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Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529184


BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly established as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the current HRQoL among children and adolescents in Germany aged between 11 and 17 years taking into account common chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, obesity, ADHD) and mental health problems. METHODS: The analysis is based on information obtained from 6,599 children and adolescents (51.9% girls; 48.1% boys) from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017). HRQoL was measured with the multidimensional KIDSCREEN-27. The chronic diseases and mental health problems under investigation were assessed by several indicators. RESULTS: Differences in HRQoL could be found as a function of age and gender. The HRQoL among girls was lower at an older age across all dimensions. These age-related differences are less pronounced among boys. The HRQoL of children and adolescents with chronic diseases and mental health problems was lower compared to their healthy peer groups. The comparison of the investigated chronic diseases and mental health problems revealed significant differences. Particularly, HRQoL was lower for children and adolescents with obesity and mental health problems. DISCUSSION: The distinction of several dimensions of HRQoL allows a comprehensive understanding of age- and gender-related effects and provides a detailed assessment of the impact of chronic diseases and mental health problems. The present findings underline the importance of HRQoL as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents.

Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 81, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064363


BACKGROUND: To estimate the effect of strabismus (squinting) on mental health and health-related quality of life aspects in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents KiGGS (2003-2006 baseline survey; N = 14,835, aged 3 to 17 years, 49% girls) were examined. The presence of strabismus was derived by parental questionnaire, and health-related quality of life and mental health were investigated with the KINDL-R and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Associations between strabismus and outcomes were analyzed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 12,989 children without missing data, 579 children (4.5% of the sample) were reported to have strabismus. Children with strabismus had lower scores in the parent-reported KINDL-R total scale (adjusted beta = - 1.02; 95%CI: -1.86 to - 0.18; p = 0.018) and sub-scale 'friends' (adjusted beta = - 2.18; 95%CI: -3.56 to -0.80; p = 0.002) compared to children without strabismus. The presence of strabismus was also associated with more mental health problems like 'hyperactivity/inattention' (adjusted OR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.98; p = 0.005), and 'peer problems' (adjusted OR = 1.35; 95%-CI: 1.05 to 1.74; p = 0.018) as reported by parents. CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus in children and adolescents is associated with lower health-related quality of life.

Qualidade de Vida , Estrabismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Estrabismo/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
Biopsychosoc Med ; 8: 12, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24904687


BACKGROUND: Healthy university students have been shown to use psychoactive substances, expecting them to be functional means for enhancing their cognitive capacity, sometimes over and above an essentially proficient level. This behavior called Neuroenhancement (NE) has not yet been integrated into a behavioral theory that is able to predict performance. Job Demands Resources (JD-R) Theory for example assumes that strain (e.g. burnout) will occur and influence performance when job demands are high and job resources are limited at the same time. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not university students' self-reported NE can be integrated into JD-R Theory's comprehensive approach to psychological health and performance. METHODS: 1,007 students (23.56 ± 3.83 years old, 637 female) participated in an online survey. Lifestyle drug, prescription drug, and illicit substance NE together with the complete set of JD-R variables (demands, burnout, resources, motivation, and performance) were measured. Path models were used in order to test our data's fit to hypothesized main effects and interactions. RESULTS: JD-R Theory could successfully be applied to describe the situation of university students. NE was mainly associated with the JD-R Theory's health impairment process: Lifestyle drug NE (p < .05) as well as prescription drug NE (p < .001) is associated with higher burnout scores, and lifestyle drug NE aggravates the study demands-burnout interaction. In addition, prescription drug NE mitigates the protective influence of resources on burnout and on motivation. CONCLUSION: According to our results, the uninformed trying of NE (i.e., without medical supervision) might result in strain. Increased strain is related to decreased performance. From a public health perspective, intervention strategies should address these costs of non-supervised NE. With regard to future research we propose to model NE as a means to reach an end (i.e. performance enhancement) rather than a target behavior itself. This is necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the behavioral roots and consequences of the phenomenon.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 8: 41, 2013 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24314053


BACKGROUND: Neuroenhancement (NE), the use of psychoactive substances in order to enhance a healthy individual's cognitive functioning from a proficient to an even higher level, is prevalent in student populations. According to the strength model of self-control, people fail to self-regulate and fall back on their dominant behavioral response when finite self-control resources are depleted. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that ego-depletion will prevent students who are unfamiliar with NE from trying it. FINDINGS: 130 undergraduates, who denied having tried NE before (43% female, mean age = 22.76 ± 4.15 years old), were randomly assigned to either an ego-depletion or a control condition. The dependent variable was taking an "energy-stick" (a legal nutritional supplement, containing low doses of caffeine, taurine and vitamin B), offered as a potential means of enhancing performance on the bogus concentration task that followed. Logistic regression analysis showed that ego-depleted participants were three times less likely to take the substance, OR = 0.37, p = .01. CONCLUSION: This experiment found that trying NE for the first time was more likely if an individual's cognitive capacities were not depleted. This means that mental exhaustion is not predictive for NE in students for whom NE is not the dominant response. Trying NE for the first time is therefore more likely to occur as a thoughtful attempt at self-regulation than as an automatic behavioral response in stressful situations. We therefore recommend targeting interventions at this inter-individual difference. Students without previous reinforcing NE experience should be provided with information about the possible negative health outcomes of NE. Reconfiguring structural aspects in the academic environment (e.g. lessening workloads) might help to deter current users.

Cognição , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Automedicação/psicologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem