLK14 in PCa progression, we integrated proteomic, transcriptomic, and in vitro assays with the goal to identify substrates, related-signaling pathways, and functional roles of this protease. We showed that KLK14 expression is elevated in advanced PCa, and particularly in metastasis. Additionally, KLK14 levels were found to be decreased in PCa tissues from patients responsive to neoadjuvant therapy compared to untreated patients. Furthermore, we also identified that KLK14 expression reoccurred in patients who developed castrate-resistant PCa. The combination of proteomic and transcriptomic analysis as well as functional assays revealed several new KLK14 substrates (agrin, desmoglein 2, vitronectin, laminins) and KLK14-regulated genes (Interleukin 32, midkine, SRY-Box 9), particularly an involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and interleukin 1 receptor pathways, and an involvement of KLK14 in the regulation of cellular migration, supporting its involvement in aggressive features of PCa progression. In conclusion, our work showed that KLK14 expression is associated with the development of aggressive PCa suggesting that targeting this protease could offer a novel route to limit the progression of prostate tumors. Additional work is necessary to determine the benefits and implications of targeting/cotargeting KLK14 in PCa as well as to determine the potential use of KLK14 expression as a predictor of PCa aggressiveness or response to treatment.

12.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850193

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer affecting Western society. Despite substantial advances in the exploration of prostate cancer biomarkers and treatment strategies, men are over diagnosed with inert prostate cancer, while there is also a substantial mortality from the invasive disease. Precision medicine is the management of treatment profiles across different cancers predicting therapies for individual cancer patients. With strategies including individual genomic profiling and targeting specific cancer pathways, precision medicine for prostate cancer has the potential to impose changes in clinical practices. Some of the recent advances in prostate cancer precision medicine comprise targeting gene fusions, genome editing tools, non-coding RNA biomarkers, and the promise of liquid tumor profiling. In this review, we will discuss these recent scientific advances to scale up these approaches and endeavors to overcome clinical barriers for prostate cancer precision medicine.

13.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 38(3): 389-415, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673830

RESUMO

Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is a key mediator of gene expression regulation leading to greater diversity of the proteome in complex organisms. Systematic sequencing of the human genome and transcriptome has led to our understanding of how alternative splicing of critical genes leads to multiple pathological conditions such as cancer. For many years, proteases were known only for their roles as proteolytic enzymes, acting to regulate/process proteins associated with diverse cellular functions. However, the differential expression and altered function of various protease isoforms, such as (i) anti-apoptotic activities, (ii) mediating intercellular adhesion, and (iii) modifying the extracellular matrix, are evidence of their specific contribution towards shaping the tumor microenvironment. Revealing the alternative splicing of protease genes and characterization of their protein products/isoforms with distinct and opposing functions creates a platform to understand how protease isoforms contribute to specific cancer hallmarks. Here, in this review, we address cancer-specific isoforms produced by the alternative splicing of proteases and their distinctive roles in the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 38(3): 333-346, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659564

RESUMO

The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is the accepted biomarker of tumor recurrence. PSA levels in serum correlate with disease progression, though its diagnostic accuracy is questionable. As a result, significant progress has been made in developing modified PSA tests such as PSA velocity, PSA density, 4Kscore, PSA glycoprofiling, Prostate Health Index, and the STHLM3 test. PSA, a serine protease, is secreted from the epithelial cells of the prostate. PSA has been suggested as a molecular target for prostate cancer therapy due to the fact that it is not only active in prostate tissue but also has a pivotal role on prostate cancer signaling pathways including proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, apoptosis, immune response, and tumor microenvironment regulation. Here, we summarize the current standing of PSA in prostate cancer progression as well as its utility in prostate cancer therapeutic approaches with an emphasis on the role of PSA in the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620434

RESUMO

Resveratrol (RES) is a naturally existing polyphenol which exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. In recent years, RES has attracted attention for its synergistic effect with other anti-cancer drugs for the treatment of drug resistant cancers. However, RES faces the issues of poor pharmacokinetics, stability and low solubility which limits its clinical application. In present study, RES has been loaded onto uniformly sized (~60 nm) mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to improve its in vitro anti-proliferative activity and sensitization of Docatexal in hypoxia induced drug resistance in prostate cancer. RES was efficiently encapsulated within phosphonate (negatively charged) and amine (positively charged) modified MSNs. The effect of surface functionalization was studied on the loading, in vitro release, anti-proliferative and cytotoxic potential of RES using prostate cancer cell line. At pH 7.4 both free and NH2-MSNs loaded RES showed burst release which was plateaued with almost 90% of drug released in first 12 h. On the other hand, PO3-MSNs showed significantly slower release kinetics with only 50% drug release in first 12 h at pH 7.4. At pH 5.5, however, both the PO3-MSNs and NH2-MSNs showed significant control over release (around 40% less release compared with free RES in 24 h). Phosphonate modified MSNs significantly enhanced the anti-proliferative potential of RES with an IC50 of 7.15 µM as compared to 14.86 µM of free RES whereas amine modified MSNs didn't affect proliferation with an IC50 value higher than free RES (20.45 µM). Furthermore, RES loaded onto PO3-MSNs showed robust and dose dependent sensitization of Docatexal in hypoxic cell environment which was comparable to pure RES solution. This study provides an example of applicability of MSNs loaded with polyphenols such as RES as next generation anticancer formulations for treating drug resistant cancers such as prostate cancer.

18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2054: 93-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482449

RESUMO

The revelation of stable microRNA (miRNA) species in body fluids has led to the speculation of disease-related alterations in miRNA expression levels as indicative of disease state making them attractive minimally invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and other diseases. Although miRNA expression profiling in body fluids holds great promise, working with low amounts of RNA in plasma and serum represents several challenges during purification, relative quantification, normalization, and data analysis. Here, we present an experimental protocol for miRNA profiling in plasma using plasma/serum-specific miRNA purification and RT-qPCR to identify potential miRNA biomarkers. We also discuss the challenges encountered during the miRNA profiling process and provide recommendations for robust purification and relative quantification of miRNAs in patient plasma samples.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação
19.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1090-1101, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to regulate cancer metabolism by regulating genes involved in metabolic pathways. Understanding this layer of complexity could lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. CONTENT: miRNAs are noncoding RNAs that have been implicated as master regulators of gene expression. Studies have revealed the role of miRNAs in the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, with several miRNAs both positively and negatively regulating multiple metabolic genes. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, aerobic glycolysis, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and altered autophagy allow tumor cells to survive under adverse conditions. In addition, major signaling molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/phosphatase and tensin homolog, and insulin signaling pathways facilitate metabolic adaptation in tumor cells and are all regulated by miRNAs. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNA mimics or inhibitors could be used to modulate the activity of miRNAs that drive tumor progression via altering their metabolism. Currently, several clinical trials investigating the role of miRNA-based therapy for cancer have been launched that may lead to novel therapeutic interventions in the future. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize cancer-related metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolism-related oncogenic signaling pathways, and their regulation by miRNAs that are known to lead to tumorigenesis. Further, we discuss the current state of miRNA therapeutics in the clinic and their future potential.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
Clin Chem ; 65(6): 771-780, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs mediate biological processes through preferential binding to the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of target genes. Studies have shown their association with prostate cancer (PCa) risk through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), known as miRSNPs. In a European cohort, 22 PCa risk-associated miRSNPs have been identified. The most significant miRSNP in the 3' UTR of Kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3) created a binding site for miR-3162-5p. Here we investigated the miR-3162-5p-KLK interaction and the clinical implication of miR-3162-5p in PCa. METHODS: We tested the role of miR-3162-5p in PCa etiology using IncuCyte live-cell imaging and anchorage-independent growth assays. The effect of miR-3162-5p on KLK and androgen receptor (AR) expression was measured by RT-quantitative (q)PCR and target pulldown assays. KLK3 proteolytic activity was determined by DELFIA® immunoassay. Mass spectrometry identified pathways affected by miR-3162-5p. miR-3162-5p expression was measured in clinical samples using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: miR-3162-5p affected proliferation, migration, and colony formation of LNCaP cells by regulating the expression of KLK2-4 and AR by direct targeting. KLK3 protein expression was regulated by miR-3162-5p consistent with lower KLK3 proteolytic activity observed in LNCaP-conditioned media. KLK/AR pulldown and mass spectrometry analysis showed a potential role of miR-3162-5p in metabolic pathways via KLK/AR and additional targets. Increased miR-3162-5p expression was observed in prostate tumor tissues with higher Gleason grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an insight into possible involvement of miR-3162-5p in PCa etiology by targeting KLKs and AR. It highlights clinical utility of miR-3162-5p and its interactive axis as a new class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets for PCa.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Calicreínas/genética , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética
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