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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360675

RESUMO

In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, the genus Ferula L. is one of the most representative, and ferutinin, the most common sesquiterpene, is extracted from the leaves, rhizome, and roots of this plant. As reported in the scientific literature, ferutinin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as valuable estrogenic properties. Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases are devastating conditions for which a definite cure has not yet been established. The mechanisms involved in these diseases are still poorly understood, and oxidative stress is considered to be both a key modulator and a common denominator. In the proposed experimental system, co-cultured human neurons (SH-SY5Y) and human oligodendrocytes (MO3.13) were treated with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide at a concentration of 1 µg/mL for 24 h or pretreated with ferutinin (33 nM) for 24 h and subsequently exposed to lipopolysaccharide 1 µg/mL for 24 h. Further studies would, however, be needed to establish whether this natural compound can be used as a support strategy in pathologies characterized by progressive inflammation and oxidative stress phenomena.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cicloeptanos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201904

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is an anthracycline that is commonly used as a chemotherapy drug due to its cytotoxic effects. The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited due to its known cardiotoxic effects. Treatment with anthracyclines causes heart failure in 15-17% of patients, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium dysregulation, the deterioration of the cardiomyocyte structure, and apoptotic cell death. Polyphenols have a wide range of beneficial properties, and particular importance is given to Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction; Oleuropein, one of the main polyphenolic compounds of olive oil; and Cynara cardunculus extract. These natural compounds have particular beneficial characteristics, owing to their high polyphenol contents. Among these, their antioxidant and antoproliferative properties are the most important. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of these three plant derivatives using an in vitro model of cardiotoxicity induced by the treatment of rat embryonic cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) with doxorubicin. The biological mechanisms involved and the crosstalk existing between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum were examined. Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction, Oleuropein, and Cynara cardunculus extract were able to decrease the damage induced by exposure to doxorubicin. In particular, these natural compounds were found to reduce cell mortality and oxidative damage, increase the lipid content, and decrease the concentration of calcium ions that escaped from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, the direct involvement of this cellular organelle was demonstrated by silencing the ATF6 arm of the Unfolded Protein Response, which was activated after treatment with doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cynara/química , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antraciclinas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Mitocôndrias , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805912

RESUMO

The high incidence of obesity is associated with an increasing risk of several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sustained obesity is characterized by a chronic and unsolved inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to a greater expression of proinflammatory adipokines, excessive lipid storage and adipogenesis. The purpose of this review is to clarify how inflammatory mediators act during adipose tissue dysfunction in the development of insulin resistance and all obesity-associated diseases. In particular, we focused our attention on the role of inflammatory signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which represent a relevant component of adipose alterations during obesity. Furthermore, we reported the most recent evidence in the literature on nutraceutical supplementation in the management of the adipose inflammatory state, and in particular on their potential effect on common inflammatory mediators and pathways, responsible for WAT and BAT dysfunction. Although further research is needed to demonstrate that targeting pro-inflammatory mediators improves adipose tissue dysfunction and activates thermogenesis in BAT and WAT browning during obesity, polyphenols supplementation could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent progression of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Curcumina/química , Dieta , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/química , Lipídeos/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540019

RESUMO

Evidence has been accumulated demonstrating that heavy metals may accumulate in various organs, leading to tissue damage and toxic effects in mammals. In particular, the Central Nervous System (CNS) seems to be particularly vulnerable to cumulative concentrations of heavy metals, though the pathophysiological mechanisms is still to be clarified. In particular, the potential role of oligodendrocyte dysfunction and myelin production after exposure to subtoxic concentration I confirmed. It is ok of heavy metals is to be better assessed. Here we investigated on the effect of sub-toxic concentration of several essential (Cu2 +, Cr3 +, Ni2 +, Co2+) and non-essential (Pb2 +, Cd2+, Al3+) heavy metals on human oligodendrocyte MO3.13 and human neuronal SHSY5Y cell lines (grown individually or in co-culture). MO3.13 cells are an immortal human-human hybrid cell line with the phenotypic characteristics of primary oligodendrocytes but following the differentiation assume the morphological and biochemical features of mature oligodendrocytes. For this reason, we decided to use differentiated MO3.13 cell line. In particular, exposure of both cell lines to heavy metals produced a reduced cell viability of co-cultured cell lines compared to cells grown separately. This effect was more pronounced in neurons that were more sensitive to metals than oligodendrocytes when the cells were grown in co-culture. On the other hand, a significant reduction of lipid component in cells occurred after their exposure to heavy metals, an effect accompanied by substantial reduction of the main protein that makes up myelin (MBP) in co-cultured cells. Finally, the effect of heavy metals in oligodendrocytes were associated to imbalanced intracellular calcium ion concentration as measured through the fluorescent Rhod-2 probe, thus confirming that heavy metals, even used at subtoxic concentrations, lead to dysfunctional oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, our data show, for the first time, that sub-toxic concentrations of several heavy metals lead to dysfunctional oligodendrocytes, an effect highlighted when these cells are co-cultured with neurons. The pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying this effect is to be better clarified. However, imbalanced intracellular calcium ion regulation, altered lipid formation and, finally, imbalanced myelin formation seem to play a major role in early stages of heavy metal-related oligodendrocyte dysfunction.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Proteína Básica da Mielina/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Sistema Nervoso Central , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/química , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/patologia
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 244: 317-23, 2016 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27517342

RESUMO

Aims of the current study were to explore differences in coping between 58 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and 89 with schizophrenia (SZ) and to identify factors associated with coping in both disorders. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with SAD and with SZ were compared using ANOVA and χ(2). Pearson's correlations were calculated between coping styles and socio-demographic and clinical variables in each group. The significant ones were subsequently analyzed using multiple regressions. Patients with SAD used emotion oriented coping more frequently than patients 2016with SZ. In patients with SAD, self-esteem contributed to task-oriented; avolition-anhedonia (AA) to emotion-oriented; duration of illness and years of education to distraction; AA to social diversion. In patients with SZ, AA, the mental component summary score of the Short Form - 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and self-esteem contributed to emotion oriented coping; the mental component summary score of SF-36 to distraction; AA to social diversion. Our results suggest that patients with SAD and SZ use diverse coping strategies. A greater attention must be given to the presence of self-esteem and AA in individuals with both disorders. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce effects on coping strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Anedonia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem
6.
Riv Psichiatr ; 49(2): 77-83, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24770573

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive functioning and insight of illness in two groups of patients during their stable phases, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: We recruited 104 consecutive outpatients, 64 with schizophrenia, 40 with schizoaffective disorder, in the period between July 2010 and July 2011. They all fulfilled formal Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric assessment included the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Sindrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Insight of illness was evaluated using SUMD. Neuropsychological assessment included Winsconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT). Differences between the groups were tested using Chi-square test for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. All variables significantly different between the two groups of subjects were subsequently analysed using a logistic regression with a backward stepwise procedure using diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) as dependent variable. RESULTS: After backward selection of variables, four variables predicted a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: marital status, a higher number of admission, better attentive functions and awareness of specific signs or symptoms of disease. The prediction model accounted for 55% of the variance of schizoaffective disorder diagnosis. DISCUSSION: With replication, our findings would allow higher diagnostic accuracy and have an impact on clinical decision making, in light of an amelioration of vocational functioning.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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