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4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059084

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) remodelling after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) worsens outcome. The effect of sex on LV post-infarct remodelling is unknown. We therefore investigated the sex distribution and long-term prognosis of LV post-infarct remodelling after STEMI in the contemporary era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal pharmacotherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained from an ongoing primary PCI STEMI registry. LV remodelling was defined as ≥20% increase in LV end-diastolic volume at either 3, 6, or 12 months post-infarct, and LV remodelling impact on outcome was evaluated with a log-rank test. A total population of 1995 STEMI patients were analysed (mean age 60 ± 12 years): 1527 (77%) men and 468 (23%) women. The mean age of male patients was 60±11 versus 63±13 years for women (P < 0.001). A total of 953 (48%) patients experienced LV remodelling in the first 12 months of follow-up, and it was equally frequent amongst men (n = 729, 48%) and women (n = 224, 48%). After a median follow-up of 94 (interquartile range 69-119) months, 225 patients died: 171 (11%) men and 54 (12%) women. No survival difference was seen between remodellers and non-remodellers in the male (P = 0.113) and female (P = 0.920) groups. CONCLUSION: LV post-infarct remodelling incidence, as well as long-term survival of LV remodellers and non-remodellers, was similar in men and women who were treated with primary PCI and optimal pharmacotherapy post-STEMI.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Different methodologies to report whole-heart atherosclerotic plaque on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have been utilized. We examined which of the three commonly used plaque burden definitions was least affected by differences in body surface area (BSA) and sex. METHODS: The PARADIGM study includes symptomatic patients with suspected coronary atherosclerosis who underwent serial CCTA >2 years apart. Coronary lumen, vessel, and plaque were quantified from the coronary tree on a 0.5 mm cross-sectional basis by a core-lab, and summed to per-patient. Three quantitative methods of plaque burden were employed: (1) total plaque volume (PV) in mm3, (2) percent atheroma volume (PAV) in % [which equaled: PV/vessel volume * 100%], and (3) normalized total atheroma volume (TAVnorm) in mm3 [which equaled: PV/vessel length * mean population vessel length]. Only data from the baseline CCTA were used. PV, PAV, and TAVnorm were compared between patients in the top quartile of BSA vs the remaining, and between sexes. Associations between vessel volume, BSA, and the three plaque burden methodologies were assessed. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1479 patients (age 60.7 ± 9.3 years, 58.4% male) who underwent CCTA. A total of 17,649 coronary artery segments were evaluated with a median of 12 (IQR 11-13) segments per-patient (from a 16-segment coronary tree). Patients with a large BSA (top quartile), compared with the remaining patients, had a larger PV and TAVnorm, but similar PAV. The relation between larger BSA and larger absolute plaque volume (PV and TAVnorm) was mediated by the coronary vessel volume. Independent from the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk (ASCVD) score, vessel volume correlated with PV (P < 0.001), and TAVnorm (P = 0.003), but not with PAV (P = 0.201). The three plaque burden methods were equally affected by sex. CONCLUSIONS: PAV was less affected by patient's body surface area then PV and TAVnorm and may be the preferred method to report coronary atherosclerotic burden.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065624

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), we examined the prognostic value of risk factors and atherosclerotic extent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from the long-term CONFIRM registry without prior CAD and without obstructive (≥50%) stenosis were included. Within the groups of normal coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (N = 1849) and non-obstructive CAD (N = 1698), the prognostic value of traditional clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic extent (segment involvement score, SIS) was assessed with Cox models. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or late revascularization. In total, 3547 patients were included (age 57.9 ± 12.1 years, 57.8% male), experiencing 460 MACE during 5.4 years of follow-up. Age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were the clinical variables associated with increased MACE risk, but the magnitude of risk was higher for CCTA defined atherosclerotic extent; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for SIS >5 was 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.9) while HR for diabetes and hypertension were 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), respectively. Exclusion of revascularization as endpoint did not modify the results. In normal CCTA, presence of ≥1 traditional risk factors did not worsen prognosis (log-rank P = 0.248), while it did in non-obstructive CAD (log-rank P = 0.025). Adjusted for SIS, hypertension and diabetes predicted MACE risk in non-obstructive CAD, while diabetes did not increase risk in absence of CAD (P-interaction = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Among patients without obstructive CAD, the extent of CAD provides more prognostic information for MACE than traditional cardiovascular risk factors. An interaction was observed between risk factors and CAD burden, suggesting synergistic effects of both.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e013958, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089046

RESUMO

Background Rapid coronary plaque progression (RPP) is associated with incident cardiovascular events. To date, no method exists for the identification of individuals at risk of RPP at a single point in time. This study integrated coronary computed tomography angiography-determined qualitative and quantitative plaque features within a machine learning (ML) framework to determine its performance for predicting RPP. Methods and Results Qualitative and quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography plaque characterization was performed in 1083 patients who underwent serial coronary computed tomography angiography from the PARADIGM (Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging) registry. RPP was defined as an annual progression of percentage atheroma volume ≥1.0%. We employed the following ML models: model 1, clinical variables; model 2, model 1 plus qualitative plaque features; model 3, model 2 plus quantitative plaque features. ML models were compared with the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, Duke coronary artery disease score, and a logistic regression statistical model. 224 patients (21%) were identified as RPP. Feature selection in ML identifies that quantitative computed tomography variables were higher-ranking features, followed by qualitative computed tomography variables and clinical/laboratory variables. ML model 3 exhibited the highest discriminatory performance to identify individuals who would experience RPP when compared with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, the other ML models, and the statistical model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in ML model 3, 0.83 [95% CI 0.78-0.89], versus atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, 0.60 [0.52-0.67]; Duke coronary artery disease score, 0.74 [0.68-0.79]; ML model 1, 0.62 [0.55-0.69]; ML model 2, 0.73 [0.67-0.80]; all P<0.001; statistical model, 0.81 [0.75-0.87], P=0.128). Conclusions Based on a ML framework, quantitative atherosclerosis characterization has been shown to be the most important feature when compared with clinical, laboratory, and qualitative measures in identifying patients at risk of RPP.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(7): 750-758, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) systolic function may be overestimated in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) when using LV ejection fraction (EF). LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a less load-dependent measure of LV function. However, the prognostic value of LV GLS in secondary MR has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to demonstrate the prognostic value of LV GLS over LVEF in patients with secondary MR. METHODS: A total of 650 patients (mean 66 ± 11 years of age, 68% men) with significant secondary MR were included. The study population was subdivided based on the LV GLS value at which the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was >1 using a spline curve analysis (LV GLS <7.0%, impaired LV systolic function vs. LV GLS ≥7.0%, preserved LV systolic function). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 56 (interquartile range: 28 to 106 months) months, 334 (51%) patients died. Patients with a more impaired LV GLS showed significantly higher mortality rates at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up (13%, 23%, and 44%, respectively) when compared with patients with more preserved LV systolic function (5%, 14%, and 31%, respectively). On multivariable analysis, LV GLS <7.0% was associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.337; 95% confidence interval: 1.038 to 1.722; p = 0.024), whereas LVEF ≤30% was not (HR: 1.055; 95% confidence interval: 0.794 to 1.403; p = 0.711). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with secondary MR, impaired LV GLS was independently associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality, whereas LVEF was not. LV GLS may therefore be useful in the risk stratification of patients with secondary MR.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 41(6): 739-747, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901937
10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968065

RESUMO

Importance: Plaque morphologic measures on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have been associated with future acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the evolution of calcified coronary plaques by noninvasive imaging is not known. Objective: To ascertain whether the increasing density in calcified coronary plaque is associated with risk for ACS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter case-control cohort study included individuals enrolled in ICONIC (Incident Coronary Syndromes Identified by Computed Tomography), a nested case-control study of patients drawn from the CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter) registry, which included 13 study sites in 8 countries. Patients who experienced core laboratory-verified ACS after baseline CCTA (n = 189) and control individuals who did not experience ACS after baseline CCTA (n = 189) were included. Patients and controls were matched 1:1 by propensity scores for age; male sex; presence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes; family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD); current smoking status; and CAD severity. Data were analyzed from November 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: Whole-heart atherosclerotic plaque volume was quantitated from all coronary vessels and their branches. For patients who underwent invasive angiography at the time of ACS, culprit lesions were coregistered to baseline CCTA lesions by a blinded independent reader. Low-density plaque was defined as having less than 130 Hounsfield units (HU); calcified plaque, as having more than 350 HU and subcategorized on a voxel-level basis into 3 strata: 351 to 700 HU, 701 to 1000 HU, and more than 1000 HU (termed 1K plaque). Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between calcium density and future ACS risk. Results: A total of 189 patients and 189 matched controls (mean [SD] age of 59.9 [9.8] years; 247 [65.3%] were male) were included in the analysis and were monitored during a mean (SD) follow-up period of 3.9 (2.5) years. The overall mean (SD) calcified plaque volume (>350 HU) was similar between patients and controls (76.4 [101.6] mm3 vs 99.0 [156.1] mm3; P = .32), but patients who experienced ACS exhibited less 1K plaque (>1000 HU) compared with controls (3.9 [8.3] mm3 vs 9.4 [23.2] mm3; P = .02). Individuals within the highest quartile of 1K plaque exhibited less low-density plaque, as a percentage of total plaque, when compared with patients within the lower 3 quartiles (12.6% [10.4%] vs 24.9% [20.6%]; P < .001). For 93 culprit precursor lesions detected by CCTA, the volume of 1K plaque was lower compared with the maximally stenotic lesion in controls (2.6 [7.2] mm3 vs 7.6 [20.3] mm3; P = .01). The per-patient and per-lesion results were similar between the 2 groups when restricted to myocardial infarction cases. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that, on a per-patient and per-lesion basis, 1K plaque was associated with a lower risk for future ACS and that measurement of 1K plaque may improve risk stratification beyond plaque burden.

11.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(7): 1108-1114, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982104

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis (AS) and renal dysfunction share risk factors and often occur simultaneously. The influence of renal dysfunction on the prognosis of patients with various grades of AS has not been extensively described. The present study aimed to assess the prognostic implications of renal dysfunction in a large cohort of patients with aortic sclerosis and patients with various grades of AS. Patients diagnosed with various grades of AS by transthoracic echocardiography were assessed and divided according to renal function by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The occurrence of all-cause mortality (primary end point) and aortic valve replacement (AVR) was noted. Of 1,178 patients (mean age 70 ± 13 years, 60% male), 327 (28%) had aortic sclerosis, 86 (7%) had mild AS, 285 (24%) had moderate AS, and 480 (41%) had severe AS. Renal dysfunction (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was present in 440 (37%) patients, and moderate to severe AS was observed more often in these patients compared to patients without (70 vs 62%, respectively; p = 0.008). After a median follow-up of 95 [31 to 149] months, 626 (53%) patients underwent AVR and 549 (47%) patients died. Severely impaired renal function (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and AVR were independently associated with all-cause mortality after correcting for AS severity. In conclusion, renal dysfunction is highly prevalent in patients with various grades of AS. After correcting for AS severity and AVR, severely impaired renal function (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) was independently associated with all-cause mortality. Independent of renal function, AVR was associated with improved survival.

12.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(4): 363-374, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985803

RESUMO

AIMS: There are significant sex-specific differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), with a higher LVEF being observed in women. We sought to assess the clinical relevance of an increased LVEF in women and men. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4632 patients from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry (44.8% women; mean age 58.7 ± 13.2 years in men and 59.5 ± 13.3 years in women, P = 0.05), in whom LVEF was measured by cardiac computed tomography, were categorized according to LVEF (low <55%, normal 55-65%, and high >65%). The prevalence of high LVEF was similar in both sexes (33.5% in women and 32.5% in men, P = 0.46). After 6 years of follow-up, no difference in mortality was observed in patients with high LVEF in the overall cohort (P = 0.41). When data were stratified by sex, women with high LVEF died more often from any cause as compared to women with normal LVEF (8.6% vs. 7.1%, log rank P = 0.032), while an opposite trend was observed in men (5.8% vs. 6.8% in normal LVEF, log rank P = 0.89). Accordingly, a first order interaction term of male sex and high LVEF was significant (hazard ratios 0.63, 95% confidence intervals 0.41-0.98, P = 0.043) in a Cox regression model of all-cause mortality adjusted for age, cardiovascular risk factors, and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). CONCLUSION: Increased LVEF is highly prevalent in patients referred for evaluation of CAD and is associated with an increased risk of death in women, but not in men. Differentiating between normal and hyperdynamic left ventricles might improve risk stratification in women with CAD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01443637.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 948-955, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928719

RESUMO

Computed tomography plays a central role in the evaluation of patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Advances in left ventricular (LV) analysis with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) permit measurement of LV global longitudinal strain (GLS). The present study aimed at evaluating the association between feature tracking (FT) MDCT derived LV GLS and all-cause mortality in patients treated with TAVI. A total of 214 patients with severe aortic stenosis (51% male, 80 ± 7 years) who underwent TAVI and with dynamic MDCT data allowing LV GLS measurement with novel FT algorithm were included. LV GLS was measured at baseline and were divided according to a previously published cut-off value of LV GLS associated with all-cause mortality (≤-14% [more preserved LV systolic function] vs >-14% [more impaired LV systolic function]). Patients were followed for the occurrence of all-cause mortality. Mean FT MDCT-derived LV GLS was -12.5 ± 4%. During a median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range: 29 to 62 months), 67 (31%) patients died. The cumulative rate of all-cause mortality for the patients with FT MDCT-derived LV GLS ≤-14% was 15% versus28% for the patients with FT MDCT-derived LV GLS >-14%, Log rank p = 0.001). FT MDCT-derived LV GLS was independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 0.851; 95% confidence interval: 0.772 to 0.937; p = 0.001). In conclusion, impaired FT MDCT-derived LV GLS is independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients treated with TAVI. Besides aortic valve area and calcification, FT MDCT-derived LV GLS is an important prognostic marker.

14.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 27(1): 53-61, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741328

RESUMO

At the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress of this year 2019, held in Paris from August 31st to September 4th, 4509 abstracts were presented. Of those, 414 (9%) belonged to an imaging category. Experts in echocardiography (VD), nuclear imaging (AS), cardiac computed tomography (CT) (MD) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (CBD), have selected the abstracts in their areas of expertise that were of most interest to them and are summarized in this bird's eye view from this ESC meeting. These abstracts were integrated by one of the Editors of the Journal (JB).

17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(3): 359-367, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513271

RESUMO

AIMS: Symptom-based pretest probability scores that estimate the likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in stable chest pain have moderate accuracy. We sought to develop a machine learning (ML) model, utilizing clinical factors and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS), to predict the presence of obstructive CAD on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study screened 35 281 participants enrolled in the CONFIRM registry, who underwent ≥64 detector row CCTA evaluation because of either suspected or previously established CAD. A boosted ensemble algorithm (XGBoost) was used, with data split into a training set (80%) on which 10-fold cross-validation was done and a test set (20%). Performance was assessed of the (1) ML model (using 25 clinical and demographic features), (2) ML + CACS, (3) CAD consortium clinical score, (4) CAD consortium clinical score + CACS, and (5) updated Diamond-Forrester (UDF) score. The study population comprised of 13 054 patients, of whom 2380 (18.2%) had obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). Machine learning with CACS produced the best performance [area under the curve (AUC) of 0.881] compared with ML alone (AUC of 0.773), CAD consortium clinical score (AUC of 0.734), and with CACS (AUC of 0.866) and UDF (AUC of 0.682), P < 0.05 for all comparisons. CACS, age, and gender were the highest ranking features. CONCLUSION: A ML model incorporating clinical features in addition to CACS can accurately estimate the pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD on CCTA. In clinical practice, the utilization of such an approach could improve risk stratification and help guide downstream management.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1 Pt 1): 124-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103575

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established therapy for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Technological advances and the learning curve have resulted in better procedural results in terms of hemodynamic valve performance and intermediate-term clinical outcomes. The integration of anatomical and functional information provided by multimodality imaging has improved size selection of TAVR prostheses, permitted better patient selection, and provided new insights in the performance of the TAVR prostheses at follow-up. Furthermore, the field of TAVR continues to develop and expand the technique to younger patients with lower risk on the one hand, and more complex clinical scenarios, on the other hand, such as degenerated aortic bioprostheses, bicuspid aortic valves, or pure native aortic regurgitation. The present review article summarizes how multimodality imaging can be integrated in TAVR in clinical (sometimes complex) scenarios that have not been included in the landmark randomized clinical trials.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(3): 272-280, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial studies have suggested the familial clustering of mitral valve prolapse, but most of them were either community based among unselected individuals or applied non-specific diagnostic criteria. Therefore little is known about the familial distribution of mitral regurgitation in a referral-type population with a more severe mitral valve prolapse phenotype. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of familial mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve prolapse, differentiating patients with Barlow's disease, Barlow forme fruste and fibro-elastic deficiency. METHODS: A total of 385 patients (62 ± 12 years, 63% men) who underwent surgery for mitral valve prolapse were contacted to assess cardiac family history systematically. Only the documented presence of mitral regurgitation was considered to define 'familial mitral regurgitation'. In the probands, the aetiology of mitral valve prolapse was defined by surgical observations. RESULTS: A total of 107 (28%) probands were classified as having Barlow's disease, 85 (22%) as Barlow forme fruste and 193 (50%) patients as fibro-elastic deficiency. In total, 51 patients (13%) reported a clear family history for mitral regurgitation; these patients were significantly younger, more often diagnosed with Barlow's disease and also reported more sudden death in their family as compared with 'sporadic mitral regurgitation'. In particular, 'familial mitral regurgitation' was reported in 28 patients with Barlow's disease (26%), 15 patients (8%) with fibro-elastic deficiency and eight (9%) with Barlow forme fruste (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients operated for mitral valve prolapse, the self-reported prevalence of familial mitral regurgitation was 26% in patients with Barlow's disease and still 8% in patients with fibro-elastic deficiency, highlighting the importance of familial anamnesis and echocardiographic screening in all mitral valve prolapse patients.

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