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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(37): 31741-31745, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809469

RESUMO

Cationic polymer can capture polysulfide ions and inhibit polysulfide shuttle effect in lithium sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable batteries, enhancing the Li-S battery cycling performance. The cationic poly[bis(2-chloroethyl) ether-alt-1,3-bis[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]urea] quaternized (PQ) with a high density quaternary ammonium cations can trap the lithium polysulfide through the electrostatic attraction between positively charged quaternary ammonium (R4N+) and negatively charged polysulfide (Sx2-). PQ binder based sulfur electrodes deliver much higher capacity and provide better stability than traditional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder based electrodes in Li-S cells. A high sulfur loading of 7.5 mg/cm2 is achieved, which delivers a high initial areal capacity of 9.0 mAh/cm2 and stable cycling capacity at around 7.0 mAh/cm2 in the following cycles.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(14): 12445-12452, 2017 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338316

RESUMO

Many factors have been brought forward to explain the capacity degradation mechanisms of LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM)/graphite cells at extreme conditions such as under high temperature or with high cutoff voltage. However, the main factors dominating the long-term cycling performance under normal operations remain elusive. Quantitative analyses of the electrode surface evolution for a commercial 18650 LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523)/graphite cell during ca. 3000 cycles under normal operation are presented. Electrochemical analyses and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirm lithium inventory loss makes up for ca. 60% of the cell's capacity loss. Electrochemical deterioration of the NCM523 cathode is identified to be another important factor, which accounts for more than 30% of the capacity decay. Irregular primary particle cracking due to the mechanical stress and the phase change aroused from Li-Ni mixing during repetitive cycles are identified to be the main contributors for the NCM cathode deterioration. The amount of transition metal dissolved into electrolyte is determined to be quite low, and the resulting impedance rise after about 3000 cycles is obtained to be twice that of the reference cell, which are not very significant affecting the long-term cycling performance under normal operations.

3.
ACS Omega ; 2(11): 8075-8085, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457356

RESUMO

Polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) materials have been synthesized via pyrolyzing from five poly(silylcarbondiimide)s with different contents of carbon (labeled as 1-5#). The morphological and structural measurements show that the SiCN materials are mixtures of nanocrystals of SiC, Si3N4, and graphite. The SiCN materials have been used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Among the five polymer-derived SiCN materials, 5#SiCN, derived from dichloromethylvinylsilane and di-n-octyldichlorosilane, has the best cycle stability and a high-rate performance at the low cutoff voltage of 0.01-1.0 V. In lithium-ion half-cells, the specific delithiation capacity of 5#SiCN anode still remains at 826.7 mA h g-1 after 100 charge/discharge cycles; it can even deliver the capacity above 550 mA h g-1 at high current densities of 1.6 and 2 A g-1. In lithium-ion full cells, 5#SiCN anode works well with LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 commercial cathode. The outstanding electrochemical performance of 5#SiCN anode is attributed to two factors: (1) the formation of a stable and compact solid electrolyte interface layer on the anode surface anode, which protects the electrode from cracking during the charge/discharge cycle; and (2) a large amount of carbon component and the less Si3N4 phase in the 5#SiCN structure, which provides an electrochemical reactive and conductive environment in the SiCN structure, benefit the lithiation/delithiation process. In addition, we explore the reason for the capacity fading of these SiCN anodes.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(44): 30630-30642, 2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27790651

RESUMO

A simple route for the preparation of ZnS nanocrystal/reduced graphene oxide (ZnS/RGO) by a hydrothermal synthesis process was achieved. The chemical composition, morphology, and structural characterization reveal that the ZnS/RGO composite is composed of sphalerite-phased ZnS nanocrystals uniformly dispersed on functional RGO sheets with a high specific surface area. The ZnS/RGO composite was utilized as an anode in the construction of a high-performance lithium-ion battery. The ZnS/RGO composite with appropriate RGO content exhibits a high reversible specific capacity (780 mA h g-1), excellent cycle stability over 100 cycles (71.3% retention), and good rate performance at 2C (51.2% of its capacity when measured at a 0.1C rate). To further investigate this ZnS/RGO anode for practical use in full Li-ion cells, we tested the electrochemical performance of the ZnS/RGO anode at different cut-off voltages for the first time. The presence of RGO plays an important role in providing high conductivity as well as a substrate with a high surface area. This helps alleviate the typically problems associated with volume expansion and shrinkage during prolonged cycling. Additionally, the RGO provides multiple nucleation points that result in a uniformly dispersed film of nanosized ZnS that covers its surface. Thus, the high surface area RGO enables high electronic conductivity and fast charge transfer kinetics for ZnS lithiation/delithiation.

5.
Nano Lett ; 16(9): 5365-72, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27501313

RESUMO

The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery has the benefit of high gravimetric energy density and low cost. Significant research currently focuses on increasing the sulfur loading and sulfur/inactive-materials ratio, to improve life and capacity. Inspired by nature's ant-nest structure, this research results in a novel Li-S electrode that is designed to meet both goals. With only three simple manufacturing-friendly steps, which include slurry ball-milling, doctor-blade-based laminate casting, and the use of the sacrificial method with water to dissolve away table salt, the ant-nest design has been successfully recreated in an Li-S electrode. The efficient capabilities of the ant-nest structure are adopted to facilitate fast ion transportation, sustain polysulfide dissolution, and assist efficient precipitation. High cycling stability in the Li-S batteries, for practical applications, has been achieved with up to 3 mg·cm(-2) sulfur loading. Li-S electrodes with up to a 85% sulfur ratio have also been achieved for the efficient design of this novel ant-nest structure.

6.
Nano Lett ; 16(7): 4686-90, 2016 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27336856

RESUMO

Control over porous electrode microstructure is critical for the continued improvement of electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries. This paper describes a convenient and economical method for controlling electrode porosity, thereby enhancing material loading and stabilizing the cycling performance. Sacrificial NaCl is added to a Si-based electrode, which demonstrates an areal capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm(2) at a C/10 rate (0.51 mA/cm(2)) and an areal capacity of 3 mAh/cm(2) at a C/3 rate (1.7 mA/cm(2)), one of the highest material loadings reported for a Si-based anode at such a high cycling rate. X-ray microtomography confirmed the improved porous architecture of the SiO electrode with NaCl. The method developed here is expected to be compatible with the state-of-the-art lithium ion battery industrial fabrication processes and therefore holds great promise as a practical technique for boosting the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries without changing material systems.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(14): 9116-24, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008976

RESUMO

Undoped, Cr-doped, and Nb-doped LiMn(1.5)Ni(0.5)O4 (LNMO) is synthesized via a PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-combustion method by calcinating at 1000 °C for 6 h. SEM images show that the morphology of LNMO particles is affected by Cr and Nb doping. Cr doping results in sharper edges and corners and smaller particle size, and Nb doping leads to smoother edges and corners and more rounded and larger particles. The crystal and electron structure is investigated by XRD- and synchrotron-based soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). Cr doping and light Nb doping (LiNb(0.02)Ni(0.49)Mn(1.49)O4) improve the rate performance of LNMO. To explore the reason for rate-performance improvement, we conducted potential intermittent titration technique (PITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The Li(+) chemical diffusion coefficient at different state of charge (SOC) is calculated and suggests that both Cr and light Nb doping speeds up Li(+) diffusion in LNMO particles. The impedance spectra show that both R(SEI) and R(ct) are reduced by Cr and light Nb doping. The cycling performance is improved by Cr or Nb doping, and Cr doping increases both Coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of LNMO at 1 C cycling. The LiCr(0.1)Ni(0.45)Mn(1.45)O4 remains at 94.1% capacity after 500 cycles at 1 C, and during the cycling, the Coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency remain at over 99.7% and 97.5%, respectively.

8.
Nano Lett ; 15(12): 7927-32, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599387

RESUMO

High-tap-density silicon nanomaterials are highly desirable as anodes for lithium ion batteries, due to their small surface area and minimum first-cycle loss. However, this material poses formidable challenges to polymeric binder design. Binders adhere on to the small surface area to sustain the drastic volume changes during cycling; also the low porosities and small pore size resulting from this material are detrimental to lithium ion transport. This study introduces a new binder, poly(1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PPyMAA), for a high-tap-density nanosilicon electrode cycled in a stable manner with a first cycle efficiency of 82%-a value that is further improved to 87% when combined with graphite material. Incorporating the MAA acid functionalities does not change the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) features or lower the adhesion performance of the PPy homopolymer. Our single-molecule force microscopy measurement of PPyMAA reveals similar adhesion strength between polymer binder and anode surface when compared with conventional polymer such as homopolyacrylic acid (PAA), while being electronically conductive. The combined conductivity and adhesion afforded by the MAA and pyrene copolymer results in good cycling performance for the high-tap-density Si electrode.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Lítio/química , Nanoestruturas , Polímeros/química , Silício/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(22): 12057-66, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25992951

RESUMO

Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) particles dispersed in different inorganic carbons (LVP@C) have been successfully synthesized via an in situ synthesis method. The inorganic carbon materials with different dimensions including zero-dimensional Super P (SP) nanospheres, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs), two-dimensional graphene nanosheets, and three-dimensional graphite particles. The effects of carbon dimensions on the structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of LVP@C composites have been systematically investigated. The carbon materials can maintain their original morphology even after oxidation (by NH4VO3) and high-temperature sintering (850 °C). LVP@CNT exhibits the best electrochemical performances among all of the samples. At an ultrahigh discharge rate of 100C, it presents a discharge capacity of 91.94 mAh g(-1) (69.13% of its theoretical capacity) and maintains 79.82% of its original capacity even after 382 cycles. Its excellent electrochemical performance makes LVP@CNT a promising cathode candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(7): 2565-71, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25646659

RESUMO

Here we describe a class of electric-conducting polymers that conduct electrons via the side chain π-π stacking. These polymers can be designed and synthesized with different chemical moieties to perform different functions, extremely suitable as a conductive polymer binder for lithium battery electrodes. A class of methacrylate polymers based on a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon side moiety, pyrene, was synthesized and applied as an electrode binder to fabricate a silicon (Si) electrode. The electron mobilities for PPy and PPyE are characterized as 1.9 × 10(-4) and 8.5 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. These electric conductive polymeric binders can maintain the electrode mechanical integrity and Si interface stability over a thousand cycles of charge and discharge. The as-assembled batteries exhibit a high capacity and excellent rate performance due to the self-assembled solid-state nanostructures of the conductive polymer binders. These pyrene-based methacrylate binders also enhance the stability of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of a Si electrode over long-term cycling. The physical properties of this polymer are further tailored by incorporating ethylene oxide moieties at the side chains to enhance the adhesion and adjust swelling to improve the stability of the high loading Si electrode.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(1): 862-6, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25496355

RESUMO

High capacity and high density functional conductive polymer binder/SiO electrodes are fabricated and calendered to various porosities. The effect of calendering is investigated in the reduction of thickness and porosity, as well as the increase of density. SiO particle size remains unchanged after calendering. When compressed to an appropriate density, an improved cycling performance and increased energy density are shown compared to the uncalendered electrode and overcalendered electrode. The calendered electrode has a high-density of ∼1.2 g/cm(3). A high loading electrode with an areal capacity of ∼3.5 mAh/cm(2) at a C/10 rate is achieved using functional conductive polymer binder and simple and effective calendering method.

12.
Nano Lett ; 14(11): 6704-10, 2014 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25314674

RESUMO

Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(19): 17111-8, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25203598

RESUMO

The mechanical failure at the electrode interfaces (laminate/current collector and binder/particle interfaces) leads to particle isolation and delamination, which has been regarded as one of the main reasons for the capacity decay and cell failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Polymer binder provides the key function for a good interface property and for maintaining the electrode integrity of LIBs. Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEG) moieties were incorporated into polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) to different extents at the molecular level. Microscratch tests of the graphite electrodes based on these binders indicate that the electrode is more flexible with 5 or 10% TEG in the polymer binders. Crack generation is inhibited by the flexible TEG-containing binder, compared to that of the unmodified PMAA-based electrode, leading to the better cycling performance of the flexible electrode. With a 10% TEG moiety in the binder, the graphite half-cell reaches a reversible capacity of >270 mAh/g at the 1C rate, compared to a value of ∼190 mAh/g for the unmodified PMAA binder.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(9): 3327-31, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24516123

RESUMO

The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrólitos/química , Éteres/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Lítio/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Transportes
15.
Nano Lett ; 13(11): 5397-402, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24079331

RESUMO

To address the significant challenges associated with large volume change of micrometer-sized Si particles as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, we demonstrated a simple but effective strategy: using Si nanoparticles as a structural and conductive additive, with micrometer-sized Si as the main lithium-ion storage material. The Si nanoparticles connected into the network structure in situ during the charge process, to provide electronic connectivity and structure stability for the electrode. The resulting electrode showed a high specific capacity of 2500 mAh/g after 30 cycles with high initial Coulombic efficiency (73%) and good rate performance during electrochemical lithiation and delithiation: between 0.01 and 1 V vs Li/Li(+).


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Eletrodos , Íons/química , Silício/química , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(32): 12048-56, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23855781

RESUMO

The dilemma of employing high-capacity battery materials and maintaining the electronic and mechanical integrity of electrodes demands novel designs of binder systems. Here, we developed a binder polymer with multifunctionality to maintain high electronic conductivity, mechanical adhesion, ductility, and electrolyte uptake. These critical properties are achieved by designing polymers with proper functional groups. Through synthesis, spectroscopy, and simulation, electronic conductivity is optimized by tailoring the key electronic state, which is not disturbed by further modifications of side chains. This fundamental allows separated optimization of the mechanical and swelling properties without detrimental effect on electronic property. Remaining electronically conductive, the enhanced polarity of the polymer greatly improves the adhesion, ductility, and more importantly, the electrolyte uptake to the levels of those available only in nonconductive binders before. We also demonstrate directly the performance of the developed conductive binder by achieving full-capacity cycling of silicon particles without using any conductive additive.

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