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1.
Vet Res Commun ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671910

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is one of the most relevant pathogens associated with enteritis in dogs and is frequently reported in association with the detection of other pathogens in faeces. In this study the concomitant presence of Canine circovirus (CanineCV) and Canine adenovirus (CAdV) DNA in faecal or intestine samples of 95 dogs with parvovirus enteritis sampled in Italy (1995-2017) was investigated and the viruses identified were genetically characterised. Potential correlations with the antigenic variant of CPV-2 and with signalment data and outcome were evaluated. Twenty-eight of 95 (29.5%) CPV-2 infected dogs tested positive to other viruses: 7/28 were also positive to CanineCV, 1/28 to CAdV-1, 18/28 to CAdV-2, 1/28 to CanineCV and CAdV-2, and 1/28 to CAdV-1 and CAdV-2. The frequency of CAdV DNA detection and coinfections was significantly higher in purebred dogs compared to mixed breed ones (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively). The presence of coinfection was not associated with any other relevant data available, including CPV-2 variant and final outcome. The detection of CanineCV in a dog sampled in 2009 allowed to backdating its circulation in dogs. The eight CanineCV completely sequenced were phylogenetically related to the CanineCV identified in dogs, wolves and a badger from Europe, USA, Argentina and China. Nine CAdV were partially sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed a separate branch for the oldest CAdV-2 identified (1995). From the results obtained in this study population, CanineCV and CAdV coinfections in dogs with parvoviral enteritis did not result in more severe disease.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438655

RESUMO

In this study, internal organs (tongue, intestine, and spleen) of 23 free-ranging Italian wolves (Canis lupus italicus) found dead between 2017 and 2019 were tested for Carnivore protoparvovirus 1, Canine adenovirus (CAdV), and Canine circovirus (CanineCV) using real-time PCR assays. Genetic characterisation of the identified viruses was carried out by amplification, sequencing, and analysis of the complete viral genome or informative viral genes. All the wolves tested positive for at least one of the DNA viruses screened, and 11/23 were coinfected. Carnivore protoparvoviruses were the most frequently detected viruses (21/23), followed by CanineCV (11/23) and CAdV (4/23). From the analysis of the partial VP2 gene of 13 carnivore protoparvoviruses, 12 were canine parvovirus type 2b, closely related to the strains detected in dogs and wild carnivores from Italy, and one was a feline panleukopenia-like virus. Of the four CAdV identified, two were CAdV-1 and two were CAdV-2. The complete genome of seven CanineCVs was sequenced and related to the CanineCV identified in dogs, wolves, and foxes worldwide. Close correlations emerged between the viruses identified in wolves and those circulating in domestic dogs. Further studies are needed to investigate if these pathogens may be potentially cross-transmitted between the two species.

3.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 206, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most important pathogens of dogs. Despite vaccination, CPV infections are still ubiquitous in dogs, and the three antigenic variants 2a, 2b and 2c are variously distributed in the canine population worldwide. To date, no information is available on CPV variants circulating in some European countries. The aim of this study was to genetically characterise the CPV detected in ten dogs with clinical signs of acute gastroenteritis in Romania. The presence of Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA was investigated in faecal samples using an end-point PCR targeting the complete VP2 gene and positive amplicons were sequenced and analysed. RESULTS: All ten dogs with acute gastroenteritis tested positive to Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA in faecal samples. The identified viruses belonged to CPV-2c type, showed identical sequences of the VP2 gene and were characterised by distinctive amino acid residues in the deduced VP2 protein: 5-glicine (5Gly), 267-tirosine (267Tyr), 324-isoleucine (324Ile) and 370-arginine (370Arg). These distinctive amino acid residues have already been reported in CPV-2c widespread in Asia and occasionally detected in Italy and Nigeria. CONCLUSIONS: Since CPV-2c with VP2 amino acid residues 5Gly, 267Tyr, 324Ile and 370Arg were never reported before 2013, it can be assumed that this virus is progressively expanding its spread in the world dog population. This study adds new data about the presence of this new virus in Europe and underline worrying questions about its potential impact on the health of the canine population.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Animais , DNA Viral/análise , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Romênia
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 196-200, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171543

RESUMO

We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) among stone martens (Martes foina) in Italy. After being rescued in Northern Italy between April and June 2018, six subjects were kept in a wildlife and exotic animal rescue center in Bologna province. Subjects have been monitored for 15 months in captivity. Within this time-lapse, two subjects died, while among the remaining four, only one showed clinical symptoms referable to distemper. Surviving subjects have been regularly tested for CDV by means of reverse transcriptase-PCR from conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs for eleven months. The identified viruses belonged to the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the end of the eleven months, when all subjects tested reverse transcriptase-PCR negative. Our findings confirm the circulation of the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup (Europe 1/South America 1 lineage) within the Italian wildlife, and improve knowledge on viral infection in stone martens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Mustelidae , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Cinomose/imunologia , Cinomose/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 144-149, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975193

RESUMO

Feline Vector-Borne Diseases show increased global prevalence and some Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species may pose a risk to human health. The diagnosis of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infection in cats is achieved by the combined use of different methods as cytologic examination evidencing intracytoplasmic morulae, serologic tests and molecular assays. The peripheral whole blood is considered the sample of choice for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species DNA detection in cats, but false negative results are reported leading to underestimation of infection prevalence. In order to have a more accurate assessment of the spread of feline vector-borne pathogens, the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. DNA in 37 owner and shelter cats subjected to necropsy were prospectively investigated by testing in end-point PCR spleen, bone marrow, blood clot and hair samples. The bacteria identified were genetically characterised. Three shelter cats tested positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA in spleen (one cat) or in hair samples (two cats). None of the cats tested positive in bone marrow and blood samples. From the results obtained, it can be assumed that the use of spleen or hair samples could allow a more reliable detection of A. phagocytophilum DNA in cats with blood tested negative. In the phylogeny constructed with a fragment of the heat shock (groEL) gene nucleotide sequences, all the identified A. phagocytophilum clustered with bacteria infecting a wide range of hosts, including humans, showing a potential zoonotic role.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Cabelo/microbiologia , Baço/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Gatos , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/microbiologia
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1283-1293, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786111

RESUMO

Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a relatively new viral species, belonging to the family Circoviridae, whose pathogenic role is still uncertain. Since its first description in one domestic dog in 2011 from the USA, several reports have been documenting its distribution worldwide. Recently, CanineCV was also detected in wild animals such as wolves, foxes and badgers. In order to investigate the presence and the genetic characteristics of CanineCV in foxes of Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions, the presence of CanineCV DNA in internal organs (liver and spleen) of 51 arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard archipelago and 59 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Northern Norway, sampled from 1996 to 2001 and from 2014 to 2018, respectively, was screened by real-time PCR. CanineCV was detected in 11/51 arctic foxes and in 10/59 red foxes, backdating the circulation of the virus at least to 1996 in the arctic fox population. The complete genome of 14 identified CanineCV was sequenced and analysed showing an identity higher than 80.8% with the reference strains available to date. According to the species demarcation threshold of 80% genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity for members of the family Circoviridae provided by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), all the CanineCV belong to a single species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the CanineCV were subdivided into five main clusters with one including only CanineCV identified in foxes. Furthermore, CanineCV identified in arctic foxes and red foxes formed two distinct lineages. From these data, we hypothesize that the viral transmission did not occur between the two species of foxes as a consequence of the lack of contact between the two hosts or that the virus acquired mutations in the time elapsed between the samplings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Raposas , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Noruega , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Svalbard
7.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851021

RESUMO

A growing number of studies suggest that the lower urinary tract of humans and dogs can harbor a urinary microbiota. Nevertheless, a certain concern has developed that the microbiota reported could be due to unaccounted contamination, especially in low-biomass samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial community which populates the urine of healthy cats using two approaches: a culture-dependent approach which consisted of the expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques capable of identifying live bacteria not growing in standard urine cultures, and a culture-independent approach which consisted of 16S ribosomal RNA next generation sequencing (16S rRNA NGS) capable of identifying bacterial DNA and exploring microbial diversity with high resolution. To avoid confounding factors of possible bacterial contamination, the urine was sampled using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis, and several sample controls and negative controls were analyzed. The urine sampled from the 10 cats included in the study showed no bacterial growth in the EQUC procedure. Although several reads were successfully originated using 16S rRNA NGS, a comparable pattern was observed between urine samples and the negative control, and no taxa were statistically accepted as non-contaminant. Taken together, the results obtained allowed stating that no viable bacteria were present in the urine of healthy cats without lower urinary tract disease and urinary tract infections, and that the bacterial DNA detected was of contaminant origin.

8.
Pathogens ; 9(5)2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384672

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that causes serious illness in dogs. For this reason, epidemiological and clinical studies focusing on disease characterization are widely advocated. The aim of this study was to characterize the leptospires identified in dogs with confirmed symptomatic acute leptospirosis. Leptospira spp. DNA detected in urine, blood, or both samples from nine infected dogs was analyzed using the multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) technique. Leptospires from two dogs were successfully typed: one was identified as belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 17 and one to ST198, both within the L. interrogans species, serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Australis, respectively. Based on the results of routine serologic tests, antibodies reactive toward these serogroups are commonly revealed in dogs in Italy. This study provides the first molecular analysis that identifies infecting Leptospira directly on DNA from biological samples of dogs, showing that serogroup Australis can lead to a severe clinical presentation of leptospirosis in infected dogs.

9.
J Feline Med Surg ; 22(10): 935-943, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania species infection in cats in Northern Italy and to evaluate the associations between infection and signalment and clinicopathological data. METHODS: The study was carried out in a veterinary university hospital from June to November 2017. Blood, urine, conjunctival swabs and hair were collected from all randomly selected cats. Leishmania species infection was evaluated using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), setting a cut-off value of 1:80, and using real-time PCR on blood, conjunctival and hair samples. A complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, serum electrophoresis and urinalysis were also carried out. The cats were grouped on the basis of the results of the diagnostic criteria adopted in positive, negative and unconfirmed Leishmania cases. Non-parametric variables and continuous data were compared among the study groups using the χ2 test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, respectively. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two cats were included. Nineteen of the 152 (12.5%) cats were positive (18/152 [11.8%] showed an IFAT titre of ⩾1:80 and 1/152 [0.7%] was real-time PCR-positive from a hair sample); 106/152 (69.7%) cats were negative; and 27/152 (17.8%) cats were unconfirmed for Leishmania species. Total proteins, beta2-globulin and gamma-globulin were significantly increased in the positive Leishmania group compared with the negative group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of the present study demonstrated the spread of Leishmania infantum infection in cats in Northern Italy. Hyperproteinaemia and hypergammaglobulinaemia appeared to be significant clinicopathological abnormalities in this population of cats with L infantum infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/sangue , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(1): 239-242, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237820

RESUMO

Data on canine circovirus circulation among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are limited. We report the detection of canine circovirus in a red fox from Italy. The virus was closely related to strains from dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) rather than those from foxes, suggesting a possible transmission between the two species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Raposas/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Genômica , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 393, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids. It is a rapidly evolving virus; after its emergence in the 1970s, new antigenic variants (called CPV-2a, 2b and 2c) emerged and replaced the original antigenic type. The three antigenic variants are globally distributed with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. This study focused on VP2 gene sequence analysis and the phylodynamics of CPV-2 which were detected in 123 dogs showing clinical signs of gastroenteritis collected in Italy from 1994 to 2017. RESULTS: For the most part, the sick dogs were young, and a third of them (32.5%) had been vaccinated. No statistical association was found between the CPV-2 antigenic variants, and sex, age, breed and vaccination status. Sequence analysis showed that all three antigenic types circulated in Italy; the CPV-2a type was the prominent genotype, followed by CPV-2c and CPV-2b, with notable differences regarding regional bases and significant fluctuations over time. Nucleotide sequence data showed high genetic heterogeneity with 67 nucleotide sequence types (ntSTs) identified, corresponding to 21 amino acid sequence types (aaSTs). The aaSTs and ntSTs obtained were distributed differently among the three CPV-2 antigenic variants: CPV-2a grouped 12/21 (57.1%) aaSTs and 41/67 (61.2%) ntSTs; CPV-2b grouped 5/21 (23.8%) aaSTs and 6/67 (8.9%) ntSTs, and CPV-2c grouped 4/21 (19.1%) aaSTs and 20/67 (29.9%) ntSTs. Canine parvovirus 2a was characterised by the highest genetic variability while CPV-2c was characterised by notable stability with a predominant amino acid profile during the entire sampling time. Canine parvovirus 2b re-emerged in recent years, showing a new and distinctive amino acid profile of the VP2 protein. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study provided new insights regarding the phylodynamics and evolution of CPV-2 in Italy, pointing out notable differences at the local level in the distribution of the CPV-2 variants and the selection of genetic subtypes. The evolution of CPV-2 has raised questions regarding the efficacy of vaccination; therefore, continuous monitoring regarding the evolution and spread of new CPV-2 variants should be a key aim of ongoing research.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Variação Genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Filogenia
12.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(2): 67-76, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826932

RESUMO

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) is the aetiological agent of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). In spite of the widespread use of vaccination, CAdV-1 continues to circulate in the dog population. Although a high number of serological screenings have indicated that CAdV-1 is widespread in fox species, little is known about the potential role of foxes as reservoirs of CAdV-1. Furthermore, very little data exist on the molecular features of this virus in foxes. To add to existing knowledge on CAdV-1 circulating in wild carnivores, tissue samples from CAdV-seropositive red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 10) from the northern mainland of Norway and arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus, n = 10) from the Svalbard archipelago, Norway, were investigated using a molecular approach to detect CAdV-1 DNA and important structural and non-structural genes of the detected viruses were sequenced and analysed. Amplicons characteristic for CAdV-1 were amplified from 14 out of 20 foxes (7 red foxes and 7 arctic foxes) and spleen and lymph node tissues resulted optimal targets for the viral DNA detection. The nucleotide sequences showed unique features that distinguished the viruses detected in this study from the CAdV-1 to date identified in wild carnivores and dogs. Greater attention should be given to genetically different CAdV-1 circulating in wild carnivores that may be transferred to dogs, potentially causing disease and reducing the effectiveness of available vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenovirus Caninos/genética , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/transmissão , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Noruega , Svalbard
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(3): 737-741, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789782

RESUMO

We report the detection of canine adenovirus type 1 DNA by real-time PCR technique in an oral sample of an Italian wolf (Canis lupus italicus). Genetic characterization of the virus revealed a strict relationship with viruses detected in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), wolves, and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), suggesting that transmission between wild animals and dogs had occurred.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenovirus Caninos/isolamento & purificação , Lobos/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenovirus Caninos/genética , Animais , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
14.
Vet Ital ; 54(3): 225-236, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575000

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiologic agent of distemper in dogs. It exhibits an elevated potential of crossing species barriers, infecting a wide range of wild and domestic carnivores. Of its encoding genes, hemagglutinin (H) shows high heterogeneity, and it was used to determine the relationship between CDV strains due to its variability and key role in determining cell tropism, host shift, and in eliciting a protective immune response. This study analysed the full-length H gene sequence of Arctic-like CDV strains collected from dogs in Italy during a period in which an increased activity of CDV diffusion was observed. The common amino acid changes and features of Arctic-like CDV strains collected from 2011 to 2016 in Europe were described, providing an updated analysis of the genomic features. A comparison with CDV vaccine strains was carried out to evaluate the increased genomic difference with CDV Arctic-like field strains. This study provides a complete and updated analysis of the current spreading strains of Arctic-like lineage and the main amino acid variations in the hemagglutinin gene sequence circulating in Italy. Moreover, it provides novel information regarding the evolution of the most recent CDV Arctic-like lineage strains collected in Europe.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/classificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Cães/virologia , Itália , RNA Viral/análise
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15177, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310104

RESUMO

A 29 nucleotide deletion in open reading frame 8 (ORF8) is the most obvious genetic change in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) during its emergence in humans. In spite of intense study, it remains unclear whether the deletion actually reflects adaptation to humans. Here we engineered full, partially deleted (-29 nt), and fully deleted ORF8 into a SARS-CoV infectious cDNA clone, strain Frankfurt-1. Replication of the resulting viruses was compared in primate cell cultures as well as Rhinolophus bat cells made permissive for SARS-CoV replication by lentiviral transduction of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Cells from cotton rat, goat, and sheep provided control scenarios that represent host systems in which SARS-CoV is neither endemic nor epidemic. Independent of the cell system, the truncation of ORF8 (29 nt deletion) decreased replication up to 23-fold. The effect was independent of the type I interferon response. The 29 nt deletion in SARS-CoV is a deleterious mutation acquired along the initial human-to-human transmission chain. The resulting loss of fitness may be due to a founder effect, which has rarely been documented in processes of viral emergence. These results have important implications for the retrospective assessment of the threat posed by SARS.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , RNA Viral , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Deleção de Sequência , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
16.
Vet Ital ; 54(1): 73-78, 2018 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631317

RESUMO

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria of clinical relevance in European dogs. The diagnosis of infection is often difficult due to the wide spectrum of disease caused by them. During infection, reduction in platelet count is considered the most common haematological abnormality, frequently representing the sole alteration in asymptomatic dogs. In this study, the presence of bacteria belonging to the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia was investigated in Northern Italy in blood samples from 159 thrombocytopenic dogs using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay amplifying a portion of the heat shock gene (groEL). Obtained amplicons were sequenced and analysed. Two dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum, while A. platys and E. canis were not detected. None of the PCR-positive dogs were diagnosed at the time of hospital admission, even in the presence of clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities potentially related to A. phagocytophilum infection. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the 2 detected strains belonged to the cluster Europe 1 and were different from each other. This study confirms the presence of A. phagocytophilum infections in dogs of Northern Italy, causing clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities that could not be properly diagnosed and treated.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/complicações , Itália , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/complicações
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 41, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants 2a, 2b and 2c. Detection of FPV and CPV variants in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood cells (WBC) and other tissues when neutralising antibodies are simultaneously present, suggest that parvovirus may persist long-term in the tissues of cats post-infection without causing clinical signs. The aim of this study was to screen a population of 54 cats from Sardinia (Italy) for the presence of both FPV and CPV DNA within buffy coat samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The DNA viral load, genetic diversity, phylogeny and antibody titres against parvoviruses were investigated in the positive cats. RESULTS: Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 DNA was detected in nine cats (16.7%). Viral DNA was reassembled to FPV in four cats and to CPV (CPV-2b and 2c) in four cats; one subject showed an unusually high genetic complexity with mixed infection involving FPV and CPV-2c. Antibodies against parvovirus were detected in all subjects which tested positive to DNA parvoviruses. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of FPV and CPV DNA in the WBC of asymptomatic cats, despite the presence of specific antibodies against parvoviruses, and the high genetic heterogeneity detected in one sample, confirmed the relevant epidemiological role of cats in parvovirus infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Leucócitos/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Gatos , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Panleucopenia Felina , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Itália , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 49: 195-211, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122249

RESUMO

Anaplasma are obligate intracellular bacteria of cells of haematopoietic origin and are aetiological agents of tick-borne diseases of both veterinary and medical interest common in both tropical and temperate regions. The recent disclosure of their zoonotic potential has greatly increased interest in the study of these bacteria, leading to the recent reorganisation of Rickettsia taxonomy and to the possible discovery of new species belonging to the genus Anaplasma. This review is particularly focused on the common and unique characteristics of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, with an emphasis on genetic diversity and evolution, and the main distinguishing features of the diseases caused by the different Anaplasma spp. are described as well.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma marginale/classificação , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Evolução Biológica , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Variação Genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogeografia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/microbiologia
19.
J Vet Sci ; 18(4): 471-477, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28057899

RESUMO

Critical illness can be associated with transient alterations in circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, indicating the presence of non-thyroidal illness (NTI). NTI is well described in humans, but there are few reports on its occurrence and prognostic significance in dogs. This retrospective study assessed the occurrence of NTI in a population of dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and investigated its association with disease severity (APPLEfast scores). A total of 41 SIRS dogs were included and were divided by SIRS origin (non-septic SIRS, n = 10; septic SIRS, n = 41) and final outcome (survivors, n = 37; non-survivors, n = 4). Healthy, age-matched dogs (n = 15) were included as controls. Serum thyroid hormone levels including total T3, free T3, total T4, and reverse T3 were measured upon admission. Compared to controls, there were significant changes in serum thyroid hormone concentrations in SIRS dogs, suggesting the presence of NTI. Septic SIRS dogs had higher APPLEfast scores and lower serum thyroid hormones concentrations than those in non-septic SIRS and control dogs. In conclusion, NTI was frequent in dogs with SIRS and may be associated with the presence of sepsis or high illness severity.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/veterinária , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Animais , Estado Terminal , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Cães , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade
20.
Res Vet Sci ; 102: 80-2, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412524

RESUMO

BPV-1 is known as the main causative agent of equine sarcoid, but the virus has also been detected in skin and blood of healthy horses. Previous reports demonstrated the presence of E5 variants in sarcoids of donkeys and horses; we investigated whether this genetic variability might be also found in BPV-1, PBMC associated, of sub-clinically infected horses. With this aim, we analyzed the E5 gene of 21 BPV-1 strains from diseased and sub-clinically infected horses. Our analyses lead us to demonstrate that multiple sequence variants can be present in the blood of sub-clinically infected horses, with alternative bases corresponding to either synonymous or non-synonymous codons in the E5 oncogene sequences. The results give support to the proposed existence of "equine adapted" BPV-1 strains with the occurrence of viral variants, resembling quasispecies, in clinically healthy horses with viremia.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purificação , Especiação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Animais , Papillomavirus Bovino 1/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Cavalos/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia
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