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1.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546869

RESUMO

Background: Lack of menstrual knowledge, poor access to sanitary products and a non-facilitating school environment can make it difficult for girls to attend school. In India, interventions have been developed to reduce the burden of menstruation for school girls by government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We sought to identify challenges related to menstruation, and facilitators of menstrual management in schools in three states in India. Methods: Surveys were conducted among menstruating school girls in class 8-10 (above 12 years of age) of 43 government schools selected through stratified random sampling in three Indian states (Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu) in 2015. For comparison, ten model schools supported by NGOs or UNICEF with a focussed menstrual hygiene education program were selected purposely in the same states to represent the better-case scenario. We examined awareness about menarche, items used for menstruation, and facilitators on girls' experience of menstruation in regular schools and compared with model schools. Factors associated with school absence during menstruation were explored using multivariate analysis. Findings: More girls (mean age 14.1 years) were informed about menstruation before menarche in model schools (56%, n = 492) than in regular schools (36%, n = 2072, P < 0.001). Girls reported menstruation affected school attendance (6% vs 11% in model vs regular schools respectively, P = 0.003) and concentration (40% vs 45%, P = 0.1) and was associated with pain (31% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and fear of stain or smell (11% vs 16%, P = 0.002). About 45% of girls reported using disposable pads in both model and regular schools, but only 55% and 29% of pad-users reported good disposal facilities, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, reported absenteeism during menstruation was significantly lower in Tamil Nadu (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24, 0.14-0.40) and Maharashtra (APR 0.56, CI = 0.40-0.77) compared to Chhattisgarh, and halved in model compared to regular schools (APR 0.50, CI = 0.34-0.73). Pain medication in school (APR 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.97) and use of disposable pads (APR 0.57, CI = 0.42-0.77) were associated with lower absenteeism and inadequate sanitary facilities with higher absenteeism during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene education, accessible sanitary products, pain relief, and adequate sanitary facilities at school would improve the schooling-experience of adolescent girls in India.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribução , Setor Público , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Health Justice ; 6(1): 7, 2018 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women in the criminal justice (CJ) system experience complex and comorbid medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders, which often contribute to CJ involvement. To identify intersections between CJ and health needs, we calculated Spearman r correlations between concurrent CJ and clinical assessments from women on probation in Connecticut who were enrolled in a clinical trial. We examined longitudinal trends in CJ risk scores over 9 years of observation (2005-2014), modeling time to probation recidivism with shared gamma frailty models and comparing contiguous time points by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests. RESULTS: Women (N = 31) were predominantly white (67.7%) with at least some high school education (58.1%) and mostly unemployed (77.4%) and unstably housed (83.9%). Most met clinical criteria for severe substance use and/or psychiatric disorders. Concurrent measures of substance use, mental health, social support, partnerships, and risk by the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) and clinical assessments were not significantly correlated. The LSI-R personal/emotional sub-score, however, positively correlated with the Addiction Severity Index psychiatric composite score (r = 0.40, 95% CI 0.03-0.68, p = 0.03). After adjusting for age, race and number of previous events, having some high school education versus none marginally decreased the hazard for probation recidivism and having > 5 inpatient psychiatric admissions versus none increased the hazard of probation recidivism 7-fold (HR 7.49, 95% CI 1.33-42.12, p = 0.022). Women with 0-1 recurrent probation terms (n = 16) had a significantly lower mean LSI-R score than those with 2-4 recurrent probation terms (35.9 [SD 6.4] versus 39.2 [SD 3.0], p = 0.019), but repeated LSI-R scores did not change over time, nor vary significantly beyond the group mean. CONCLUSIONS: In this small, quantitative study of women on probation, widely used CJ assessment tools poorly reflected women's comorbid medical, psychiatric, and substance use needs and varied minimally over time. Findings illustrate the limitations of contemporary CJ assessment tools for women with complex needs. The field requires more comprehensive assessments of women's social and health needs to develop individualized targeted case plans that simultaneously improve health and CJ outcomes.

3.
J Trop Pediatr ; 64(2): 146-150, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28673047

RESUMO

Anthropometric measurements, including height and length, are routinely needed for health research worldwide. Measurement boards are the current gold standard for obtaining the height and length of children. In community-based research, however, the size and weight of the measurement boards make them difficult and cumbersome to carry in the field. In addition, children and infants may express an unwillingness to be placed onto the measurement board. Electronic measuring tools commonly used in industry and contracting work are precise and portable. This study piloted a protocol to use an adapted laser measurement tool, the anthropometric measurement assist (AMA), to obtain height and recumbent length in children in Western Kenya. Intra- and inter-observer variability were determined and compared with measurement board measurements. Results of this initial pilot indicated that the AMA may be a viable alternative to measurement boards. The AMA can measure height/length accurately and reliably, is portable and is equivalent in price to measuring boards, making it a viable option for fieldwork in low-resourced countries.


Assuntos
Antropometria/instrumentação , Lasers/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
BMJ Open ; 6(3): e010290, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in India to determine unmet needs. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, The Global Health Database, Google Scholar and references for studies published from 2000 to September 2015 on girls' MHM. SETTING: India. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescent girls. OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on menarche awareness, type of absorbent used, disposal, hygiene, restrictions and school absenteeism was extracted from eligible materials; a quality score was applied. Meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled prevalence (PP), and meta-regression to examine the effect of setting, region and time. RESULTS: Data from 138 studies involving 193 subpopulations and 97,070 girls were extracted. In 88 studies, half of the girls reported being informed prior to menarche (PP 48%, 95% CI 43% to 53%, I(2) 98.6%). Commercial pad use was more common among urban (PP 67%, 57% to 76%, I(2) 99.3%, n=38) than rural girls (PP 32%, 25% to 38%, I(2) 98.6%, n=56, p<0.0001), with use increasing over time (p<0.0001). Inappropriate disposal was common (PP 23%, 16% to 31%, I(2) 99.0%, n=34). Menstruating girls experienced many restrictions, especially for religious activities (PP 0.77, 0.71 to 0.83, I(2) 99.1%, n=67). A quarter (PP 24%, 19% to 30%, I(2) 98.5%, n=64) reported missing school during periods. A lower prevalence of absenteeism was associated with higher commercial pad use in univariate (p=0.023) but not in multivariate analysis when adjusted for region (p=0.232, n=53). Approximately a third of girls changed their absorbents in school facilities (PP 37%, 29% to 46%, I(2) 97.8%, n=17). Half of the girls' homes had a toilet (PP 51%, 36% to 67%, I(2) 99.4%, n=21). The quality of studies imposed limitations on analyses and the interpretation of results (mean score 3 on a scale of 0-7). CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening of MHM programmes in India is needed. Education on awareness, access to hygienic absorbents and disposal of MHM items need to be addressed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015019197.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Menarca , Menstruação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , População Urbana
5.
Sex Transm Infect ; 92(4): 251-6, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26819339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually acquired, among adolescent girls is a public health concern, but few studies have measured prevalence in low-middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to examine prevalence in rural schoolgirls in Kenya against their reported symptoms. METHODS: In 2013, a survey was conducted in 542 adolescent schoolgirls aged 14-17 years who were enrolled in a menstrual feasibility study. Vaginal self-swabbing was conducted after girls were interviewed face-to-face by trained nurses on symptoms. The prevalence of girls with symptoms and laboratory-confirmed infections, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of symptoms compared with laboratory results, were calculated. RESULTS: Of 515 girls agreeing to self-swab, 510 answered symptom questions. A quarter (24%) reported one or more symptoms; most commonly vaginal discharge (11%), pain (9%) or itching (4%). Laboratory tests confirmed 28% of girls had one or more RTI. Prevalence rose with age; among girls aged 16-17 years, 33% had infections. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common (18%), followed by Candida albicans (9%), Chlamydia trachomatis (3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1%). Reported symptoms had a low sensitivity and positive predictive value. Three-quarters of girls with bacterial vaginosis and C. albicans, and 50% with T. vaginalis were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of adolescent schoolgirls with RTI in rural Kenya. Public efforts are required to identify and treat infections among girls to reduce longer-term sequelae but poor reliability of symptom reporting minimises utility of symptom-based diagnosis in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN17486946.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia
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