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2.
Chemistry ; 25(60): 13714-13718, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456252

RESUMO

The pnictogenyl Group 13 compounds (Dipp2 Nacnac)M[E(SiMe3 )2 ]Cl and (Dipp2 Nacnac)M(EH2 )2 (Dipp2 Nacnac=HC[C(Me)N(Ar)]2 , Ar: Dipp=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 ; M=Al, Ga, In; E=P, As) were successfully synthesized. The salt metathesis between (Dipp2 Nacnac)MCl2 and LiE(SiMe3 )2 only led to monosubstituted compounds (Dipp2 Nacnac)M[E(SiMe3 )2 ]Cl [E=P, M=Ga(1), In (2); E=As, M=Ga (3), In (4)], regardless of the stoichiometric ratios used. In contrast to the steric effect of the SiMe3 groups in 1-4, the reactions of the corresponding halides with LiPH2 ⋅DME (or KAsH2 ) facilely yielded the dipnictogenide compounds (Dipp2 Nacnac)M(EH2 )2 (E=P, M=Al (5), Ga (6), In (7); E=As, M=Al (8), Ga (9)), avoiding the use of flammable and toxic PH3 and AsH3 for their synthesis. The compounds 5-9 are the first examples of monomeric Group 13 diphosphanides and diarsanides in which the metal center is bound to two terminal PH2 and AsH2 groups, respectively. In contrast to the successful synthesis of the indium diphosphanide (Dipp2 Nacnac)In(PH2 )2 , the reaction of (Dipp2 Nacnac)InCl2 with KAsH2 led to an indium mirror due to the instability of the target product.

3.
Soc Stud Sci ; 49(4): 459-475, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382859

RESUMO

In recent years and across many nations, public health has become subject to forms of governance that are said to be aimed at establishing accountability. In this introduction to a special issue, From Person to Population and Back: Exploring Accountability in Public Health, we suggest opening up accountability assemblages by asking a series of ostensibly simple questions that inevitably yield complicated answers: What is counted? What counts? And to whom, how and why does it count? Addressing such questions involves staying attentive to the technologies and infrastructures through which data come into being and are made available for multiple political agendas. Through a discussion of public health, accountability and datafication we present three key themes that unite the various papers as well as illustrate their diversity.


Assuntos
Agregação de Dados , Análise de Dados , Saúde Pública/métodos , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Soc Stud Sci ; 49(4): 476-502, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288646

RESUMO

Epidemiological risk scores are calculative devices that mediate and enact versions of accountability in public health and preventive medicine. This article focuses on practices of accountability by following a cardiovascular risk score widely used in medical counselling in Germany. We follow the risk score in the making, in action, and in circulation to explore how the score performs in doctor-patient relations, how it recombines epidemiological results, and how it shapes knowledge production and healthcare provision. In this way, we follow the risk score's various trajectories - from its development at the intersection of epidemiology, general medicine and software engineering, to its usage in general practitioners' offices, and its validation infrastructures. Exploring the translations from population to individual and back that are at work in the risk score and in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, we examine how versions and distributions of accountability are invoked and practiced as the score is developed and put to use. The case of a simple risk score used in everyday counselling brings into relief some key shifts in configurations of accountability with emerging versions of 'health by the algorithm'. While there is an increasing authority of algorithmic tools in the fabric of clinical encounters, risk scores are interwoven with local specificities of the healthcare system and continue to be in the making.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Medição de Risco/métodos , Responsabilidade Social , Algoritmos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Alemanha , Humanos
5.
J Food Prot ; 82(7): 1135-1140, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225975

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: RTE meat products from the Republic of Kosovo were tested for contamination. L. monocytogenes was more prevalent in dried or fermented than in cooked-cured meats. E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were more prevalent in nonpackaged dried or fermented meats. Concentrations of biogenic amines were higher in dried or fermented than in cooked-cured meats.

6.
Environ Res ; 167: 129-135, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014894

RESUMO

This study examines the association between environmental radiation exposure and essential hypertension in a series of investigated geographical districts adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The sample consists of 2000 volunteers participants in screening examinations in three administrative districts close to the nuclear test site, which was carried out as part of the Government Programs on Environmental Health Hazard. The cross-sectional study compares prevalence ratios in a population sample with long-term exposure in the low and intermediate dose range. Age-adjusted odds ratios for hypertension were found significantly increased with higher exposure groups. After accounting for main cardiovascular risk factors into the model and stratifying by gender, the prevalence odds ratios for radiation remained significantly increased, with a significant dose-response effect observed for some but not all subgroups. The results support existing evidence of cardiovascular health effects of radiation exposure and of persisting environmental health issues that require attention in both epidemiological surveys and healthcare provision.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Essencial , Cinza Radioativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Exposição Ambiental , Hipertensão Essencial/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Essencial/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Armas Nucleares , Prevalência , Cinza Radioativa/efeitos adversos
7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 60(6): 611-617, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656386

RESUMO

AIM: As there is little evidence for concurrent validity of the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS), this study aimed to determine its concurrent validity and reliability in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: After an extensive translation procedure, we applied the German language version to 52 participants with CP (30 males, 22 females, mean age 9y 7mo [SD 4y 2mo]). We correlated (Kendall's tau or Kτ ) the EDACS levels with the Bogenhausener Dysphagiescore (BODS), and the EDACS level of assistance with the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) and the item 'eating' of the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). We further quantified the interrater reliability between speech and language therapists (SaLTs) and between SaLTs and parents with Kappa (κ). RESULTS: The EDACS levels correlated highly with the BODS (Kτ =0.79), and the EDACS level of assistance correlated highly with the MACS (Kτ =0.73) and WeeFIM eating item (Kτ =-0.80). Interrater reliability proved almost perfect between SaLTs (EDACS: κ=0.94; EDACS level of assistance: κ=0.89) and SaLTs and parents (EDACS: κ=0.82; EDACS level of assistance: κ=0.89). INTERPRETATION: The EDACS levels and level of assistance seem valid and showed almost perfect interrater reliability when classifying eating and drinking problems in children and adolescents with CP. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS) correlates well with a dysphagia score. The EDACS level of assistance proves valid. The German version of EDACS is highly reliable. EDACS correlates moderately to highly with other classification systems.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Psicometria , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/classificação , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Development ; 145(7)2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530878

RESUMO

A conserved feature of the central nervous system (CNS) is the prominent expansion of anterior regions (brain) compared with posterior (nerve cord). The cellular and regulatory processes driving anterior CNS expansion are not well understood in any bilaterian species. Here, we address this expansion in Drosophila and mouse. We find that, compared with the nerve cord, the brain displays extended progenitor proliferation, more elaborate daughter cell proliferation and more rapid cell cycle speed in both Drosophila and mouse. These features contribute to anterior CNS expansion in both species. With respect to genetic control, enhanced brain proliferation is severely reduced by ectopic Hox gene expression, by either Hox misexpression or by loss of Polycomb group (PcG) function. Strikingly, in PcG mutants, early CNS proliferation appears to be unaffected, whereas subsequent brain proliferation is severely reduced. Hence, a conserved PcG-Hox program promotes the anterior expansion of the CNS. The profound differences in proliferation and in the underlying genetic mechanisms between brain and nerve cord lend support to the emerging concept of separate evolutionary origins of these two CNS regions.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Animais , Divisão Celular Assimétrica/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Neurogênese/genética , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/genética
9.
Microbiology ; 163(11): 1720-1734, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058643

RESUMO

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea, the second most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease. Riboregulation mediated by small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important means of gene expression control in this human-restricted pathogen. sRNAs act at the post-transcriptional level by base-pairing with their target mRNAs which affects translation initiation and/or mRNA stability. In this study we initiated the characterization of a pair of highly conserved sRNAs of N. gonorrhoeae which exhibit redundant functions in the control of a common set of target genes. The identified targets of the sibling sRNAs NgncR_162 and NgncR_163 participate in basic metabolic processes including the methylcitrate and citrate cycle, aa uptake and degradation, and also in transcription regulation. Our data indicate that the sibling sRNAs control their targets via direct base-pairing between the same single-stranded domain(s) of the sRNA and the ribosome binding site in the 5'-untranslated region of the mRNA.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Mutação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/classificação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Ribonucleico/genética
10.
Microbiology ; 163(7): 1081-1092, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691898

RESUMO

Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are well-established post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in bacteria that respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. They usually act by base-pairing with their target mRNAs, which is commonly facilitated by the RNA chaperone Hfq. In this study we initiated the analysis of the sRNA FnrS of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is induced under anaerobic conditions. We identified four putative FnrS target genes using bioinformatics approaches and validated these target genes using translational reporter gene fusions in both Escherichia coli and N. gonorrhoeae, thereby demonstrating their downregulation by direct base-pairing between the respective mRNA and FnrS. We demonstrate deregulation of target mRNAs upon deletion of fnrS and provide evidence that the isc gene cluster required for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, which harbours iscS, which is a direct target of FnrS, is coordinately downregulated by the sRNA. By mutational analysis we show that, surprisingly, three distinct regions of FnrS are employed for interaction with different target genes.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/metabolismo , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12361, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580627

RESUMO

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find Eabs=1-1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

12.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e112248, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25463653

RESUMO

Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic region between the amino acid residues 238 and 410 in the N-terminal half of HlyA has previously been suggested to form hydrophobic and/or amphipathic α-helices and has been shown to be important for hemolytic activity and pore formation in biological and artificial membranes. The structure of the HlyA transmembrane channel is, however, largely unknown. For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted in HlyA different stretches of amino acids that could form amphipathic ß-strands according to secondary structure predictions (residues 71-110, 158-167, 180-203, and 264-286). These deletions resulted in HlyA mutants with strongly reduced hemolytic activity. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that HlyAΔ71-110 and HlyAΔ264-286 formed channels with much smaller single-channel conductance than wildtype HlyA, whereas their channel-forming activity was virtually as high as that of the wildtype toxin. HlyAΔ158-167 and HlyAΔ180-203 were unable to form defined channels in lipid bilayers. Calculations based on the single-channel data indicated that the channels generated by HlyAΔ71-110 and HlyAΔ264-286 had a smaller size (diameter about 1.4 to 1.8 nm) than wildtype HlyA channels (diameter about 2.0 to 2.6 nm), suggesting that in these mutants part of the channel-forming domain was removed. Osmotic protection experiments with erythrocytes confirmed that HlyA, HlyAΔ71-110, and HlyAΔ264-286 form defined transmembrane pores and suggested channel diameters that largely agreed with those estimated from the single-channel data. Taken together, these results suggest that the channel-forming domain of HlyA might contain ß-strands, possibly in addition to α-helical structures.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/química , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Primers do DNA/química , Eritrócitos/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/fisiologia , Hemólise , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Lipídeos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Osmose , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Porinas/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Deleção de Sequência
13.
Inorg Chem ; 53(21): 11438-46, 2014 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25329878

RESUMO

P-H functional transition-metal complexes were synthesized without using hazardous PH3 gas in good yields by photolysis of the transition-metal carbonyl complexes M(CO)(6-x) (M = Cr, W, Fe; x = 0, 1) in tetrahydrofuran followed by reaction with P2(SiMe3)4 and subsequent methanolysis to give the bridging complexes [(CO)(x)M(µ-PH2)]2 (M = Fe, x = 3 (1), M = Cr, x = 4 (2a), M = W, x = 4 (2b)). The photolysis of [(CO)4M(µ-PH2)]2 (M = Cr (2a), M = W (2b)) with P(SiMe3)3 was applied followed by methanolysis to synthesize the PH2 bridging transition-metal binuclear complexes with terminal PH3 groups. The products [(CO)4M(µ-PH2)2M(CO)3(PH3)] (M = Cr (3a), M = W (3b)) and [(CO)4W(µ-PH2)2W(CO)2(PH3)2] (4b) were isolated in moderate yield. Another synthetic approach to this type of compounds is the direct photolysis of the complexes [(CO)3M(PH3)3] (M = Cr (5a), M = W (5b)). The products were comprehensively characterized by (31)P NMR and IR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray structural analysis. Additionally, the relevancy of 2a as single source precursor for the synthesis of stoichiometry-controlled CrP nanoparticles has been demonstrated.

14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 33: 83, 2014 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25272957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) there are to date few reports concerning the predictive value of molecular biomarkers on the clinical outcome in stage II/III CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of proteins related with the EGFR- and VEGFR- signalling cascades in these patients. METHODS: The patients' data examined in this study were from the collective of the 5-FU/FA versus 5-FU/FA/irinotecan phase III FOGT-4 trial. Tumor tissues were stained by immunohistochemistry for VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-3, Hif-1 α, PTEN, AREG and EREG expression and evaluated by two independent, blinded investigators. RESULTS: Patients with negative AREG and EREG expression on their tumor had a significant longer DFS in comparison to AREG/EREG positive ones (p< 0.05). The benefit on DFS in AREG-/EREG- patients was even stronger in the group that received 5-FU/FA/irinotecan as adjuvant treatment (p=0.002). Patients with strong expression of PTEN profited more in terms of OS under adjuvant treatment containing irinotecan (p< 0.05). Regarding markers of the VEGFR- pathway we found no correlation of VEGF-C- and VEGFR-3 expression with clinical outcome. Patients with negative VEGF-D expression had a trend to live longer when treated with 5-FU/FA (p=0.106). Patients who were negative for Hif-1 α, were disease-free in more than 50% at the end of the study and showed significant longer DFS-rates than those positive for Hif-1 α (p=0.007). This benefit was even stronger at the group treated with 5-FU/FA/irinotecan (p=0.026). Finally, AREG-/EREG-/PTEN+ patients showed a trend to live longer under combined treatment combination. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of irinotecan to adjuvant treatment with 5-FU/FA does not provide OS or DFS benefit in patients with stage II/III CRC. Nevertheless, AREG/EREG negative, PTEN positive and Hif-1 α negative patients might profit significantly in terms of DFS from a treatment containing fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan. Our results suggest a predictive value of these biomarkers concerning adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU/FA +/- irinotecan in stage II/III colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Irinotecano , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 47 Pt A: 163-72, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24947269

RESUMO

This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Genética Médica/história , Mutação , Saúde Pública/história , Pesquisa/história , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genética Populacional/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Mutagênicos , U.R.S.S. , Guerra
17.
Physiol Plant ; 152(1): 130-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24446756

RESUMO

Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Semente de Rícino/metabolismo , Tanacetum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(100): 11788-90, 2013 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24212095

RESUMO

Phase-pure FeP nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized through low temperature thermolysis of the single source precursor [(CO)4Fe(PH3)]. Examination of the mechanism demonstrates the central role of the labile CO ligands and the weak P-H bonds to yield stoichiometry controlled FeP materials.

19.
Med Anthropol Q ; 27(4): 510-30, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24214880

RESUMO

Risk reasoning has become the common-sense mode of knowledge production in the health sciences. Risk assessment techniques of modern epidemiology also co-shape the ways genomic data are translated into population health. Risk computations (e.g., in preventive medicine, clinical decision-support software, or web-based self-tests), loop results from epidemiological studies back into everyday life. Drawing from observations at various European research sites, I analyze how epidemiological techniques mediate and enact the linkages between genomics and public health. This article examines the epidemiological apparatus as a generative machine that is socially performative. The study design and its reshuffling of data and categories in risk modeling recombine old and new categories from census to genomics and realign genes/environment and nature/culture in novel and hybrid ways. In the Euro-American assemblage of risk reasoning and related profiling techniques, the individual and the population are no longer separate but intimately entangled.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Antropologia Médica , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
Microbiology ; 159(Pt 5): 880-9, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23475951

RESUMO

HP1043 of Helicobacter pylori is an orphan response regulator (RR) with a highly degenerate receiver sequence incapable of phosphorylation, which is essential for cell viability. In contrast, the orthologous RR protein of Helicobacter pullorum, an enterohepatic Helicobacter species mainly isolated from poultry, harbours a consensus receiver sequence and is associated with a cognate histidine kinase (HK). Here, we show that this two-component system of H. pullorum, denoted HPMG439/HPMG440, is involved in the control of nitrogen metabolism by regulating the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase, an AmtB ammonium transporter and a PII protein. However, the role of the RR HPMG439 is not restricted to nitrogen regulation since, in contrast with the HK HPMG440, HPMG439 is essential for growth of H. pullorum under nutrient-rich conditions.


Assuntos
Epsilonproteobacteria/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Epsilonproteobacteria/química , Epsilonproteobacteria/genética , Helicobacter pylori/química , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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