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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 6: 61, 2013 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23410093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of depression in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depressive disorders are associated with increased medical morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes. It has been demonstrated that there is a higher prevalence of diabetic complications among individuals with diabetes and depression compared to those without depression. Several biological alterations have been reported in individuals with depressive disorders, particularly abnormal levels of endocrine-inflammatory markers.This study aims to determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in type 2 diabetes patients, the prevalence of cardiovascular events in individuals with and without MDD and to compare the endocrine-inflammatory profile between groups. METHODS: The study was approved by the "Comité de Etica de Protocolos de Investigación del Departamento de Docencia e Investigación del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires" with the number "1262" and included only patients who provided written informed consent. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Habeas Data law on protection of personal data (Law Nª 25326, Argentina).Type 2 diabetes patients (n = 61) were included and they were classified as having MDD or not according to DSM-IV. Macrovascular disease was obtained from the medical history. Additionally, the intima-media thickness of the common carotid, carotid bifurcations and internal carotid arteries was measured non-invasively by two-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Fasting glucose, fasting lipid profile, inflammatory (CRP, TNF-α) and endocrine (urine free cortisol and saliva cortisol) markers. Student t tests were used to compare means for normally distributed variables and Mann-Whitney test for variables without normal distribution. Relative frequencies were calculated and a chi-square analysis was conducted. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relative odds of clinical cardiovascular disease in individuals with compared to those without depression. Differences were considered significant using a two-sided p < 0.05. RESULTS: 21 patients (34%) had MDD and 40 patients (66%) didn't have MDD. Diabetic patients with MDD had significantly higher CRP levels (4.1(1.9-7.6) vs 1.5(0.5-4.4) mg/l; p = 0.02) and 24-hour urine free cortisol (71.4 ± 21.3 vs 59.8 ± 29.3 ug/24 h; p = 0.03). The other metabolic and inflammatory parameters were not statistically different between groups. There was a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular events in individuals with MDD: 38% for the depressive group vs 15% for non-depressive group, p = 0.04). Patients with MDD had a 3.5-fold greater odd of having cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients with depression are more likely to have cardiovascular events, and different factors can determine this high association.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Glândulas Endócrinas/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 47(3): 39-54, jul.-set. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-641977

RESUMO

En los últimos años se reconoce un nuevo mecanismo involucrado en la fisiopatología de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2: el déficit de producción y/o acción de las incretinas. Las incretinas son enterohormonas que estimulan la secreción de insulina en respuesta a la ingesta de nutrientes. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP1) y Polipéptido insulinotrópico glucosa dependiente (GIP) son las principales incretinas descubiertas hasta hoy. Ambas presentan también efecto trófico sobre las células beta de los islotes pancreáticos. GLP-1 presenta otras acciones como son la inhibición de la secreción de glucagón, enlentecimiento del vaciamiento gástrico e inhibición del apetito. Ambas incretinas son rápidamente clivadas por la enzima dipeptidil peptidasa 4 (DPP-4). Nuevas drogas como los incretinomiméticos, análogos y los inhibidores de DPP-4 se presentan como una terapéutica prometedora para los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Conflicto de intereses: Dr. León Litwak - Miembro del Board Latinoamericano de Eli Lilly y Sanofi Aventis - Miembro del Board Nacional de los laboratorios Novo Nordisk, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Aventis, Boheringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers, Astra Zeneca - Investigador principal de protocolos pertenecientes a Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Takeda, PPDF, Pfizer, Merck Sharp and Dôhme, Amger, Roche, Minimed, Quintiles - Conferencista de los laboratorios mencionados.


Two main pathophysiological mechanisms are currently involved in Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), insulin resistance and impairment of beta cell function. However, in recent years a new mechanism was reported: a significant decrease in incretins production and/or action. Incretins are gastrointestinal hormones whose main action is stimulating insulin secretion in response to nutrients. The best known incretins are glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP not only increase insulin secretion, but also decrease glucagon secretion, slow gastric emptying and reduce apetite, generating weight loss. Both incretins are rapidly clived by the enzyme dipeptidil peptidase 4 (DPP4). In order to emulate incretins action, several drugs were developed: GLP-1 receptor agonists, GLP-1 mimetics, and DPP4 inhibitors. All of them seem to became a very promising tool for the treatment of T2DM. Financial Interests: Dr. León Litwak - Member of the Latin American Board of Eli Lilly and Sanofi Aventis - Member of the National Board of the following laboratories: Novo Nordisk, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKlein Sanofi, Aventis, Boheringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers, Astra Zeneca - Principal Investigator of Protocols from: Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKlein, Takeda, PPDF, Pfizer, Merck Sharp and Dôhme, Amgen, Roche, Minimed, Quintiles - Lecturer for the former laboratories.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Incretinas/metabolismo
3.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 47(1): 36-51, ene.-abr. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-641966

RESUMO

En los últimos años se reconoce un nuevo mecanismo involucrado en la fisiopatología de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2: el déficit de producción y/o acción de las incretinas. Las incretinas son enterohormonas que estimulan la secreción de insulina en respuesta a la ingesta de nutrientes. Glucagon like péptido-1 (GLP1) y Polipéptido insulinotrópico glucosa dependiente (GIP) son las principales incretinas descubiertas hasta hoy. Ambas presentan también efecto trófico sobre las células beta de los islotes pancreáticos. GLP-1 presenta otras acciones como son la inhibición de la secreción de glucagón, enlentecimiento del vaciamiento gástrico e inhibición del apetito. Ambas incretinas son rápidamente clivadas por la enzima dipeptidil peptidasa 4 (DPP-4). Nuevas drogas como los incretinomiméticos, análogos y los inhibidores de DPP-4 se presentan como una terapéutica prometedora para los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2.


Two main patophysiological mechanisms are currently involved in Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), insulin resistance and impairment of beta cell function. However in the last years a new mechanism was reported: a significant decrease in incretins production and or action. Incretins are gut hormones whose main action is stimulating insulin secretion in response to nutrients. The more known incretins are glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Gastric insulinothropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP not only increase insulin secretion, nor decrease glucagon secretion, slow gastric emptying and reduce apetite generating weight lose. Both incretins are rapidly clived by the enzyme dipeptidil peptidase 4 (DPP4). In order to emulate incretins action, several drugs where developed: agonists of GLP-1 receptors, GLP-1 mimetics, and inhibitors of the DPP4. All of them seems to became a very promise tool for the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Incretinas/fisiologia , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/fisiologia , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/fisiologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Incretinas/metabolismo
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