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2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012636, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions in clinical medicine can be associated with ethical challenges. Ethical case interventions (e.g. ethics committee, moral case deliberation) identify and analyse ethical conflicts which occur within the context of care for patients. Ethical case interventions involve ethical experts, different health professionals as well as the patient and his/her family. The aim is to support decision-making in clinical practice. This systematic review gathered and critically appraised the available evidence of controlled studies on the effectiveness of ethical case interventions. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ethical case interventions result in reduced decisional conflict or moral distress of those affected by an ethical conflict in clinical practice; improved patient involvement in decision-making and a higher quality of life in adult patients. To determine the most effective models of ethical case interventions and to analyse the use and appropriateness of the outcomes in experimental studies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases for primary studies to September 2018: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched CDSR and DARE for related reviews. Furthermore, we searched Clinicaltrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal and conducted a cited reference search for all included studies in ISI WEB of Science. We also searched the references of the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies which compared ethical case interventions with usual care or an active control in any language. The included population were adult patients. However, studies with mixed populations consisting of adults and children were included, if a subgroup or sensitivity analysis (or both) was performed for the adult population. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care review group. We used meta-analysis based on a random-effects model for treatment costs and structured analysis for the remaining outcomes, because these were heterogeneously reported. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included four randomised trials published in six articles. The publication dates ranged from 2000 to 2014. Three studies were conducted in the USA, and one study in Taiwan. All studies were conducted on intensive care units and included 1165 patients. We judged the included studies to be of moderate or high risk of bias. It was not possible to compare different models of the intervention regarding effectiveness due to the diverse character of the interventions and the small number of studies. Included studies did not directly measure the main outcomes. All studies received public funding and one received additional funding from private sources.We identified two models of ethical case interventions: proactive and request-based ethics consultation. Three studies evaluated proactive ethics consultation (n = 1103) of which one study reported findings on one key outcome criterion. The studies did not report data on decisional conflict, moral distress of participants of ethical case interventions, patient involvement in decision-making, quality of life or ethical competency for proactive ethics consultation. One study assessed satisfaction with care on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = lowest rating, 5 = highest rating). The healthcare providers (nurses and physicians, n = 365) scored a value of 4 or 5 for 81.4% in the control group and 86.1% in the intervention group (P > 0.05). The patients or their surrogates (n = 275) scored a value of 4 or 5 for 83.6% in the control group and for 74.8% in the intervention group (P > 0.05). It was uncertain whether proactive ethics consultation led to high satisfaction with care, because the certainty of evidence was very low.One study evaluated request-based ethics consultation (n = 62). The study indirectly measured decisional conflict by assessing consensus regarding patient care. The risk (increase in consensus, reduction in decisional conflict) increased by 80% as a result of the intervention. The risk ratio was 0.20 (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.46; P < 0.01). It was uncertain whether request-based ethics consultation reduced decisional conflict, because the certainty of evidence was very low. The study did not report data on moral distress of participants of ethical case interventions, patient involvement in decision-making, quality of life, or ethical competency or satisfaction with care for request-based ethics consultation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of ethical case interventions with certainty due to the low certainty of the evidence of included studies in this review. The effectiveness of ethical case interventions should be investigated in light of the outcomes reported in this systematic review. In addition, there is need for further research to identify and measure outcomes which reflect the goals of different types of ethical case intervention.

3.
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 48, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating clinical ethics support services (CESS) has been hailed as important research task. At the same time, there is considerable debate about how to evaluate CESS appropriately. The criticism, which has been aired, refers to normative as well as empirical aspects of evaluating CESS. MAIN BODY: In this paper, we argue that a first necessary step for progress is to better understand the intervention(s) in CESS. Tools of complex intervention research methodology may provide relevant means in this respect. In a first step, we introduce principles of "complex intervention research" and show how CESS fulfil the criteria of "complex interventions". In a second step, we develop a generic "conceptual framework" for "ethics consultation on request" as standard for many forms of ethics consultation in clinical ethics practice. We apply this conceptual framework to the model of "bioethics mediation" to make explicit the specific structural and procedural elements of this form of ethics consultation on request. In a final step we conduct a comparative analysis of two different types of CESS, which have been subject to evaluation research: "proactive ethics consultation" and "moral case deliberation" and discuss implications for evaluating both types of CESS. CONCLUSION: To make explicit different premises of implemented CESS interventions by means of conceptual frameworks can inform the search for sound empirical evaluation of CESS. In addition, such work provides a starting point for further reflection about what it means to offer "good" CESS.

4.
Palliat Med ; 33(8): 1045-1057, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few measures capture the complex symptoms and concerns of those receiving palliative care. AIM: To validate the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale, a measure underpinned by extensive psychometric development, by evaluating its validity, reliability and responsiveness to change. DESIGN: Concurrent, cross-cultural validation study of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale - both (1) patient self-report and (2) staff proxy-report versions. We tested construct validity (factor analysis, known-group comparisons, and correlational analysis), reliability (internal consistency, agreement, and test-retest reliability), and responsiveness (through longitudinal evaluation of change). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In all, 376 adults receiving palliative care, and 161 clinicians, from a range of settings in the United Kingdom and Germany. RESULTS: We confirm a three-factor structure (Physical Symptoms, Emotional Symptoms and Communication/Practical Issues). Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale shows strong ability to distinguish between clinically relevant groups; total Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale and Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale subscale scores were higher - reflecting more problems - in those patients with 'unstable' or 'deteriorating' versus 'stable' Phase of Illness (F = 15.1, p < 0.001). Good convergent and discriminant validity to hypothesised items and subscales of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General is demonstrated. The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale shows good internal consistency (α = 0.77) and acceptable to good test-retest reliability (60% of items kw > 0.60). Longitudinal validity in form of responsiveness to change is good. CONCLUSION: The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale is a valid and reliable outcome measure, both in patient self-report and staff proxy-report versions. It can assess and monitor symptoms and concerns in advanced illness, determine the impact of healthcare interventions, and demonstrate quality of care. This represents a major step forward internationally for palliative care outcome measurement.

5.
J Palliat Med ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210558

RESUMO

Context: Internationally, a variety of reimbursement systems exists for palliative care (PC). In Germany, PC units (PCUs) may choose between per-diem rates and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). Both systems are controversially discussed. Objectives: To explore the experiences and views of German PCU clinicians and experts for PCU financing regarding per-diem rates and DRGs as reimbursement systems with a focus on (1) cost coverage, (2) strengths and weaknesses of both financing systems, and (3) options for further development of funding PCUs. Design: Qualitative semistructured interviews with PCU clinicians and experts for PCU financing, analyzed by thematic analysis using the Framework approach. Setting/Subjects/Measurements: Ten clinicians and 13 experts for financing were interviewed June-October 2015 on both reimbursement systems for PCU. Results: Interviewees had divergent experiences with both reimbursement systems regarding cost coverage. A described strength of per-diem rates was the perceived possibility of individual care without direct financial pressure. The nationwide variation of per-diem rates and the lack of quality standards were named as weaknesses. DRGs were criticized for incentives perceived as perverse and inadequate representation of PC-specific procedures. However, the quality standards for PCUs required within the German DRG system were described as important strength. Suggestions for improvement of the funding system pointed toward a combination of per-diem rates with a grading according to disease severity/complexity of care. Conclusions: Expert opinions suggest that neither current DRGs nor per-diem rates are ideal for funding of PCUs. Suggested improvements regarding adequate funding of PCUs resemble and supplement international developments.

7.
Palliat Med ; 33(6): 650-662, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug use beyond the licence (off-label use, off-label drug use) is a common practice in palliative care and respective recommendations can often be identified in the literature. It is both risky and offers opportunities at the same time and, therefore, requires special attention in clinical practice. AIM: To determine the prevalence of off-label drug use in palliative care and to identify, evaluate and critically appraise studies describing the clinical practice, healthcare professionals' awareness, knowledge and attitudes towards off-label-use and management strategies. DESIGN: Systematic literature review following the guidance of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Current Contents Connect were searched in July 2018 as well as hand searches. The reference lists of pertinent studies were screened for further relevant publications, and citation tracking was performed. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Due to the variety in study designs and settings, no meta-analysis or meaningful statistical analysis was possible and a narrative synthesis of the data was performed. Frequency of off-label drug use ranged from 14.5% to 35%. Up to 97% of palliative care units did not have any policy or guidance on handling off-label drug use. About 20% of prescribers never obtain consent in the context of off-label use. CONCLUSION: Off-label use is common in palliative care with up to one-third of prescriptions affected. Challenges are often related to obtaining informed consent. Little is known about the decision-making process. More information and guidance for the prescribers are needed to enable safe handling of drugs outside their licence in palliative care.

8.
Palliat Med ; 33(6): 618-633, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic breathlessness is a neglected symptom of advanced diseases. AIM: To examine the effect of airflow for chronic breathlessness relief. DESIGN: Exploratory systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, CINAHL, AMED and Cochrane databases were searched (1985-2018) for observational studies or randomised controlled trials of airflow as intervention or comparator. Selection against predefined inclusion criteria, quality appraisal and data extraction was conducted by two independent reviewers with access to a third for unresolved differences. 'Before and after' breathlessness measures from airflow arms were analysed. Meta-analysis was carried out where possible. RESULTS: In all, 16 of 78 studies (n = 929) were included: 11 randomised controlled trials of oxygen versus medical air, 4 randomised controlled trials and 1 fan cohort study. Three meta-analyses were possible: (1) Fan at rest in three studies (n = 111) offered significant benefit for breathlessness intensity (0-100 mm visual analogue scale and 0-10 numerical rating scale), mean difference -11.17 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -16.60 to -5.74), p = 0.06 I2 64%. (2) Medical air via nasal cannulae at rest in two studies (n = 89) improved breathlessness intensity (visual analogue scale), mean difference -12.0 mm, 95% CI -7.4 to -16.6, p < 0.0001 I2 = 0%. (3) Medical airflow during a constant load exercise test before and after rehabilitation (n = 29) in two studies improved breathlessness intensity (modified Borg scale, 0-10), mean difference -2.9, 95% CI -3.2 to -2.7, p < 0.0001 I2 = 0%. CONCLUSION: Airflow appears to offer meaningful relief of chronic breathlessness and should be considered as an adjunct treatment in the management of breathlessness.

9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 157, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of complexity is used in palliative care (PC) to describe the nature of patients' situations and the extent of resulting needs and care demands. However, the term or concept is not clearly defined and operationalised with respect to its particular application in PC. As a complex problem, a care situation in PC is characterized by reciprocal, nonlinear relations and uncertainties. Dealing with complex problems necessitates problem-solving methods tailored to specific situations. The theory of complex adaptive systems (CAS) provides a framework for locating problems and solutions. This study aims to describe criteria contributing to complexity of PC situations from the professionals' view and to develop a conceptual framework to improve understanding of the concept of "complexity" and related elements of a PC situation by locating the complex problem "PC situation" in a CAS. METHODS: Qualitative interview study with 42 semi-structured expert (clinical/economical/political) interviews. Data was analysed using the framework method. The thematic framework was developed inductively. Categories were reviewed, subsumed and connected considering CAS theory. RESULTS: The CAS of a PC situation consists of three subsystems: patient, social system, and team. Agents in the "system patient" are allocated to further subsystems on patient level: physical, psycho-spiritual, and socio-cultural. The "social system" and the "system team" are composed of social agents, who affect the CAS as carriers of characteristics, roles, and relationships. Environmental factors interact with the care situation from outside the system. Agents within subsystems and subsystems themselves interact on all hierarchical system levels and shape the system behaviour of a PC situation. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides a conceptual framework and comprehensive understanding of complexity in PC. The systemic view can help to understand and shape situations and dynamics of individual care situations; on higher hierarchical level, it can support an understanding and framework for the development of care structures and concepts. The framework provides a foundation for the development of a model to differentiate PC situations by complexity of patients and care needs. To enable an operationalisation and classification of complexity, relevant outcome measures mirroring the identified system elements should be identified and implemented in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Cultura , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espiritualidade
11.
J Palliat Med ; 22(6): 656-662, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589622

RESUMO

Background/Objective: Breathlessness is a highly prevalent and distressing symptom in patients with cancer and advanced chronic diseases. Symptom management is often overlooked. We explored the experiences of patients, caregivers, and health care providers (HCPs) and their expectations for future service developments. Design: This is a multiperspective qualitative study drawing on semistructured interviews. Setting/Subjects: Participants were recruited from palliative, respiratory, and cardiology departments of the Munich University Hospital and from a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient group. Measurements: Interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Subcategories used the directional views of participants (positive, negative, and indifferent). The coding tree identified three categories: (1) attributes of symptom management, (2) practice pattern gaps, and (3) components of good practice. Results: Ten patients (5 female, 65.2 median age; COPD n = 3, cancer n = 3, chronic heart failure n = 2, and lung fibrosis n = 2), 3 caregivers (2 female, 53.6 median age), and 10 HCPs were interviewed. Patients and caregivers felt stressed and frustrated due to a lack of awareness regarding the symptom burden and little support from HCPs. HCPs pointed to a lack of therapeutic concepts and unclear assumptions of responsibilities. Specialist breathlessness services are perceived as addressing important gaps in professional practice from the viewpoint of all stakeholders. Accessibility and collaboration with other local health care services are important features of such specialist services. Conclusions: Chronic refractory breathlessness in advanced disease is managed insufficiently for most patients, caregivers, and HCPs. Increased knowledge about effective interventions and availability of skills-based training for patients, caregivers, and HCPs would help in breathlessness management.

13.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 16: 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349423

RESUMO

Background: Specialist palliative care in the hospital addresses a heterogeneous patient population with complex care needs. In Germany, palliative care patients are classified based on their primary diagnosis to determine reimbursement despite findings that other factors describe patient needs better. To facilitate adequate resource allocation in this setting, in Australia and in the UK important steps have been undertaken towards identifying drivers of palliative care resource use and classifying patients accordingly. We aimed to pioneer patient classification based on determinants of resource use relevant to specialist palliative care in Germany first, by calculating the patient-level cost of specialist palliative care from the hospital's perspective, based on the recorded resource use and, subsequently, by analysing influencing factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients who had an episode of specialist palliative care in Munich University Hospital between 20 June and 4 August, 2016. To accurately reflect personnel intensity of specialist palliative care, aside from administrative data, we recorded actual use of all involved health professionals' labour time at patient level. Factors influencing episode costs were assessed using generalized linear regression and LASSO variable selection. Results: The study included 144 patients. Mean costs of specialist palliative care per palliative care unit episode were 6542€ (median: 5789€, SE: 715€) and 823€ (median: 702€, SE: 31€) per consultation episode. Based on multivariate models that considered both variables recorded at beginning and at the end of episode, we identified factors explaining episode cost including phase of illness, Karnofsky performance score, and type of discharge. Conclusions: This study is an important step towards patient classification in specialist palliative care in Germany as it provides a feasible patient-level costing method and identifies possible starting points for classification. Application to a larger sample will allow for meaningful classification of palliative patients.

14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 7(Suppl 3): S253-S261, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180734

RESUMO

Outcome measurement is becoming increasingly important in palliative care both in research as well as clinical care. Regular ongoing assessments in palliative care clinical practice have the potential to enable monitoring of the patient's situation, assess the effectiveness of interventions, assess symptoms accurately and focus on patients' priorities. Implementing routine outcome measurement into clinical practice remains a challenge. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe the process of implementing routine outcome measurement into daily clinical work in a university palliative care unit. According to the recommendations of Antunes, the following steps were used to implement routine outcome measurement in clinical care in a university palliative care unit. (I) Selection of outcomes of interest by the clinical leads and head of department: most prevalent symptoms; psychological, practical and spiritual concerns, functional status, carer burden; (II) selection of outcome measures: Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale (IPOS), phase of illness, Australian Karnofsky Performance Status; (III) educational component about the measure and how to use results: team meetings and team retreat with introduction of outcome measurement in palliative care, chosen measures and role plays with use of measures; (IV) selection of responsible consultant on the ward as coordinator and facilitator for outcome measurement; (V) who applies the measure and its periodicity. Implementation of outcome measurement in clinical routine is feasible following a structured process. Nevertheless, it is a time consuming and long-lasting process which needs continuous attention. However, the benefits outweigh the burden of implementation and it is a task worthwhile undertaking.

16.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 12(3): 227-231, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927755

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal management of breathlessness requires generally more than one component. Breathlessness services aim to provide specific interventions and support for patients suffering from breathlessness due to any advanced disease and their carers. This review aims to describe recent studies evaluating the effects of breathlessness services for patients with advanced chronic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Various breathlessness services have been tested and vary regarding structure, duration, frequency and professionals involved. Four randomized controlled trials demonstrated a positive and significant effect on distress due to breathlessness or mastery of breathlessness or breathlessness severity. In the fifth randomized controlled trial, quantitative results were NS, but in the qualitative interviews, patients stressed the positive experience with the breathlessness service and the benefits they gained. The caring, holistic, respectful and integrated approaches were valued by patients. SUMMARY: Breathlessness services combine a variety of evidence-based nonpharmacological interventions and some services also pharmacological interventions when physicians are involved. As the prevalence of breathlessness due to advanced disease is high and increasing, more such services should be provided to support patients throughout the course of their disease.

17.
BMC Palliat Care ; 17(1): 80, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increasing life expectancy, more and more older people are suffering from dementia and comorbidities. To date, little information is available on place of death for dementia patients in Germany. In addition, the association of place of death and comorbidities is unknown. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Westphalia-Lippe (Germany), based on the analysis of death certificates from 2011. Individuals with dementia ≥ 65 years were identified using the documented cause of death. In this context, all mentioned causes of death were included. In addition, ten selected comorbidities were also analyzed. The results were presented descriptively. Using multivariate logistic regression, place of death was analyzed for any association with comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 10,364 death certificates were analyzed. Dementia was recorded in 1646 cases (15.9%; mean age 86.3 ± 6.9 years; 67.3% women). On average, 1.5 ± 1.0 selected comorbidities were present. Places of death were distributed as follows: home (19.9%), hospital (28.7%), palliative care unit (0.4%), nursing home (49.5%), hospice (0.9%), no details (0.7%). The death certificates documented cardiac failure in 43.6% of cases, pneumonia in 25.2%, and malignant tumour in 13.4%. An increased likelihood of dying in hospital compared to home or nursing home, respectively, was found for the following comorbidities (OR [95%-CI]): pneumonia (2.96 [2.01-4.35], p = 0.001); (2.38 [1.75-3.25], p = 0.001); renal failure (1.93 [1.26-2.97], p = 0.003); (1.65 [1.18-2.32], p = 0.003); and sepsis (13.73 [4.88-38.63], p = 0.001); (7.34 [4.21-12.78], p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The most common place of death in patients with dementia is the retirement or nursing home, followed by hospital and home. Specific comorbidities, such as pneumonia or sepsis, correlated with an increased probability of dying in hospital.


Assuntos
Comorbidade/tendências , Demência/mortalidade , Mapeamento Geográfico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Atestado de Óbito , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMC Palliat Care ; 17(1): 58, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital costs and cost drivers in palliative care are poorly analysed. It remains unknown whether current German Diagnosis-Related Groups, mainly relying on main diagnosis or procedure, reproduce costs adequately. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse costs and reimbursement for inpatient palliative care and to identify relevant cost drivers. METHODS: Two-center, standardised micro-costing approach with patient-level cost calculations and analysis of the reimbursement situation for patients receiving palliative care at two German hospitals (7/2012-12/2013). Data were analysed for the total group receiving hospital care covering, but not exclusively, palliative care (group A) and the subgroup receiving palliative care only (group B). Patient and care characteristics predictive of inpatient costs of palliative care were derived by generalised linear models and investigated by classification and regression tree analysis. RESULTS: Between 7/2012 and 12/2013, 2151 patients received care in the two hospitals including, but not exclusively, on the PCUs (group A). In 2013, 784 patients received care on the two PCUs only (group B). Mean total costs per case were € 7392 (SD 7897) (group A) and € 5763 (SD 3664) (group B), mean total reimbursement per case € 5155 (SD 6347) (group A) and € 4278 (SD 2194) (group B). For group A/B on the ward, 58%/67% of the overall costs and 48%/53%, 65%/82% and 64%/72% of costs for nursing, physicians and infrastructure were reimbursed, respectively. Main diagnosis did not significantly influence costs. However, duration of palliative care and total length of stay were (related to the cost calculation method) identified as significant cost drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Related to the cost calculation method, total length of stay and duration of palliative care were identified as significant cost drivers. In contrast, main diagnosis did not reflect costs. In addition, results show that reimbursement within the German Diagnosis-Related Groups system does not reproduce the costs adequately, but causes a financing gap for inpatient palliative care.


Assuntos
Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Cuidados Paliativos/tendências
19.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 143(8): 566-573, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649847

RESUMO

Palliative medicine has become an integral part of the German healthcare system in recent years. However, patients with non-malignant diseases have less access to palliative care than patients with oncological diseases. These patients comprise a heterogeneous group of chronic lung and heart diseases, neurological and geriatric diseases. Their symptom burden and their palliative care needs are similar to those of oncological patients, but earlier in the disease process. Physical aspects of the disease process are different from psychological, social and spiritual aspects. General medical and specialized palliative care should be offered depending on the complexity of patient's needs. Screening tools are helpful in identifying patients who need palliative care early in the course of the disease. Advance planning should be an integral part of caring for these patients.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/terapia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Alemanha , Humanos
20.
Palliat Med ; 32(7): 1189-1197, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedatives are frequently used towards the end of life. However, there is scarce information when their use is labelled as 'palliative sedation'. AIM: To assess the use and labelling of 'continuous administration of sedatives within the last 7 days of life', based on objective operational criteria, on a palliative care unit. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study, using medical records. Explorative statistical analysis (SPSS 23). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Patients who died on a palliative care unit from August 2014 to July 2015. Sedatives recorded were benzodiazepines, levomepromazine, haloperidol ⩾5 mg/day and propofol. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients, 149 (78%) patients received continuous sedatives within the last week of life. The prevalence of delirium/agitation was significantly higher in patients with continuous sedatives compared to those without continuous sedatives at admission to the unit (35% vs 16%, p = 0.02) and on the day before death (58% vs 40%, p = 0.04). The term '(palliative) sedation' was used in the records for 22 of 149 (15%) patients with continuous sedatives. These patients had significantly higher total daily midazolam doses 2 days before death (median (range), 15.0 (6.0-185.0) mg vs 11.5 (1.0-70.0) mg, p = 0.04) and on the day of death (median (range), 19.5 (7.5-240.0) mg vs 12.5 (2.0-65.0) mg, p = 0.01). The dose range was large in both groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of delirium/agitation was associated with the administration of continuous sedatives. There was no consistent pattern regarding labelling the use of continuous sedatives as '(palliative) sedation'. Multicentre mixed-methods research is needed for a better characterization of sedation practices in palliative care.

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