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1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(6): 1072-1080, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211171

RESUMO

Background: A 49-year-old male presented with late-onset demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, and cognitive deficit. Nerve biopsy revealed intra-axonal inclusions suggestive of polyglucosan bodies, raising the suspicion of adult polyglucosan bodies disease (OMIM 263570). Methods and Results: While known genes associated with polyglucosan bodies storage were negative, whole-exome sequencing identified an unreported monoallelic variant, c.397G>T (p.Val133Phe), in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene. While we did not identify mutations in genes known to be associated with polygucosan body disease, whole-exome sequencing revealed an unreported monoallelic variant, c.397G>T in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene, encoding a substitution (Val133Phe) in the catalytic domain. Expression of this variant in patient cells resulted in reduced aminoacylation activity in extracts obtained from dermal fibroblasts, without compromising overall protein synthesis. Interpretation: Genetic variants in the genes coding for the different aminoacyl-tRNA synthases are associated with various clinical conditions. To date, a number of HARS variant have been associated with peripheral neuropathy, but not cognitive deficits. Further studies are needed to explore why HARS mutations confer a neuronal-specific phenotype.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 86(1): 116-128, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) often present with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on cognitive outcomes in UCDs. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study includes data from 503 individuals with UCDs who had comprehensive neurocognitive testing with a cumulative follow-up of 702 patient-years. RESULTS: The mean cognitive standard deviation score (cSDS) was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic (p < 0.001, t test) individuals with UCDs. Intellectual disability (intellectual quotient < 70, cSDS < -2.0) was associated with the respective subtype of UCD and early disease onset, whereas height of the initial peak plasma ammonium concentration was inversely associated with neurocognitive outcomes in mitochondrial (proximal) rather than cytosolic (distal) UCDs. In ornithine transcarbamylase and argininosuccinate synthetase 1 deficiencies, we did not find evidence that monoscavenger therapy with sodium or glycerol phenylbutyrate was superior to sodium benzoate in providing cognitive protection. Early liver transplantation appears to be beneficial for UCDs. It is noteworthy that individuals with argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and argininosuccinate lyase deficiencies identified by newborn screening had better neurocognitive outcomes than those diagnosed after the manifestation of first symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Cognitive function is related to interventional and non-interventional variables. Early detection by newborn screening and early liver transplantation appear to offer greater cognitive protection, but none of the currently used nitrogen scavengers was superior with regard to long-term neurocognitive outcome. Further confirmation could determine these variables as important clinical indicators of neuroprotection for individuals with UCDs. ANN NEUROL 2019.

3.
Mol Genet Metab ; 126(4): 355-361, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular carbohydrate intake to avoid hypoglycemia is the mainstay of dietary treatment in glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of dietary treatment and glycemic control in a cohort of GSDI patients, in relation to the presence of typical long-term complications. METHODS: Data of 25 patients (22 GSD subtype Ia and 3 GSDIb, median age 20y) from the Swiss hepatic glycogen storage disease registry was analyzed cross-sectionally. Frequency and type of hypoglycemia symptoms were assessed prospectively using a structured questionnaire. Diagnostic continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed as part of usual clinical care to assess glycemic control in 14 patients, usually once per year with a mean duration of 6.2 ±â€¯1.1 consecutive days per patient per measurement. RESULTS: Although maintenance of euglycemia is the primary goal of dietary treatment, few patients (n = 3, 13%) performed capillary blood glucose measurements regularly. Symptoms possibly associated with hypoglycemia were present in 13 patients (57%), but CGM revealed periods of low glucose (<4 mmol/l) in all patients, irrespective of the presence of symptoms. GSDIa patients with liver adenomas (n = 9, 41%) showed a higher frequency and area under the curve (AUC) of low blood glucose than patients without adenomas (frequency 2.7 ±â€¯0.8 vs. 1.5 ±â€¯0.7 per day, AUC 0.11 ±â€¯0.08 vs. 0.03 ±â€¯0.02 mmol/l/d; p < 0.05). Similarly, the presence of microalbuminuria was also associated with the frequency of low blood glucose. Z-Scores of bone density correlated negatively with lactate levels. CONCLUSION: The quality of glucose control is related to the presence of typical long-term complications in GSDI. Many patients experience episodes of asymptomatic low blood glucose. Regular assessment of glucose control is an essential element to evaluate the quality of treatment, and increasing the frequency of glucose self-monitoring remains an important goal of patient education and motivation. CGM devices may support patients to optimize dietary therapy in everyday life.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(4): 686-705, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761552

RESUMO

This review gives an overview of clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of nutritional and acquired cobalamin (Cbl; synonym: vitamin B12) deficiencies, inborn errors of Cbl absorption and intracellular trafficking, as well as methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiencies, which impair Cbl-dependent remethylation. Acquired and inborn Cbl-related disorders and MTHFR deficiency cause multisystem, often severe disease. Failure to thrive, neurocognitive or psychiatric symptoms, eye disease, bone marrow alterations, microangiopathy and thromboembolic events are characteristic. The recently identified MTHFD1 defect additionally presents with severe immune deficiency. Deficient Cbl-dependent enzymes cause reduced methylation capacity and metabolite toxicity. Further net-effects of perturbed Cbl function or reduced Cbl supply causing oxidative stress, altered cytokine regulation or immune functions are discussed.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 93-106, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve our understanding of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) prospectively followed by two North American (NA) and European (EU) patient cohorts. AIMS: Description of the NA and EU patient samples and investigation of the prospects of combined and comparative analyses for individuals with UCDs. METHODS: Retrieval and comparison of the data from 1095 individuals (NA: 620, EU: 475) from two electronic databases. RESULTS: The proportion of females with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (fOTC-D), particularly those being asymptomatic (asfOTC-D), was higher in the NA than in the EU sample. Exclusion of asfOTC-D resulted in similar distributions in both samples. The mean age at first symptoms was higher in NA than in EU patients with late onset (LO), but similar for those with early (≤ 28 days) onset (EO) of symptoms. Also, the mean age at diagnosis and diagnostic delay for EO and LO patients were similar in the NA and EU cohorts. In most patients (including fOTC-D), diagnosis was made after the onset of symptoms (59.9%) or by high-risk family screening (24.7%), and less often by newborn screening (8.9%) and prenatal testing (3.7%). Analysis of clinical phenotypes revealed that EO patients presented with more symptoms than LO individuals, but that numbers of symptoms correlated with plasma ammonium concentrations in EO patients only. Liver transplantation was reported for 90 NA and 25 EU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Combined analysis of databases drawn from distinct populations opens the possibility to increase sample sizes for natural history questions, while comparative analysis utilizing differences in approach to treatment can evaluate therapeutic options and enhance long-term outcome studies.

6.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 333-352, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773687

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry. RESULTS: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(4): 673-685, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693532

RESUMO

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is a nutrient essential to human health. Due to its complex structure and dual cofactor forms, Cbl undergoes a complicated series of absorptive and processing steps before serving as cofactor for the enzymes methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase is required for the catabolism of certain (branched-chain) amino acids into an anaplerotic substrate in the mitochondrion, and dysfunction of the enzyme itself or in production of its cofactor adenosyl-Cbl result in an inability to successfully undergo protein catabolism with concomitant mitochondrial energy disruption. Methionine synthase catalyzes the methyl-Cbl dependent (re)methylation of homocysteine to methionine within the methionine cycle; a reaction required to produce this essential amino acid and generate S-adenosylmethionine, the most important cellular methyl-donor. Disruption of methionine synthase has wide-ranging implications for all methylation-dependent reactions, including epigenetic modification, but also for the intracellular folate pathway, since methionine synthase uses 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as a one-carbon donor. Folate-bound one-carbon units are also required for deoxythymidine monophosphate and de novo purine synthesis; therefore, the flow of single carbon units to each of these pathways must be regulated based on cellular needs. This review provides an overview on Cbl metabolism with a brief description of absorption and intracellular metabolic pathways. It also provides a description of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism and its intersection with Cbl at the methionine cycle. Finally, a summary of recent advances in understanding of how both pathways are regulated is presented.

9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(6): 1265-1272, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682498

RESUMO

Human methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase (MCEE) catalyzes the interconversion of d-methylmalonyl-CoA and l-methylmalonyl-CoA in propionate catabolism. Autosomal recessive pathogenic variations in MCEE reportedly cause methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria) in eleven patients. We investigated a cohort of 150 individuals suffering from MMAuria of unknown origin, identifying ten new patients with pathogenic variations in MCEE. Nine patients were homozygous for the known nonsense variation p.Arg47* (c.139C > T), and one for the novel missense variation p.Ile53Arg (c.158T > G). To understand better the molecular basis of MCEE deficiency, we mapped p.Ile53Arg, and two previously described pathogenic variations p.Lys60Gln and p.Arg143Cys, onto our 1.8 Šstructure of wild-type (wt) human MCEE. This revealed potential dimeric assembly disruption by p.Ile53Arg, but no clear defects from p.Lys60Gln or p.Arg143Cys. We solved the structure of MCEE-Arg143Cys to 1.9 Šand found significant disruption of two important loop structures, potentially impacting surface features as well as the active-site pocket. Functional analysis of MCEE-Ile53Arg expressed in a bacterial recombinant system as well as patient-derived fibroblasts revealed nearly undetectable soluble protein levels, defective globular protein behavior, and using a newly developed assay, lack of enzymatic activity - consistent with misfolded protein. By contrast, soluble protein levels, unfolding characteristics and activity of MCEE-Lys60Gln were comparable to wt, leaving unclear how this variation may cause disease. MCEE-Arg143Cys was detectable at comparable levels to wt MCEE, but had slightly altered unfolding kinetics and greatly reduced activity. These studies reveal ten new patients with MCEE deficiency and rationalize misfolding and loss of activity as molecular defects in MCEE-type MMAuria.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178268

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry. RESULTS: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.

11.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(1-2): 73-78, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 1-Deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids. They are formed during sphingolipid de novo synthesis by the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase, due to the alternate use of alanine over its canonical substrate serine. Pathologically elevated 1-deoxySL are involved in several neurological and metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 1-deoxySL in glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI). METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal observational study (median follow-up 1.8y), the plasma 1-deoxySL profile was analyzed in 15 adult GSDI patients (12 GSDIa, 3 GSDIb), and 31 healthy controls, along with standard parameters for monitoring GSDI. RESULTS: 1-Deoxysphinganine (1-deoxySA) concentrations were elevated in GSDI compared to controls (191 ±â€¯129 vs 35 ±â€¯14 nmol/l, p < 0.0001). Concordant with the mechanism of 1-deoxySL synthesis, plasma alanine was higher (625 ±â€¯182 vs 398 ±â€¯90 µmol/l, p < 0.0001), while serine was lower in GSDI than in controls (88 ±â€¯22 vs 110 ±â€¯18 µmol/l. p < 0.001). Accordingly, serine, alanine and triglycerides were determinants of 1-deoxySA in the longitudinal analysis of GSDIa. 1-deoxySA concentrations correlated with the occurrence of low blood glucose (area under the curve below 4 mmol/l) in continuous glucose monitoring. The 1-deoxySL profile in GSDIb was distinct from GSDIa, with a different ratio of saturated to unsaturated 1-deoxySL. CONCLUSION: In addition to the known abnormalities of lipoproteins, GSDI patients also have a disturbed sphingolipid metabolism with elevated plasma 1-deoxySL concentrations. 1-DeoxySA relates to the occurrence of low blood glucose, and may constitute a potential new biomarker for assessing metabolic control. GSDIa and Ib have distinct 1-deoxySL profiles indicating that both GSD subtypes have diverse phenotypes regarding lipid metabolism.

12.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve our understanding of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) prospectively followed by two North American (NA) and European (EU) patient cohorts. AIMS: Description of the NA and EU patient samples and investigation of the prospects of combined and comparative analyses for individuals with UCDs. METHODS: Retrieval and comparison of the data from 1095 individuals (NA: 620, EU: 475) from two electronic databases. RESULTS: The proportion of females with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (fOTC-D), particularly those being asymptomatic (asfOTC-D), was higher in the NA than in the EU sample. Exclusion of asfOTC-D resulted in similar distributions in both samples. The mean age at first symptoms was higher in NA than in EU patients with late onset (LO), but similar for those with early (≤ 28 days) onset (EO) of symptoms. Also, the mean age at diagnosis and diagnostic delay for EO and LO patients were similar in the NA and EU cohorts. In most patients (including fOTC-D), diagnosis was made after the onset of symptoms (59.9%) or by high-risk family screening (24.7%), and less often by newborn screening (8.9%) and prenatal testing (3.7%). Analysis of clinical phenotypes revealed that EO patients presented with more symptoms than LO individuals, but that numbers of symptoms correlated with plasma ammonium concentrations in EO patients only. Liver transplantation was reported for 90 NA and 25 EU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Combined analysis of databases drawn from distinct populations opens the possibility to increase sample sizes for natural history questions, while comparative analysis utilising differences in approach to treatment can evaluate therapeutic options and enhance long-term outcome studies.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2261, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891918

RESUMO

The folate and methionine cycles are crucial for biosynthesis of lipids, nucleotides and proteins, and production of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) represents a key regulatory connection between these cycles, generating 5-methyltetrahydrofolate for initiation of the methionine cycle, and undergoing allosteric inhibition by its end product SAM. Our 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of human MTHFR reveals a unique architecture, appending the well-conserved catalytic TIM-barrel to a eukaryote-only SAM-binding domain. The latter domain of novel fold provides the predominant interface for MTHFR homo-dimerization, positioning the N-terminal serine-rich phosphorylation region near the C-terminal SAM-binding domain. This explains how MTHFR phosphorylation, identified on 11 N-terminal residues (16 in total), increases sensitivity to SAM binding and inhibition. Finally, we demonstrate that the 25-amino-acid inter-domain linker enables conformational plasticity and propose it to be a key mediator of SAM regulation. Together, these results provide insight into the molecular regulation of MTHFR.

14.
Ann Neurol ; 83(5): 970-979, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Untreated individuals with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) commonly present with a complex, predominantly dystonic movement disorder (MD) following acute or insidious onset striatal damage. Implementation of GA1 into newborn screening (NBS) programs has improved the short-term outcome. It remains unclear, however, whether NBS changes the long-term outcome and which variables are predictive. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study includes 87 patients identified by NBS, 4 patients missed by NBS, and 3 women with GA1 identified by positive NBS results of their unaffected children. RESULTS: The study population comprises 98.3% of individuals with GA1 identified by NBS in Germany during 1999-2016. Overall, cumulative sensitivity of NBS is 95.6%, but it is lower (84%) for patients with low excreter phenotype. The neurologic outcome of patients missed by NBS is as poor as in the pre-NBS era, and the clinical phenotype of diagnosed patients depends on the quality of therapeutic interventions rather than noninterventional variables. Presymptomatic start of treatment according to current guideline recommendations clearly improves the neurologic outcome (MD: 7% of patients), whereas delayed emergency treatment results in acute onset MD (100%), and deviations from maintenance treatment increase the risk of insidious onset MD (50%). Independent of the neurologic phenotype, kidney function tends to decline with age, a nonneurologic manifestation not predicted by any variable included in this study. INTERPRETATION: NBS is a beneficial, disease-changing intervention for GA1. However, improved neurologic outcome critically depends on adherence to recommended therapy, whereas kidney dysfunction does not appear to be impacted by recommended therapy. Ann Neurol 2018;83:970-979.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 554, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396438

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the title, which was incorrectly given as 'APRDX1 mutant allele causes a MMACHC secondary epimutation in cblC patients'. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article to read 'A PRDX1 mutant allele causes a MMACHC secondary epimutation in cblC patients'.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 67, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302025

RESUMO

To date, epimutations reported in man have been somatic and erased in germlines. Here, we identify a cause of the autosomal recessive cblC class of inborn errors of vitamin B12 metabolism that we name "epi-cblC". The subjects are compound heterozygotes for a genetic mutation and for a promoter epimutation, detected in blood, fibroblasts, and sperm, at the MMACHC locus; 5-azacytidine restores the expression of MMACHC in fibroblasts. MMACHC is flanked by CCDC163P and PRDX1, which are in the opposite orientation. The epimutation is present in three generations and results from PRDX1 mutations that force antisense transcription of MMACHC thereby possibly generating a H3K36me3 mark. The silencing of PRDX1 transcription leads to partial hypomethylation of the epiallele and restores the expression of MMACHC. This example of epi-cblC demonstrates the need to search for compound epigenetic-genetic heterozygosity in patients with typical disease manifestation and genetic heterozygosity in disease-causing genes located in other gene trios.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Epistasia Genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Mutação , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Alelos , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184897, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test). We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL. METHODS: The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients. RESULTS: Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min) sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid. CONCLUSIONS: A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test) which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn screening panel (?Newborn screening 2020"; Newborn Screening Center, University Hospital Heidelberg).


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/sangue , Citratos/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Ácido Láctico/análogos & derivados , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Acidemia Propiônica/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
19.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 71(3-4): 129-135, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28848183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult phenylketonuria (PKU) patients often reduce their intake of amino acid mixture (AAM) to less than the prescribed amounts. Effects of reduced AAM intake on nutrient supply were evaluated. METHODS: Nutrient intake was calculated in 20 adult PKU patients based on a structured food record and complemented by laboratory assessment of nutritional status. Patients were classified into 2 groups, (A) regular AAM intake, or (B) AAM intake below calculated requirements. RESULTS: Group B consumed a higher proportion of natural protein (60 ± 23 vs. 33 ± 12%, p = 0.002); however, the total protein intake was below the recommended amounts in 60% of patients in group B versus 7% in group A (p = 0.03). Fat intake was higher in group B (39 ± 9% of energy vs. 31 ± 6%, p = 0.03), mainly from saturated fats. Selenium, folate, and vitamin B12 intake was below the recommended intake in group B. However, serum concentrations of these analytes remained within the normal range in both groups, although vitamin B12 levels were lower in group B. Plasma tyrosine correlated with AAM intake, and hydroxyproline correlated with the amount of natural protein consumed. CONCLUSION: Relaxed AAM intake resulted in insufficient nutrient supply, despite a compensatory increase in consumption of natural protein. Care needs to be taken to ensure adequate nutrition in adults with PKU.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 292(28): 11980-11991, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572511

RESUMO

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin (Cbl)), in the cofactor forms methyl-Cbl and adenosyl-Cbl, is required for the function of the essential enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, respectively. Cbl enters mammalian cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis of protein-bound Cbl followed by lysosomal export of free Cbl to the cytosol and further processing to these cofactor forms. The integral membrane proteins LMBD1 and ABCD4 are required for lysosomal release of Cbl, and mutations in the genes LMBRD1 and ABCD4 result in the cobalamin metabolism disorders cblF and cblJ. We report a new (fifth) patient with the cblJ disorder who presented at 7 days of age with poor feeding, hypotonia, methylmalonic aciduria, and elevated plasma homocysteine and harbored the mutations c.1667_1668delAG [p.Glu556Glyfs*27] and c.1295G>A [p.Arg432Gln] in the ABCD4 gene. Cbl cofactor forms are decreased in fibroblasts from this patient but could be rescued by overexpression of either ABCD4 or, unexpectedly, LMBD1. Using a sensitive live-cell FRET assay, we demonstrated selective interaction between ABCD4 and LMBD1 and decreased interaction when ABCD4 harbored the patient mutations p.Arg432Gln or p.Asn141Lys or when artificial mutations disrupted the ATPase domain. Finally, we showed that ABCD4 lysosomal targeting depends on co-expression of, and interaction with, LMBD1. These data broaden the patient and mutation spectrum of cblJ deficiency, establish a sensitive live-cell assay to detect the LMBD1-ABCD4 interaction, and confirm the importance of this interaction for proper intracellular targeting of ABCD4 and cobalamin cofactor synthesis.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/deficiência , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/patologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Células Cultivadas , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/patologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/química , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo
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