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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840139
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is currently one of the first-line therapies for refractory cardiogenic shock (CS), but its applicability is undermined by the high morbidity associated with its complications, especially those related to mechanical ventilation (MV). We aimed to assess the prognostic impact of keeping patients in refractory CS awake at cannulation and during the VA-ECMO run. METHODS : A 7-year database of patients given peripheral VA-ECMO support was used to conduct a propensity-score (PS)-matched analysis to balance their clinical profiles. Patients were classified as 'awake ECMO' or 'non-awake ECMO', respectively, if invasive MV was used during ≤50% or >50% of the VA-ECMO run. Primary outcomes included ventilator-associated pneumonia and ECMO-related complication rates, and secondary outcomes were 60-day and 1-year mortality. A multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to identify whether MV at cannulation was independently associated with 60-day mortality. RESULTS : Among 231 patients included, 91 (39%) were 'awake' and 140 (61%) 'non-awake'. After PS-matching adjustment, the 'awake ECMO' group had significantly lower rates of pneumonia (35% vs. 59%, P = 0.017), tracheostomy, renal replacement therapy, and less antibiotic and sedative consumption. This strategy was also associated with reduced 60-day (20% vs. 41%, P = 0.018) and 1-year mortality rates (31% vs. 54%, P = 0.021) compared to the 'non-awake' group, respectively. Lastly, MV at ECMO cannulation was independently associated with 60-day mortality. CONCLUSION : An 'awake ECMO' management in VA-ECMO-supported CS patients is feasible, safe, and associated with improved short- and long-term outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) measured by Doppler ultrasound has gained interest as a potential surrogate marker of renal congestion and adverse outcomes in heart failure. In this work, we aimed to determine if antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) and plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with congestive IRVF patterns (i.e., biphasic and monophasic) in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled a consecutive cohort of 70 patients hospitalized for AHF. Renal Doppler ultrasound was assessed within the first 24-h of hospital admission. The mean age of the sample was 73.5 ± 12.3 years; 47.1% were female, and 42.9% exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The median (interquartile range) for NT-proBNP and CA125 were 6149 (3604-12 330) pg/mL and 64 (37-122) U/mL, respectively. The diagnostic performance of both exposures for identifying congestive IRVF patterns was tested using the receiving operating curve (ROC). The cut-off for CA125 of 63.5 U/mL showed a sensibility and specificity of 67% and 74% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.71. After multivariate adjustment, CA125 remained non-linearly and positively associated with congestive IRVF (P-value = 0.008) and emerged as the most important covariate explaining the variability of the model (R2: 47.5%). Under the same multivariate setting, NT-proBNP did not show to be associated with congestive IRVF patterns (P-value = 0.847). CONCLUSIONS: CA125 and not NT-proBNP is a useful marker for identifying patients with AHF and congestive IRVF patterns.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(14): 1747-1759, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonal hematopoiesis driven by somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells, frequently called clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in population-based studies and in patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Yet, the impact of CHIP on HF progression, including nonischemic etiology, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical impact of clonal hematopoiesis on HF progression irrespective of its etiology. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 62 patients with HF and LVEF <45% (age 74 ± 7 years, 74% men, 52% nonischemic, and LVEF 30 ± 8%). Deep sequencing was used to detect CHIP mutations with a variant allelic fraction >2% in 54 genes. Patients were followed for at least 3.5 years for various adverse events including death, HF-related death, and HF hospitalization. RESULTS: CHIP mutations were detected in 24 (38.7%) patients, without significant differences in all-cause mortality (p = 0.151). After adjusting for risk factors, patients with mutations in either DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) or Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) exhibited accelerated HF progression in terms of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31 to 5.92; p = 0.008), death or HF hospitalization (HR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.84 to 8.04; p < 0.001) and HF-related death or HF hospitalization (HR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.15 to 9.03; p < 0.001). In single gene-specific analyses, somatic mutations in DNMT3A or TET2 retained prognostic significance with regard to HF-related death or HF hospitalization (HR: 4.50; 95% CI: 2.07 to 9.74; p < 0.001, for DNMT3A mutations; HR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.52 to 6.66; p = 0.002, for TET2 mutations). This association remained significant irrespective of ischemic/nonischemic etiology. CONCLUSIONS: Somatic mutations that drive clonal hematopoiesis are common among HF patients with reduced LVEF and are associated with accelerated HF progression regardless of etiology.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834570
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5940, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723360

RESUMO

A higher neprilysin activity has been suggested in women. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated the association of sex and body mass index (BMI) with soluble neprilysin (sNEP) and recurrent admissions among 1021 consecutive HF outpatients. The primary and secondary endpoints were the number of HF hospitalizations and all-cause mortality, respectively. The association between sNEP with either endpoint was evaluated across sex and BMI categories (≥ 25 kg/m2 vs. < 25 kg/m2). Bivariate count regression (Poisson) was used, and risk estimates were expressed as incidence rates ratio (IRR). During a median follow-up of 6.65 years (percentile 25%-percentile 75%:2.83-10.25), 702 (68.76%) patients died, and 406 (40%) had at least 1 HF hospitalization. Median values of sNEP and BMI were 0.64 ng/mL (0.39-1.22), and 26.9 kg/m2 (24.3-30.4), respectively. Left ventricle ejection fraction was < 40% in 78.9% of patients, and 28% were women. In multivariable analysis, sNEP (main effect) was positively associated with HF hospitalizations (p = 0.001) but not with mortality (p = 0.241). The predictive value of sNEP for HF hospitalizations varied non-linearly across sex and BMI categories (p-value for interaction = 0.003), with significant and positive effect only on women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (p = 0.039). For instance, compared to men, women with sNEP of 1.22 ng/mL (percentile 75%) showed a significantly increased risk (IRRs: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05-1.53). The interaction analysis for mortality did not support a differential prognostic effect for sNEP (p = 0.072). In conclusion, higher sNEP levels in overweight women better predicted an increased risk of HF hospitalization.

7.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has been shown to be useful for risk stratification in patients admitted with acute heart failure (AHF). We sought to determine a CA125 cutpoint for identifying patients at low risk of 1-month death or the composite of death/HF readmission following admission for AHF. METHODS: The derivation cohort included 3231 consecutive patients with AHF. CA125 cutoff values with 90% negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity up to 85% were identified. The adequacy of these cutpoints and the risk of 1-month death/HF readmission was then tested using the Royston-Parmar method. The best cutpoint was selected and externally validated in a cohort of patients hospitalized from BIOSTAT-CHF (n=1583). RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the median [IQR] CA125 was 57 [25.3-157] U/mL. The optimal cutoff value was <23 U/mL (21.5% of patients), with NPVs of 99.3% and 94.1% for death and the composite endpoint, respectively. On multivariate survival analyses, CA125 <23 U/mL was independently associated with a lower risk of death (HR, 0.20; 95%CI, 0.08-0.50; P <.001), and the combined endpoint (HR, 0.63; 95%CI, 950.45-0.90; P=.009). The ability of this cutpoint to discriminate patients at a low 1-month risk was confirmed in the validation cohort (NPVs of 98.6% and 96.6% for death and the composite endpoint). The predicted ability of this cutoff remained significant at 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted with AHF, CA125 <23 U/mL identified a subgroup at low risk of short-term adverse events, a population that may not require intense postdischarge monitoring.

10.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) is a common therapeutic target. However, little is known about the utility of transferrin saturation (TSAT) or serum ferritin for risk stratification in decompensated HF (DHF) or the European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) current definition of ID (ferritin < 100 µg/L or TSAT < 20% if ferritin is 100-299 µg/L). We evaluated the association between these potential markers of ID and the risk of 30-day readmission for HF or death in patients with DHF. METHODS: We retrospectively included 1701 patients from a multicenter registry of DHF. Serum ferritin and TSAT were evaluated 24-72 h after hospital admission, and multivariable Cox regression was used to assess their association with the composite endpoint. RESULTS: Participants' median (quartiles) age was 76 (68-82) years, 43.8% were women, and 51.7% had a left ventricular ejection fraction > 50%. Medians for NT-proBNP, TSAT, and ferritin were 4067 pg/mL (1900-8764), 14.1% (9.0-20.3), and 103 ug/L (54-202), respectively. According to the current ESC definition, 1,246 (73.3%) patients had ID. By day 30, there were 177 (10.4%) events (95 deaths and 85 HF readmission). After multivariable adjustment, lower TSAT was associated with outcome (p = 0.009) but serum ferritin was not (HR 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.00, p = 0.347). CONCLUSIONS: Lower TSAT, but not ferritin, was associated with a higher risk of short-term events in patients with DHF. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and the utility of serum ferritin as a marker of ID in DHF.

11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with better outcome compared with normal weight in patients with HF and other chronic diseases. It remains uncertain whether the apparent protective role of obesity relates to the absence of comorbidities. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BMI on outcome in younger patients without co-morbidities as compared to older patients with co-morbidities in a large heart failure (HF) population. METHODS: In an individual patient data analysis from pooled cohorts, 5,819 patients with chronic HF and data available on BMI, co-morbidities and outcome were analysed. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI (i.e. ≤ 18.5 kg/m2, 18.5-25.0 kg/m2; 25.0-30.0 kg/m2; 30.0 kg/m2). Primary endpoints included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization-free survival. RESULTS: Mean age was 65 ± 12 years, with a majority of males (78%), ischaemic HF and HF with reduced ejection fraction. Frequency of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization was significantly worse in the lowest two BMI groups as compared to the other two groups; however, this effect was only seen in patients older than 75 years or having at least one relevant co-morbidity, and not in younger patients with HF only. After including medications and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations into the model, the prognostic impact of BMI was largely absent even in the elderly group with co-morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that obesity is a marker of less advanced disease, but does not have an independent protective effect in patients with chronic HF. Categories of BMI are only predictive of poor outcome in patients aged > 75 years or with at least one co-morbidity (bottom), but not in those aged < 75 years without co-morbidities (top). The prognostic effect largely disappears in multivariable analyses even for the former group. These findings question the protective effect of obesity in chronic heart failure (HF).

12.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635944

RESUMO

Meteorin-like/Meteorin-ß (Metrnl/Metrnß) is a secreted protein produced by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that exerts metabolic actions that improve glucose metabolism. The role of Metrnß in cardiac disease is completely unknown. Here, we show that Metrnß-null mice exhibit asymmetrical cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and enhanced signs of cardiac dysfunction in response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and aging. Conversely, adeno-associated virus-mediated specific overexpression of Metrnß in the heart prevents the development of cardiac remodeling. Furthermore, Metrnß inhibits cardiac hypertrophy development in cardiomyocytes in vitro, indicating a direct effect on cardiac cells. Antibody-mediated blockage of Metrnß in cardiomyocyte cell cultures indicated an autocrine action of Metrnß on the heart, in addition to an endocrine action. Moreover, Metrnß is highly produced in the heart, and analysis of circulating Metrnß concentrations in a large cohort of patients reveals that it is a new biomarker of heart failure with an independent prognostic value.

14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624153

RESUMO

AIMS: Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) and right heart adaptation in relation to pre-existing preload are often disregarded. To determine volume-related changes in the pulmonary-right ventricle (RV) unit and the preload dependence of its components, we analysed pulmonary haemodynamics and right ventricular performance, taking advantage of the plasma volume removal associated to haemodialysis (HD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-three stable patients on chronic HD with LVEF > 50% and without heart failure were recruited (mean age 63.0 ± 12.4 years; 31.2% women; hypertension in 89% and diabetes in 53%) and evaluated just before and after HD (mean ultrafiltration volume 2.4 ± 0.7 l). SPAP from both times were available in 39 patients. After HD, SPAP decreased (42.2 ± 12.6 to 33.7 ± 11.6 mmHg, p < 0.001) without modification of non-invasive pulmonary vascular resistance (1.75 ± 0.44 to 1.75 ± 0.40 eWU, p = 0.94). Age and drop in the E/e' ratio were the variables associated with greater reduction in PASP (p = 0.022 and p = 0.049, respectively). A significant reduction of right chamber sizes was observed, along with a diminution in measures of RV contractility, excluding RV longitudinal strain. Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) diminution was observed in 26% of patients, occurring in every case with more than mild FTR. On multivariate analyses, left atrial size was the only predictor of pulmonary hypertension (defined as SPAP > 40 mmHg) (OR 1.29 (1.07-1.56), p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Rapid volemic changes may affect FTR grading, RV size and contractility, with RV longitudinal strain being less variable than conventional parameters. SPAP decreases after HD, and this reduction is related to age and greater diminution of the E/e' ratio.

15.
Cell ; 184(5): 1348-1361.e22, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636128

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis, a condition in which individual hematopoietic stem cell clones generate a disproportionate fraction of blood leukocytes, correlates with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind this association are incompletely understood. Here, we show that hematopoietic stem cell division rates are increased in mice and humans with atherosclerosis. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that increased stem cell proliferation expedites somatic evolution and expansion of clones with driver mutations. The experimentally determined division rate elevation in atherosclerosis patients is sufficient to produce a 3.5-fold increased risk of clonal hematopoiesis by age 70. We confirm the accuracy of our theoretical framework in mouse models of atherosclerosis and sleep fragmentation by showing that expansion of competitively transplanted Tet2-/- cells is accelerated under conditions of chronically elevated hematopoietic activity. Hence, increased hematopoietic stem cell proliferation is an important factor contributing to the association between cardiovascular disease and clonal hematopoiesis.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 732, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436787

RESUMO

To assess mortality trends at 1 and 3 years from 2001 to 2018 in a real-life cohort of HF outpatients from different etiologies with depressed and preserved LVEF. A total of 2368 consecutive patients with HF (mean age 66.4 ± 12.9 years, 71% men, 15.4% with preserved LVEF) admitted to a HF clinic from August 2001 to September 2018 were included in the study. Patients were divided into five quintiles (Q) according to the period of admission. Trends for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality from Q1 to Q5 were assessed by linear regression. Patients with LVEF < 50% had a progressive decrease in the rates of all-cause and cardiovascular death at 1 year (12.1% in Q1 to 6.5% in Q5, p = 0.003; and 8.4% in Q1 to 3.8% in Q5, p = 0.007, respectively) and 3 years (30.5% in Q1 to 17.0% in Q5, p = 0.003; and 23.9% in Q1 to 9.8% in Q5, p = 0.003, respectively). These trends remained significant after adjusting for clinical characteristics and risk. No significant trend in mortality was observed in patients with LVEF ≥ 50%. In a cohort of real-life ambulatory patients with HF, mortality progressively declined in patients with LVEF < 50%, but the same trend was not observed in patients with preserved LVEF.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(2): e019949, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399006

RESUMO

Background The determinants and consequences of pulmonary hypertension after successfully corrected valvular heart disease remain poorly understood. We aim to clarify the hemodynamic bases and risk factors for mortality in patients with this condition. Methods and Results We analyzed long-term follow-up data of 222 patients with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease successfully corrected at least 1 year before enrollment who had undergone comprehensive hemodynamic and imaging characterization as per the SIOVAC (Sildenafil for Improving Outcomes After Valvular Correction) clinical trial. Median (interquartile range) mean pulmonary pressure was 37 mm Hg (32-44 mm Hg) and pulmonary artery wedge pressure was 23 mm Hg (18-26 mm Hg). Most patients were classified either as having combined precapillary and postcapillary or isolated postcapillary pulmonary hypertension. After a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 91 deaths accounted for 4.21 higher-than-expected mortality in the age-matched population. Risk factors for mortality were male sex, older age, diabetes mellitus, World Health Organization functional class III and higher pulmonary vascular resistance-either measured by catheterization or approximated from ultrasound data. Higher pulmonary vascular resistance was related to diabetes mellitus and smaller residual aortic and mitral valve areas. In turn, the latter correlated with prosthetic nominal size. Six-month changes in the composite clinical score and in the 6-minute walk test distance were related to survival. Conclusions Persistent valvular heart disease-pulmonary hypertension is an ominous disease that is almost universally associated with elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance is a major determinant of mortality in this condition and is related to diabetes mellitus and the residual effective area of the corrected valve. These findings have important implications for individualizing valve correction procedures. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00862043.

18.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 116(1): 4, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495853

RESUMO

Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) and the GLP-1 analog exenatide activate different cardioprotective pathways and may have additive effects on infarct size (IS). Here, we aimed to assess the efficacy of RIC as compared with sham procedure, and of exenatide, as compared with placebo, and the interaction between both, to reduce IS in humans. We designed a two-by-two factorial, randomized controlled, blinded, multicenter, clinical trial. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 6 h of symptoms were randomized to RIC or sham procedure and exenatide or matching placebo. The primary outcome was IS measured by late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance performed 3-7 days after PPCI. The secondary outcomes were myocardial salvage index, transmurality index, left ventricular ejection fraction and relative microvascular obstruction volume. A total of 378 patients were randomly allocated, and after applying exclusion criteria, 222 patients were available for analysis. There were no significant interactions between the two randomization factors on the primary or secondary outcomes. IS was similar between groups for the RIC (24 ± 11.8% in the RIC group vs 23.7 ± 10.9% in the sham group, P = 0.827) and the exenatide hypotheses (25.1 ± 11.5% in the exenatide group vs 22.5 ± 10.9% in the placebo group, P = 0.092). There were no effects with either RIC or exenatide on the secondary outcomes. Unexpected adverse events or side effects of RIC and exenatide were not observed. In conclusion, neither RIC nor exenatide, or its combination, were able to reduce IS in STEMI patients when administered as an adjunct to PPCI.

19.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 77(3): 332-333, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394826

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A specific anti-miR-21 has emerged as an effective treatment for ischemia/reperfusion injury in a pig model of myocardial infarction (MI), but the perspectives for clinical translation are limited. Anti-miR-21 blunts profibrotic pathways, whose excessive activation is detrimental in the post-MI setting. Repurposing antifibrotic drugs approved for other indications is a possible strategy. We compared the molecular effects of anti-miR-21 and the 2 drugs approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (nintedanib and pirfenidone) through a bioinformatic approach. We report that nintedanib and anti-miR-21 share many targets, including the proto-oncogene Rous sarcoma oncogene cellular homolog. Conversely, pirfenidone and anti-miR-21 do not have common mechanisms of action. In summary, the molecular mechanisms activated by nintedanib are partially overlapping with those elicited by anti-miR-21. Nintedanib could be evaluated in animal studies or clinical trials on MI.

20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 156(1): 26-28, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The CardioMEMS device is inserted into the pulmonary artery and allows monitorization of pulmonary artery pressure in heart failure patients. Previous studies have shown a reduction in hospitalizations for heart failure and an improvement in quality of life in the group of patients monitored with the device. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients managed in a multidisciplinary heart failure clinic implanted with the sensor were consecutively included from June 2019 to February 2020. This is the first experience with a cardioMEMS device published in Spain. RESULTS: The device was successfully implanted in all cases without severe complications or sensor failures, allowing precise adjustment of medical treatment that led to very few heart failure readmissions. DISCUSSION: Wireless pulmonary artery pressure monitoring will probably become an essential component in the management of selected HF patients


INTRODUCCIÓN: El dispositivo CardioMEMS(TM) se inserta en la arteria pulmonar, y permite la monitorización de la presión arterial pulmonar en los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca. Los estudios previos han reflejado una reducción de las hospitalizaciones por insuficiencia cardiaca, así como una mejora de la calidad de vida en el grupo de pacientes monitorizados con el dispositivo. Pacientes and métodos: Se incluyó consecutivamente a 11 pacientes tratados en una clínica multidisciplinar para insuficiencia cardiaca, que tuvieron implantado el sensor de junio de 2019 a febrero de 2020. Esta es la primera experiencia con el dispositivo CardioMEMS(TM) que se publica en España. RESULTADOS: Se implantó exitosamente el dispositivo en todos los casos, sin complicaciones graves ni fallos del sensor, lo cual permitió el ajuste preciso del tratamiento médico, que redundó en pocos reingresos por insuficiencia cardiaca. DISCUSIÓN: La monitorización de la presión arterial pulmonar sin cables se convertirá probablemente en un componente esencial del tratamiento de los pacientes de insuficiencia cardiaca seleccionados


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hemodinâmica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Espanha , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
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