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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7973, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846456

RESUMO

Parkinsonian motor symptoms are linked to pathologically increased beta-oscillations in the basal ganglia. While pharmacological treatment and deep brain stimulation (DBS) reduce these pathological oscillations concomitantly with improving motor performance, we set out to explore neurofeedback as an endogenous modulatory method. We implemented real-time processing of pathological subthalamic beta oscillations through implanted DBS electrodes to provide deep brain electrical neurofeedback. Patients volitionally controlled ongoing beta-oscillatory activity by visual neurofeedback within minutes of training. During a single one-hour training session, the reduction of beta-oscillatory activity became gradually stronger and we observed improved motor performance. Lastly, endogenous control over deep brain activity was possible even after removing visual neurofeedback, suggesting that neurofeedback-acquired strategies were retained in the short-term. Moreover, we observed motor improvement when the learnt mental strategies were applied 2 days later without neurofeedback. Further training of deep brain neurofeedback might provide therapeutic benefits for Parkinson patients by improving symptom control using strategies optimized through neurofeedback.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unilateral magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy is efficacious for the treatment of medically refractory essential tremor (ET). Viability of bilateral FUS ablation is unexplored. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with medically refractory ET and previously treated with unilateral FUS thalamotomy at least 5 months before underwent bilateral treatment. The timepoints were baseline (before first thalamotomy) and FUS1 and FUS2 (4 weeks before and 6 months after second thalamotomy, respectively). The primary endpoint was safety. Efficacy was assessed through the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST), which includes subscales for tremor examination (part A), task performance (part B) and tremor-related disability (part C). RESULTS: Nine patients were treated. No permanent adverse events were registered. Six patients presented mild gait instability and one dysarthria, all resolving within the first few weeks. Three patients reported perioral hypoesthesia, resolving in one case. Total CRST score improved by 71% from baseline to FUS2 (from 52.3±12 to 15.5±9.4, p<0.001), conveying a 67% reduction in bilateral upper limb A+B (from 32.3±7.8 to 10.8±7.3, p=0.001). Part C decreased by 81% (from 16.4±3.6 to 3.1±2.9, p<0.001). Reduction in head and voice tremor was 66% (from 1.2±0.44 to 0.4±0.54, p=0.01) and 45% (from 1.8±1.1 to 1±0.8, p=0.02), respectively. CONCLUSION: Bilateral staged FUS thalamotomy for ET is feasible and might be safe and effective. Voice and head tremor might also improve. A controlled study is warranted.

3.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806013

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 lineages B.1.1.7 (N501Y.V1) throughout the UK, B.1.351 (N501Y.V2) in South Africa, and P.1 (B.1.1.28.1; N501Y.V3) in Brazil has led to the definition of variants of concern (VoCs) and recommendations for lineage specific surveillance. In Switzerland, during the last weeks of December 2020, we established a nationwide screening protocol across multiple laboratories, focusing first on epidemiological and microbiological definitions. In January 2021, we validated and implemented an N501Y-specific PCR to rapidly screen for VoCs, which are then confirmed using amplicon sequencing or whole genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 13,387 VoCs have been identified since the detection of the first Swiss case in October 2020, with 4194 being B.1.1.7, 172 B.1.351, and 7 P.1. The remaining 9014 cases of VoCs have been described without further lineage specification. Overall, all diagnostic centers reported a rapid increase of the percentage of detected VOCs, with a range of 6 to 46% between 25 to 31 of January 2021 increasing towards 41 to 82% between 22 to 28 of February. A total of 739 N501Y positive genomes were analysed and show a broad range of introduction events to Switzerland. In this paper, we describe the nationwide coordination and implementation process across laboratories, public health institutions, and researchers, the first results of our N501Y-specific variant screening, and the phylogenetic analysis of all available WGS data in Switzerland, that together identified the early introduction events and subsequent community spreading of the VoCs.

4.
J Sleep Res ; : e13296, 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813771

RESUMO

Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a disorder with well-established markers and a suspected autoimmune aetiology. Conversely, the narcoleptic borderland (NBL) disorders, including narcolepsy type 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, insufficient sleep syndrome and hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder, lack well-defined markers and remain controversial in terms of aetiology, diagnosis and management. The Swiss Primary Hypersomnolence and Narcolepsy Cohort Study (SPHYNCS) is a comprehensive multicentre cohort study, which will investigate the clinical picture, pathophysiology and long-term course of NT1 and the NBL. The primary aim is to validate new and reappraise well-known markers for the characterization of the NBL, facilitating the diagnostic process. Seven Swiss sleep centres, belonging to the Swiss Narcolepsy Network (SNaNe), joined the study and will prospectively enrol over 500 patients with recent onset of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), hypersomnia or a suspected central disorder of hypersomnolence (CDH) during a 3-year recruitment phase. Healthy controls and patients with EDS due to severe sleep-disordered breathing, improving after therapy, will represent two control groups of over 50 patients each. Clinical and electrophysiological (polysomnography, multiple sleep latency test, maintenance of wakefulness test) information, and information on psychomotor vigilance and a sustained attention to response task, actigraphy and wearable devices (long-term monitoring), and responses to questionnaires will be collected at baseline and after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Potential disease markers will be searched for in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and stool. Analyses will include quantitative hypocretin measurements, proteomics/peptidomics, and immunological, genetic and microbiota studies. SPHYNCS will increase our understanding of CDH and the relationship between NT1 and the NBL. The identification of new disease markers is expected to lead to better and earlier diagnosis, better prognosis and personalized management of CDH.

5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20419, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705561

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Currently, the characterisation of advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD) does not follow standardised diagnostic criteria, which complicates the evaluation of ongoing care and treatment strategies, such as eligibility for device-aided treatment (DAT). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the proportion of APD and non-advanced Parkinson’s disease (non-APD) patients treated at specialised movement disorder centres in Switzerland, to compare clinical characteristics of APD versus non-APD patients and to assess eligibility for and use of DAT. Furthermore, potential differences between the Swiss and international situation should be uncovered. METHODS: OBSERVE-PD was a cross-sectional, international, observational study including 2615 patients from 128 movement disorder centres in 18 countries. For the Swiss subgroup of the study analysed here, which included 134 patients from 5 movement disorder centres, motor and non-motor symptoms, activities of daily living and quality of life were assessed as endpoints. The correlation between physician’s judgement of APD and the Delphi criteria for APD, which were developed by an international expert group, as well as the clinical burden in APD and non-APD patients and eligibility for and use of DAT were evaluated. The results for the Swiss subgroup were subsequently compared with the international full analysis set of the OBSERVE-PD study. RESULTS: Based on physician’s judgement, 69.4% of patients included in the Swiss study suffered from APD. A moderate correlation between physician’s judgement and the Delphi criteria for APD was observed (Κ = 0.480, 95% confidence interval 0.317–0.642). Clinical burden was higher for APD patients, as shown by worse scores for activities of daily living, motor symptom severity, dyskinesia duration/disability, duration of “off” time, non-motor symptoms and quality of life as compared with non-APD patients (p <0.0001 for all). The Swiss data for disease burden were comparable to the international findings, except that the Swiss patients showed less “off” time. Amongst APD patients eligible for DAT, the main reason for no DAT in Switzerland was patient refusal, whereas patients needing more time to decide about it was the most frequent reason in the international analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that the burden of APD in tertiary care centres in Switzerland is comparable to the international situation. Patient refusal is the main reason for no DAT amongst eligible APD patients in such centres. The identification of standard APD classification parameters and evaluation of the reasons for no DAT are relevant for optimising treatment strategies and the transition to DAT.

6.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(4): 857-863, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unilateral manifestation of motor dysfunction is a prominent hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated how the motor laterality of the disorder affects sleep neural asymmetry before and after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). METHODS: Twenty-seven PD patients of the akinetic-rigid subtype were studied; 11 with right dominant (RD) and 16 with left dominant (LD) motor symptoms. Neuronal sleep asymmetry was computed as the difference of sleep slow-wave energy (SWE) between left and right hemispheres. We used linear mixed models to assess the relationship between symptomatic profile and SWE asymmetry. RESULTS: LD PD patients exhibited frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry and motor laterality pre-DBS with increased SWE contralateral to their affected body side, which diminished post-DBS. The RD group did not exhibit neither neural asymmetry nor motor laterality pre- and post-DBS. There was a significant negative correlation between the motor laterality and sleep EEG asymmetry. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest evidence for a local use-dependent modulation of SWE as a result of the lateralized pathological motor profile. More bilateral motor symptoms and optimized treatment contribute to diminished sleep EEG asymmetry. SIGNIFICANCE: These novel findings about the association between symptomatic motor laterality and sleep neural asymmetry may provide targeted therapeutic insights.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284860

RESUMO

This retrospective single-center polysomnography-based study was designed to assess the frequency of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in consecutive patients with Parkinsonism, including Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration. We observed RBD in 77% of 540 Parkinson patients, with rising frequency at higher age and regardless of sex, in >89% of 89 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies or multiple system atrophy, and in <15% of 42 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy or corticobasal degeneration. Thus, the prevalence of RBD in sporadic Parkinson disease might be higher than previously assumed, particularly in elderly patients.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom of chronic inflammation, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), resulting in significant impairment in quality of life. AIMS: To identify the prevalence of fatigue in a large IBD cohort compared to the general population, address risk factors, and evaluate its impact on daily life. METHODS: We evaluated 1208 IBD patients from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study (SIBDCS) and 414 healthy controls. Significant fatigue was defined as a visual analogue scale (VAS-F, range 0-10) score ≥ 4. Secondary endpoints were severity of fatigue and its impact on daily activities with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), with a score ≥ 4 indicative of fatigue. Demographic, IBD-related and psychiatric symptoms were assessed with a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model optimised for prediction of VAS-F (primary outcome) and FSS scores. RESULTS: Overall, 672 IBD patients (55.6%) reported significant fatigue compared to 145 (35%) controls (OR 2.71; 95% CI 2.08-3.54; P < 0.001). In IBD, fatigue also significantly affected daily activities (FSS ≥ 4; 405 (33.5%) IBD patients vs 81 (19.6%) controls, P < 0.001). In the MANOVA model, fatigue levels were associated with female gender (coefficient 0.839; 0.556 - 1.123; P < 0.001), younger age at diagnosis (-0.031 per year; -0.042- -0.019; P < 0.001), shorter disease duration (-0.036 per year; -0.050- -0.022; P < 0.001), nocturnal diarrhoea (0.718; 0.295-1.141; P = 0.001), low educational level (P = 0.034) and symptoms of depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue is both more frequent and more severe in patients with IBD than in the general population.

9.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153167

RESUMO

We have investigated urine samples after coffee consumption using targeted and untargeted approaches to identify furan and 2-methylfuran metabolites in urine samples by UPLC-qToF. The aim was to establish a fast, robust, and time-saving method involving ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quantitative time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-qToF-MS/MS). The developed method detected previously reported metabolites, such as Lys-BDA, and others that had not been previously identified, or only detected in animal or in vitro studies. The developed UPLC-qToF method detected previously reported metabolites, such as lysine-cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (Lys-BDA) adducts, and others that had not been previously identified, or only detected in animal and in vitro studies. In sum, the UPLC-qToF approach provides additional information that may be valuable in future human or animal intervention studies.

10.
Neuropharmacology ; 181: 108353, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038358

RESUMO

Parkinson disease is typically treated with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or levodopa) co-prescribed with concentration stabilizers to prevent undesired motor fluctuations. However, the beneficial role of the chronic combined therapy on disease progression has not been thoroughly explored. We hypothesized that tolcapone, a catechol-O-methyl-transferase inhibitor, co-administered with levodopa may offer beneficial long-term disease-modifying effects through its dopamine stabilization actions. Here, we followed vesicular monoamine transporter 2-deficient and wild-type mice treated twice daily per os with vehicle, levodopa (20 mg/kg), tolcapone (15 mg/kg) or levodopa (12.5 mg/kg) + tolcapone (15 mg/kg) for 17 weeks. We assessed open field, bar test and rotarod performances at baseline and every 4th week thereafter, corresponding to OFF-medication weeks. Finally, we collected coronal sections from the frontal caudate-putamen and determined the reactivity level of dopamine transporter. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2-deficient mice responded positively to chronic levodopa + tolcapone intervention in the bar test during OFF-periods. Neither levodopa nor tolcapone interventions offered significant improvements on their own. Similarly, chronic levodopa + tolcapone intervention was associated with partially rescued dopamine transporter levels, whereas animals treated solely with levodopa or tolcapone did not present this effect. Interestingly, 4-month progression of bar test scores correlated significantly with dopamine-transporter-label density. Overall, we observed a moderate functional and histopathological improvement effect by chronic dopamine replacement when combined with tolcapone in vesicular monoamine transporter 2-deficient mice. Altogether, chronic stabilization of dopamine levels by catechol-O-methyl-transferase inhibition, besides its intended immediate actions, arises as a potential long-term beneficial approach during the progression of Parkinson disease.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat various neurological disorders is undisputed, the surgical methods differ widely and the importance of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) or macrostimulation (MS) remains controversially debated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of MER and MS on intraoperative lead placement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 101 patients who underwent awake bilateral implantation of electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus with MER and MS for Parkinson's disease from 2009 to 2017 in a retrospective observational study. We analyzed intraoperative motor outcomes between anatomically planned stimulation point (PSP) and definite stimulation point (DSP), lead adjustments and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Item III (UPDRS-III), levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), and adverse events (AE) after 6 months. RESULTS: We adjusted 65/202 leads in 47/101 patients. In adjusted leads, MS results improved significantly when comparing PSP and DSP (p < 0.001), resulting in a number needed to treat of 9.6. After DBS, UPDRS-III and LEDD improved significantly after 6 months in adjusted and nonadjusted patients (p < 0.001). In 87% of leads, the active contact at 6 months still covered the optimal stimulation point during surgery. In total, 15 AE occurred. CONCLUSION: MER and MS have a relevant impact on the intraoperative decision of final lead placement and prevent from a substantial rate of poor stimulation outcome. The optimal stimulation points during surgery and chronic stimulation strongly overlap. Follow-up UPDRS-III results, LEDD reductions, and DBS-related AE correspond well to previously published data.

14.
Sleep ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909046

RESUMO

Increased incidence rates of narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) have been reported world-wide after the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1). While some European countries found an association between the NT1 incidence increase and the H1N1 vaccination Pandemrix, reports from Asian countries suggested the H1N1 virus itself to be linked to the increased NT1 incidence. Using robust data-driven modelling approaches, i.e., locally estimated scatterplot smoothing methods, we analyzed the number of de-novo NT1 cases (n= 508) in the last two decades using the European Narcolepsy Network database. We confirmed the peak of NT1 incidence in 2010, i.e., 2.54-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: [2.11, 3.19]) increase in NT1 onset following 2009-2010 pH1N1. This peak in 2010 was found in both childhood NT1 (2.75-fold increase, 95% CI: [1.95, 4.69]) and adulthood NT1 (2.43-fold increase, 95% CI: [2.05, 2.97]). In addition, we identified a new peak in 2013 that is age-specific for children/adolescents (i.e., 2.09-fold increase, 95% CI: [1.52, 3.32]). Most of these children/adolescents were HLA DQB1*06:02 positive and showed a subacute disease onset consistent with an immune-mediated type of narcolepsy. The new 2013 incidence peak is likely not related to Pandemrix as it was not used after 2010. Our results suggest that the increased NT1 incidence after 2009-2010 pH1N1 is not unique and our study provides an opportunity to develop new hypotheses, e.g., considering other (influenza) viruses or epidemiological events to further investigate the pathophysiology of immune-mediated narcolepsy.

15.
J Sleep Res ; : e13203, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989797

RESUMO

Because of unspecific diagnostic criteria, there is much controversy around narcolepsy type 2, its existence and its frequency. With this retrospective and purely descriptive study, we aimed to compare the frequency of narcolepsy type 2 compared to the well-described narcolepsy type 1, in a large (n = 3,782) retrospective sample from a single tertiary sleep centre. After 2 weeks washout of sleep-wake active medication, all patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (n = 1,392) underwent 2 weeks actigraphy, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test, and all diagnoses were made along current diagnostic criteria. Narcolepsy type 1 was diagnosed in 91 patients, and 191 patients without cataplexy had multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) results indicating narcolepsy. After exclusion of shift work syndrome (n = 19), suspected insufficient sleep syndrome (n = 128), delayed sleep phase syndrome (n = 4) and obstructive sleep apnea (n = 34), six patients were diagnosed with narcolepsy type 2, of whom two patients later developed narcolepsy type 1. Altogether, our observations suggest that narcolepsy type 2 exists, but its frequency may be much lower compared to narcolepsy type 1. In addition, they emphasize the importance of scrupulously excluding other potential causes of sleepiness, if possible, with 2-week actigraphy and polysomnography.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 135-148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992153

RESUMO

The fifth multistakeholder Paediatric Strategy Forum focussed on epigenetic modifier therapies for children and adolescents with cancer. As most mutations in paediatric malignancies influence chromatin-associated proteins or transcription and paediatric cancers are driven by developmental gene expression programs, targeting epigenetic mechanisms is predicted to be a very important therapeutic approach in paediatric cancer. The Research to Accelerate Cures and Equity (RACE) for Children Act FDARA amendments to section 505B of the FD&C Act was implemented in August 2020, and as there are many epigenetic targets on the FDA Paediatric Molecular Targets List, clinical evaluation of epigenetic modifiers in paediatric cancers should be considered early in drug development. Companies are also required to submit to the EMA paediatric investigation plans aiming to ensure that the necessary data to support the authorisation of a medicine for children in EU are of high quality and ethically researched. The specific aims of the forum were i) to identify epigenetic targets or mechanisms of action associated with epigenetic modification relevant to paediatric cancers and ii) to define the landscape for paediatric drug development of epigenetic modifier therapies. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors/hypomethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors were largely excluded from discussion as the aim was to discuss those targets for which therapeutic agents are currently in early paediatric and adult development. Epigenetics is an evolving field and could be highly relevant to many paediatric cancers; the biology is multifaceted and new targets are frequently emerging. Targeting epigenetic mechanisms in paediatric malignancy has in most circumstances yet to reach or extend beyond clinical proof of concept, as many targets do not yet have available investigational drugs developed. Eight classes of medicinal products were discussed and prioritised based on the existing level of science to support early evaluation in children: inhibitors of menin, DOT1L, EZH2, EED, BET, PRMT5 and LSD1 and a retinoic acid receptor alpha agonist. Menin inhibitors should be moved rapidly into paediatric development, in view of their biological rationale, strong preclinical activity and ability to fulfil an unmet clinical need. A combination approach is critical for successful utilisation of any epigenetic modifiers (e.g. EZH2 and EED) and exploration of the optimum combination(s) should be supported by preclinical research and, where possible, molecular biomarker validation in advance of clinical translation. A follow-up multistakeholder meeting focussing on BET inhibitors will be held to define how to prioritise the multiple compounds in clinical development that could be evaluated in children with cancer. As epigenetic modifiers are relatively early in development in paediatrics, there is a clear opportunity to shape the landscape of therapies targeting the epigenome in order that efficient and optimum plans for their evaluation in children and adolescents are developed in a timely manner.

17.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 79: 65-72, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While efficacy of deep brain stimulation for motor symptoms of neurological disorders is well accepted, its effects on the autonomic system remain controversial. We aimed to systematically assess all available evidence of deep brain stimulation effects on lower urinary tract function. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Studies were identified by electronic search of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science (last search July 12, 2019) and by screening of reference lists and reviews. RESULTS: After screening 577 articles, we included 29 studies enrolling a total of 1293 patients. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi), pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and subthalamic nucleus (STN) had an inhibitory effect on detrusor function, while deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) showed an excitatory effect. In the meta-analysis, deep brain stimulation of the STN led to a significant increase in maximum bladder capacity (mean difference 124 mL, 95% confidence interval 60-187 mL, p = 0.0001) but had no clinically relevant effects on other urodynamic parameters. Adverse events (reported in thirteen studies) were most commonly respiratory issues, postural instability, and dysphagia. Risk of bias and confounding was relatively low. CONCLUSIONS: Deep brain stimulation does not impair lower urinary tract function and might even have beneficial effects. This needs to be considered in the deep brain stimulation decision-making process helping to encourage and to reassure prospective patients.

18.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752120

RESUMO

Enteroviruses are small RNA viruses that affect millions of people each year by causing an important burden of disease with a broad spectrum of symptoms. In routine diagnostic laboratories, enteroviruses are identified by PCR-based methods, often combined with partial sequencing for genotyping. In this proof-of-principle study, we assessed direct RNA sequencing (DRS) using nanopore sequencing technology for fast whole-genome sequencing of viruses directly from clinical samples. The approach was complemented by sequencing the corresponding viral cDNA via Illumina MiSeq sequencing. DRS of total RNA extracted from three different enterovirus-positive stool samples produced long RNA fragments, covering between 59% and 99.6% of the most similar reference genome sequences. The identification of the enterovirus sequences in the samples was confirmed by short-read cDNA sequencing. Sequence identity between DRS and Illumina MiSeq enterovirus consensus sequences ranged between 94% and 97%. Here, we show that nanopore DRS can be used to correctly identify enterovirus genotypes from patient stool samples with high viral load and that the approach also provides rich metatranscriptomic information on sample composition for all life domains.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(47): 20965-20972, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726501

RESUMO

To achieve efficient proton pumping in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the protein must be tightly coupled to the retinal to rapidly convert retinal isomerization into protein structural rearrangements. Methyl group dynamics of bR embedded in lipid nanodiscs were determined in the dark-adapted state, and were found to be mostly well ordered at the cytosolic side. Methyl groups in the M145A mutant of bR, which displays only 10 % residual proton pumping activity, are less well ordered, suggesting a link between side-chain dynamics on the cytosolic side of the bR cavity and proton pumping activity. In addition, slow conformational exchange, attributed to low frequency motions of aromatic rings, was indirectly observed for residues on the extracellular side of the bR cavity. This may be related to reorganization of the water network. These observations provide a detailed picture of previously undescribed equilibrium dynamics on different time scales for ground-state bR.

20.
J Sleep Res ; : e13109, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557957

RESUMO

Insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS) is prevalent, but poorly studied. This descriptive study was performed to determine its diagnostic challenges and clinical characteristics in a large (n = 3,461) retrospective sample from a single sleep laboratory. Based on actigraphy, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests, we diagnosed "suspected insufficient sleep syndrome" in patients with chronic sleepiness, short time in bed, longer sleep duration during weekends or vacation, and without evidence of other causes of sleepiness. For the diagnosis of "definite insufficient sleep syndrome", we additionally required objectively confirmed resolution of sleepiness with actigraphy-documented extension of time in bed. We diagnosed "suspected insufficient sleep syndrome" in 300 subjects. In 94 subjects, extension of sleep time with consecutive relief of sleepiness was attempted, but only 37 subjects succeeded, often despite being offered several attempts. "Definite insufficient sleep syndrome" was confirmed in 36 patients. In these subjects, mean time in bed after sleep extension was above 8 hr per night and 84 min longer than at baseline. Narcolepsy-like findings were frequently observed before sleep extension, but no sleep onset rapid eye movement sleep on polysomnography. This study indicates that fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of ISS is challenging in clinical practice. It further corroborates the importance of actigraphy and polysomnography for correct diagnosis.

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