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1.
Sci Immunol ; 6(55)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514641

RESUMO

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), in general, and especially CD8+ TILs, represent a favorable prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The tissue origin, regenerative capacities, and differentiation pathways of TIL subpopulations remain poorly understood. Using a combination of single-cell RNA and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing, we investigate the functional organization of TIL populations in primary NSCLC. We identify two CD8+ TIL subpopulations expressing memory-like gene modules: one is also present in blood (circulating precursors) and the other one in juxtatumor tissue (tissue-resident precursors). In tumors, these two precursor populations converge through a unique transitional state into terminally differentiated cells, often referred to as dysfunctional or exhausted. Differentiation is associated with TCR expansion, and transition from precursor to late-differentiated states correlates with intratumor T cell cycling. These results provide a coherent working model for TIL origin, ontogeny, and functional organization in primary NSCLC.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) remains a leading cause of gynaecological cancer-related mortality with infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) being the most important risk factor. We analysed the association between different viral integration signatures, clinical parameters and outcome in pre-treated CCs. METHODS: Different integration signatures were identified using HPV double capture followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 272 CC patients from the BioRAIDs study [NCT02428842]. Correlations between HPV integration signatures and clinical, biological and molecular features were assessed. RESULTS: Episomal HPV was much less frequent in CC as compared to anal carcinoma (p < 0.0001). We identified >300 different HPV-chromosomal junctions (inter- or intra-genic). The most frequent integration site in CC was in MACROD2 gene followed by MIPOL1/TTC6 and TP63. HPV integration signatures were not associated with histological subtype, FIGO staging, treatment or PFS. HPVs were more frequently episomal in PIK3CA mutated tumours (p = 0.023). Viral integration type was dependent on HPV genotype (p < 0.0001); HPV18 and HPV45 being always integrated. High HPV copy number was associated with longer PFS (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: This is to our knowledge the first study assessing the prognostic value of HPV integration in a prospectively annotated CC cohort, which detects a hotspot of HPV integration at MACROD2; involved in impaired PARP1 activity and chromosome instability.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 24947-24956, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968016

RESUMO

The acquisition of mutations plays critical roles in adaptation, evolution, senescence, and tumorigenesis. Massive genome sequencing has allowed extraction of specific features of many mutational landscapes but it remains difficult to retrospectively determine the mechanistic origin(s), selective forces, and trajectories of transient or persistent mutations and genome rearrangements. Here, we conducted a prospective reciprocal approach to inactivate 13 single or multiple evolutionary conserved genes involved in distinct genome maintenance processes and characterize de novo mutations in 274 diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutation accumulation lines. This approach revealed the diversity, complexity, and ultimate uniqueness of mutational landscapes, differently composed of base substitutions, small insertions/deletions (InDels), structural variants, and/or ploidy variations. Several landscapes parallel the repertoire of mutational signatures in human cancers while others are either novel or composites of subsignatures resulting from distinct DNA damage lesions. Notably, the increase of base substitutions in the homologous recombination-deficient Rad51 mutant, specifically dependent on the Polζ translesion polymerase, yields COSMIC signature 3 observed in BRCA1/BRCA2-mutant breast cancer tumors. Furthermore, "mutome" analyses in highly polymorphic diploids and single-cell bottleneck lineages revealed a diverse spectrum of loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) signatures characterized by interstitial and terminal chromosomal events resulting from interhomolog mitotic cross-overs. Following the appearance of heterozygous mutations, the strong stimulation of LOHs in the rad27/FEN1 and tsa1/PRDX1 backgrounds leads to fixation of homozygous mutations or their loss along the lineage. Overall, these mutomes and their trajectories provide a mechanistic framework to understand the origin and dynamics of genome variations that accumulate during clonal evolution.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Mutação/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Acetiltransferases/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Dano ao DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Diploide , Feminino , Endonucleases Flap/genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Cell ; 183(2): 411-428.e16, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970988

RESUMO

The colon is primarily responsible for absorbing fluids. It contains a large number of microorganisms including fungi, which are enriched in its distal segment. The colonic mucosa must therefore tightly regulate fluid influx to control absorption of fungal metabolites, which can be toxic to epithelial cells and lead to barrier dysfunction. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, we describe a mechanism by which the innate immune system allows rapid quality check of absorbed fluids to avoid intoxication of colonocytes. This mechanism relies on a population of distal colon macrophages that are equipped with "balloon-like" protrusions (BLPs) inserted in the epithelium, which sample absorbed fluids. In the absence of macrophages or BLPs, epithelial cells keep absorbing fluids containing fungal products, leading to their death and subsequent loss of epithelial barrier integrity. These results reveal an unexpected and essential role of macrophages in the maintenance of colon-microbiota interactions in homeostasis. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

5.
Nat Chem ; 12(10): 929-938, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747755

RESUMO

CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein linked to various biological processes reliant on epigenetic plasticity, which include development, inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and cancer progression. Although it is often referred to as a cell surface marker, the functional regulatory roles of CD44 remain elusive. Here we report the discovery that CD44 mediates the endocytosis of iron-bound hyaluronates in tumorigenic cell lines, primary cancer cells and tumours. This glycan-mediated iron endocytosis mechanism is enhanced during epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, in which iron operates as a metal catalyst to demethylate repressive histone marks that govern the expression of mesenchymal genes. CD44 itself is transcriptionally regulated by nuclear iron through a positive feedback loop, which is in contrast to the negative regulation of the transferrin receptor by excess iron. Finally, we show that epigenetic plasticity can be altered by interfering with iron homeostasis using small molecules. This study reveals an alternative iron-uptake mechanism that prevails in the mesenchymal state of cells, which illuminates a central role of iron as a rate-limiting regulator of epigenetic plasticity.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4053, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792481

RESUMO

A significant proportion of patients with oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers (BC) develop resistance to endocrine treatments (ET) and relapse with metastatic disease. Here we perform whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis of matched primary breast tumours and bone metastasis-derived patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Transcriptomic analyses reveal enrichment of the G2/M checkpoint and up-regulation of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in PDX. PLK1 inhibition results in tumour shrinkage in highly proliferating CCND1-driven PDX, including different RB-positive PDX with acquired palbociclib resistance. Mechanistic studies in endocrine resistant cell lines, suggest an ER-independent function of PLK1 in regulating cell proliferation. Finally, in two independent clinical cohorts of ER positive BC, we find a strong association between high expression of PLK1 and a shorter metastases-free survival and poor response to anastrozole. In conclusion, our findings support clinical development of PLK1 inhibitors in patients with advanced CCND1-driven BC, including patients progressing on palbociclib treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclina D1/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/genética , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoprecipitação , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Pteridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
7.
Cancer Discov ; 10(9): 1330-1351, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434947

RESUMO

A subset of cancer-associated fibroblasts (FAP+/CAF-S1) mediates immunosuppression in breast cancers, but its heterogeneity and its impact on immunotherapy response remain unknown. Here, we identify 8 CAF-S1 clusters by analyzing more than 19,000 single CAF-S1 fibroblasts from breast cancer. We validate the five most abundant clusters by flow cytometry and in silico analyses in other cancer types, highlighting their relevance. Myofibroblasts from clusters 0 and 3, characterized by extracellular matrix proteins and TGFß signaling, respectively, are indicative of primary resistance to immunotherapies. Cluster 0/ecm-myCAF upregulates PD-1 and CTLA4 protein levels in regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), which, in turn, increases CAF-S1 cluster 3/TGFß-myCAF cellular content. Thus, our study highlights a positive feedback loop between specific CAF-S1 clusters and Tregs and uncovers their role in immunotherapy resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides a significant advance in characterizing and understanding FAP+ CAF in cancer. We reached a high resolution at single-cell level, which enabled us to identify specific clusters associated with immunosuppression and immunotherapy resistance. Identification of cluster-specific signatures paves the way for therapeutic options in combination with immunotherapies.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1241.

8.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 203-209, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172432

RESUMO

CDK12 variants were investigated as a genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer in a series of 416 unrelated and consecutive patients with ovarian carcinoma and who carry neither germline BRCA1 nor BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The presence of CDK12 variants was searched in germline DNA by massive parallel sequencing on pooled DNAs. The lack of detection of deleterious variants and the observed proportion of missense variants in the series of ovarian carcinoma patients as compared with all human populations strongly suggests that CDK12 is not an ovarian cancer predisposing gene.

9.
Cell Rep ; 30(6): 1767-1779.e6, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049009

RESUMO

EWSR1-FLI1, the chimeric oncogene specific for Ewing sarcoma (EwS), induces a cascade of signaling events leading to cell transformation. However, it remains elusive how genetically homogeneous EwS cells can drive the heterogeneity of transcriptional programs. Here, we combine independent component analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data from diverse cell types and model systems with time-resolved mapping of EWSR1-FLI1 binding sites and of open chromatin regions to characterize dynamic cellular processes associated with EWSR1-FLI1 activity. We thus define an exquisitely specific and direct enhancer-driven EWSR1-FLI1 program. In EwS tumors, cell proliferation and strong oxidative phosphorylation metabolism are associated with a well-defined range of EWSR1-FLI1 activity. In contrast, a subpopulation of cells from below and above the intermediary EWSR1-FLI1 activity is characterized by increased hypoxia. Overall, our study reveals sources of intratumoral heterogeneity within EwS tumors.

10.
Development ; 147(4)2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988184

RESUMO

Integrin dimers α3/ß1, α6/ß1 and α6/ß4 are the mammary epithelial cell receptors for laminins, which are major components of the mammary basement membrane. The roles of specific basement membrane components and their integrin receptors in the regulation of functional gland development have not been analyzed in detail. To investigate the functions of laminin-binding integrins, we obtained mutant mice with mammary luminal cell-specific deficiencies of the α3 and α6 integrin chains generated using the Cre-Lox approach. During pregnancy, mutant mice displayed decreased luminal progenitor activity and retarded lobulo-alveolar development. Mammary glands appeared functional at the onset of lactation in mutant mice; however, myoepithelial cell morphology was markedly altered, suggesting cellular compensation mechanisms involving cytoskeleton reorganization. Notably, lactation was not sustained in mutant females, and the glands underwent precocious involution. Inactivation of the p53 gene rescued the growth defects but did not restore lactogenesis in mutant mice. These results suggest that the p53 pathway is involved in the control of mammary cell proliferation and survival downstream of laminin-binding integrins, and underline an essential role of cell interactions with laminin for lactogenic differentiation.


Assuntos
Integrinas/fisiologia , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Hormônios/fisiologia , Integrina alfa3/fisiologia , Integrina alfa6/fisiologia , Integrina beta1/fisiologia , Integrina beta4/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Ovário/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Prenhez , Prognóstico , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica
11.
Mol Cell ; 77(2): 352-367.e8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759823

RESUMO

cis-Regulatory communication is crucial in mammalian development and is thought to be restricted by the spatial partitioning of the genome in topologically associating domains (TADs). Here, we discovered that the Xist locus is regulated by sequences in the neighboring TAD. In particular, the promoter of the noncoding RNA Linx (LinxP) acts as a long-range silencer and influences the choice of X chromosome to be inactivated. This is independent of Linx transcription and independent of any effect on Tsix, the antisense regulator of Xist that shares the same TAD as Linx. Unlike Tsix, LinxP is well conserved across mammals, suggesting an ancestral mechanism for random monoallelic Xist regulation. When introduced in the same TAD as Xist, LinxP switches from a silencer to an enhancer. Our study uncovers an unsuspected regulatory axis for X chromosome inactivation and a class of cis-regulatory effects that may exploit TAD partitioning to modulate developmental decisions.


Assuntos
Sequência Conservada/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Antissenso/genética , Elementos Silenciadores Transcricionais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(6): 1497-1506, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the main limitations to anticancer radiotherapy lies in irreversible damage to healthy tissues located within the radiation field. "FLASH" irradiation at very high dose-rate is a new treatment modality that has been reported to specifically spare normal tissue from late radiation-induced toxicity in animal models and therefore could be a promising strategy to reduce treatment toxicity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lung responses to FLASH irradiation were investigated by qPCR, single-cell RNA sequencing (sc-RNA-Seq), and histologic methods during the acute wound healing phase as well as at late stages using C57BL/6J wild-type and Terc-/- mice exposed to bilateral thorax irradiation as well as human lung cells grown in vitro. RESULTS: In vitro studies gave evidence of a reduced level of DNA damage and induced lethality at the advantage of FLASH. In mouse lung, sc-RNA-seq and the monitoring of proliferating cells revealed that FLASH minimized the induction of proinflammatory genes and reduced the proliferation of progenitor cells after injury. At late stages, FLASH-irradiated lungs presented less persistent DNA damage and senescent cells than after CONV exposure, suggesting a higher potential for lung regeneration with FLASH. Consistent with this hypothesis, the beneficial effect of FLASH was lost in Terc-/- mice harboring critically short telomeres and lack of telomerase activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, compared with conventional radiotherapy, FLASH minimizes DNA damage in normal cells, spares lung progenitor cells from excessive damage, and reduces the risk of replicative senescence.

13.
Cancer Cell ; 36(6): 597-612.e8, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708437

RESUMO

Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are genomically simple pediatric cancers driven by the biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, leading to SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler complex deficiency. Comprehensive evaluation of the immune infiltrates of human and mice RTs, including immunohistochemistry, bulk RNA sequencing and DNA methylation profiling studies showed a high rate of tumors infiltrated by T and myeloid cells. Single-cell RNA (scRNA) and T cell receptor sequencing highlighted the heterogeneity of these cells and revealed therapeutically targetable exhausted effector and clonally expanded tissue resident memory CD8+ T subpopulations, likely representing tumor-specific cells. Checkpoint blockade therapy in an experimental RT model induced the regression of established tumors and durable immune responses. Finally, we show that one mechanism mediating RTs immunogenicity involves SMARCB1-dependent re-expression of endogenous retroviruses and interferon-signaling activation.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/imunologia , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766658

RESUMO

The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) carcinogenesis has been clearly established, involving the expression of viral oncoproteins and optional viral DNA integration into the host genome. In this article, we describe the various mechanisms and sites of HPV DNA insertion and assess their prognostic and predictive value in a large series of patients with HPV-positive ASCC with long-term follow-up. We retrospectively analyzed 96 tumor samples from 93 HPV-positive ASCC patients using the Capture-HPV method followed by Next-Generation Sequencing, allowing determination of HPV genotype and identification of the mechanisms and sites of viral genome integration. We identified five different mechanistic signatures of HPV insertions. The distribution of HPV signatures differed from that previously described in HPV-positive cervical carcinoma (p < 0.001). In ASCC samples, the HPV genome more frequently remained in episomal form (45.2%). The most common signature of HPV insertion was MJ-SC (26.9%), i.e., HPV-chromosomal junctions scattered at different loci. Functionally, HPV integration signatures were not associated with survival or response to treatment, but were associated with viral load (p = 0.022) and PIK3CA mutation (p = 0.0069). High viral load was associated with longer survival in both univariate (p = 0.044) and multivariate (p = 0.011) analyses. Finally, HPV integration occurred on most human chromosomes, but intragenic integration into the NFIX gene was recurrently observed (n = 4/51 tumors). Overall, the distribution of mechanistic signatures of HPV insertions in ASCC was different from that observed in cervical carcinoma and was associated with viral load and PIK3CA mutation. We confirmed recurrent targeting of NFIX by HPV integration, suggesting a role for this gene in ASCC carcinogenesis.

15.
Transl Oncol ; 12(12): 1557-1565, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513983

RESUMO

A previously developed and centrally validated MammaPrint® (MP) and BluePrint® (BP) targeted RNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) kit was implemented and validated in two large academic European hospitals. Additionally, breast cancer molecular subtypes by MP and BP RNA sequencing were compared with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Patients with early breast cancer diagnosed at University Hospitals Leuven and Curie Institute Paris were prospectively included between September 2017 and January 2018. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were analyzed with MP and BP NGS technology at the beta sites and with both NGS and microarray technology at Agendia. Raw NGS data generated on Illumina MiSeq instruments at the beta sites were interpreted and compared with NGS and microarray data at Agendia. MP and BP NGS molecular subtypes were compared to surrogate IHC breast cancer subtypes. Equivalence of MP and BP indices was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Acceptable limits were defined a priori, based on microarray data generated at Agendia between 2012 and 2016. The concordance, the Negative Percent Agreement and the Positive Percent Agreement were calculated based on the contingency tables and had to be equal to or higher than 90%. Out of 124 included samples, 48% were MP Low and 52% High Risk with microarray. Molecular subtypes were BP luminal, HER2 or basal in 82%, 8% and 10% respectively. Concordance between MP microarray at Agendia and MP NGS at the beta sites was 91.1%. Concordance of MP High and Low Risk classification between NGS at the beta sites and NGS at Agendia was 93.9%. Concordance of MP and BP molecular subtyping using NGS at the beta sites and microarray at Agendia was 89.5%. Concordance between MP and BP NGS subtyping, and IHC was 71.8% and 76.6%, for two IHC surrogate models. The MP/BP NGS kit was successfully validated in a decentralized setting.

16.
Oncotarget ; 10(48): 4937-4950, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452835

RESUMO

The ALK gene is a major oncogene of neuroblastoma cases exhibiting ALK activating mutations. Here, we characterized two neuroblastoma cell lines established from a stage 4 patient at diagnosis either from the primary tumor (PT) or from the bone marrow (BM). Both cell lines exhibited similar genomic profiles. All cells in the BM-derived cell line exhibited an ALK F1174L mutation, whereas this mutation was present in only 5% of the cells in the earliest passages of the PT-derived cell line. The BM-derived cell line presented with a higher proliferation rate in vitro and injections in Nude mice resulted in tumor formation only for the BM-derived cell line. Next, we observed that the F1174L mutation frequency in the PT-derived cell line increased with successive passages. Further Whole Exome Sequencing revealed a second ALK mutation, L1196M, in this cell line. Digital droplet PCR documented that the allele fractions of both mutations changed upon passages, and that the F1174L mutation reached 50% in late passages, indicating clonal evolution. In vitro treatment of the PT-derived cell line exhibiting the F1174L and L1196M mutations with the alectinib inhibitor resulted in an enrichment of the L1196M mutation. Using xenografts, we documented a better efficacy of alectinib compared to crizotinib on tumor growth and an enrichment of the L1196M mutation at the end of both treatments. Finally, single-cell RNA-seq analysis was consistent with both mutations resulting in ALK activation. Altogether, this study provides novel insights into ALK mutation dynamics in a neuroblastoma model harbouring two ALK mutations.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(18): 5513-5524, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Uveal melanomas (UM) are genetically simple tumors carrying few copy number alterations (CNA) and a low mutation burden, except in rare MBD4-deficient, hypermutated cases. The genomics of uveal melanoma metastatic progression has not been described. We assessed the genetic heterogeneity of primary and metastatic MBD4-proficient and -deficient uveal melanomas.Experimental Design: We prospectively collected 75 metastatic and 16 primary samples from 25 consecutive uveal melanoma patients, and performed whole-exome sequencing. RESULTS: MBD4-proficient uveal melanomas contained stable genomes at the nucleotide level, acquiring few new single nucleotide variants (SNVs; 16 vs. 13 in metastases and primary tumors, respectively), and no new driver mutation. Five CNAs were recurrently acquired in metastases (losses of 1p, 6q, gains of 1q, 8q, and isodisomy 3). In contrast, MBD4-deficient uveal melanomas carried more than 266 SNVs per sample, with high genetic heterogeneity and TP53, SMARCA4, and GNAS new driver mutations. SNVs in MBD4-deficient contexts were exploited to unveil the timeline of oncogenic events, revealing that metastatic clones arose early after tumor onset. Surprisingly, metastases were not enriched in monosomy 3, a previously defined metastatic risk genomic feature. Monosomy 3 was associated with shorter metastatic-free interval compared with disomy 3 rather than higher rate of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: MBD4-proficient uveal melanomas are stable at the nucleotide level, without new actionable alterations when metastatic. In contrast, MBD4 deficiency is associated with high genetic heterogeneity and acquisition of new driver mutations. Monosomy 3 is associated with time to relapse rather than rate of relapse, thus opening avenues for a new genetic prognostic classification of uveal melanomas.


Assuntos
Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Variação Genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Uveais/genética , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Terapia Combinada , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Monossomia , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Uveais/terapia
19.
J Exp Med ; 216(7): 1561-1581, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072818

RESUMO

CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for inducing efficient humoral responses. T helper polarization is classically orientated by dendritic cells (DCs), which are composed of several subpopulations with distinct functions. Whether human DC subsets display functional specialization for Tfh polarization remains unclear. Here we find that tonsil cDC2 and CD14+ macrophages are the best inducers of Tfh polarization. This ability is intrinsic to the cDC2 lineage but tissue dependent for macrophages. We further show that human Tfh cells comprise two effector states producing either IL-21 or CXCL13. Distinct mechanisms drive the production of Tfh effector molecules, involving IL-12p70 for IL-21 and activin A and TGFß for CXCL13. Finally, using imaging mass cytometry, we find that tonsil CD14+ macrophages localize in situ in the B cell follicles, where they can interact with Tfh cells. Our results indicate that human lymphoid organ cDC2 and macrophages play complementary roles in the induction of Tfh responses.


Assuntos
Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Polaridade Celular , Quimiocina CXCL13/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
20.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 1024-1034, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133748

RESUMO

The mouse X-inactivation center (Xic) locus represents a powerful model for understanding the links between genome architecture and gene regulation, with the non-coding genes Xist and Tsix showing opposite developmental expression patterns while being organized as an overlapping sense/antisense unit. The Xic is organized into two topologically associating domains (TADs) but the role of this architecture in orchestrating cis-regulatory information remains elusive. To explore this, we generated genomic inversions that swap the Xist/Tsix transcriptional unit and place their promoters in each other's TAD. We found that this led to a switch in their expression dynamics: Xist became precociously and ectopically upregulated, both in male and female pluripotent cells, while Tsix expression aberrantly persisted during differentiation. The topological partitioning of the Xic is thus critical to ensure proper developmental timing of X inactivation. Our study illustrates how the genomic architecture of cis-regulatory landscapes can affect the regulation of mammalian developmental processes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Inversão de Sequência , Transcrição Genética
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