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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the impact of machine learning (ML)-based fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomography (FFRCT) compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for therapeutic decision-making and patient outcome in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: One thousand one hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with stable chest pain who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) followed ICA within 90 days between January 2007 and December 2016 were included in this retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed for the endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). FFRCT values were calculated using an artificial intelligence (AI) ML platform. Disagreements between hemodynamic significant stenosis via FFRCT and severe stenosis on qualitative CCTA and ICA were also evaluated. RESULTS: After FFRCT results were revealed, a change in the proposed treatment regimen chosen based on ICA results was seen in 167 patients (14.9%). Over a median follow-up time of 26 months (4-48 months), FFRCT ≤ 0.80 was associated with MACE (HR, 6.84 (95% CI, 3.57 to 13.11); p < 0.001), with superior prognostic value compared to severe stenosis on ICA (HR, 1.84 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.73), p = 0.002) and CCTA (HR, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.14, p = 0.045). Reserving ICA and revascularization for vessels with positive FFRCT could have reduced the rate of ICA by 54.5% and lead to 4.4% fewer percutaneous interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated ML-based FFRCT had superior prognostic value when compared to severe anatomic stenosis on CCTA and adding FFRCT may direct therapeutic decision-making with the potential to improve efficiency of ICA. KEY POINTS: • ML-based FFRCTshows superior outcome prediction value when compared to severe anatomic stenosis on CCTA. • FFRCTnoninvasively informs therapeutic decision-making with potential to change diagnostic workflows and enhance efficiencies in patients with suspected CAD. • Reserving ICA and revascularization for vessels with positive FFRCTmay reduce the normalcy rate of ICA and improve its efficiency.

2.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (CT-MPI) with hyperemia induced by regadenoson was evaluated for the detection of myocardial ischemia, safety, relative radiation exposure, and patient experience compared with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients (66.5 y, 29% male) who had undergone clinically indicated SPECT imaging and provided written informed consent were included in this phase II, IRB-approved, and FDA-approved clinical trial. All patients underwent coronary CT angiography and CT-MPI with hyperemia induced by the intravenous administration of regadenoson (0.4 mg/5 mL). Patient experience and findings on CT-MPI images were compared to SPECT imaging. RESULTS: Patient experience and safety were similar between CT-MPI and SPECT procedures and no serious adverse events due to the administration of regadenoson occurred. SPECT resulted in a higher number of mild adverse events than CT-MPI. Patient radiation exposure was similar during the combined coronary computed tomography angiography and CT-MPI (4.4 [2.7] mSv) and SPECT imaging (5.6 [1.7] mSv) (P-value 0.401) procedures. Using SPECT as the reference standard, CT-MPI analysis showed a sensitivity of 58.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.7-84.8), a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 73.5-100), and an accuracy of 79.1% (95% CI: 57.9-92.87). Low apparent sensitivity occurred when the SPECT defects were small and highly suspicious for artifacts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that CT-MPI is safe, well tolerated, and can be performed with comparable radiation exposure to SPECT. CT-MPI has the benefit of providing both complete anatomic coronary evaluation and assessment of myocardial perfusion.

3.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(3): 198-203, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilization of invasive and noninvasive tests and compare cost in patients presenting with chest pain to the emergency department (ED) who underwent either triple-rule-out computed tomography angiography (TRO-CTA) or standard of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of 2156 ED patients who presented with acute chest pain with a negative initial troponin and electrocardiogram for myocardial injury. Patient cohorts matched by patient characteristics who had undergone TRO-CTA as a primary imaging test (n=1139) or standard of care without initial CTA imaging (n=1017) were included in the study. ED visits, utilization of tests, and costs during the initial episode of hospital care were compared. RESULTS: No significant differences in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, or aortic dissection were observed. Median ED waiting time (4.5 vs. 7.0 h, P<0.001), median total length of hospital stay (5.0 vs. 32.0 h, P<0.001), hospital admission rate (12.6% vs. 54.2%, P<0.001), and ED return rate to our hospital within 30 days (3.5% vs. 14.6%, P<0.001) were significantly lower in the TRO-CTA group. Moreover, reduced rates of additional testing and invasive coronary angiography (4.9% vs. 22.7%, P<0.001), and ultimately lower total cost per patient (11,783$ vs. 19,073$, P<0.001) were observed in the TRO-CTA group. CONCLUSIONS: TRO-CTA as an initial imaging test in ED patients presenting with acute chest pain was associated with shorter ED and hospital length of stay, fewer return visits within 30 days, and ultimately lower ED and hospitalization costs.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1340-1348, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481177

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived plaque markers and machine-learning-based CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) to identify adverse cardiac outcome. Data of 82 patients (60 ± 11 years, 62% men) who underwent cCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) were analyzed in this single-center retrospective, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Follow-up was performed to record major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Plaque quantification of lesions responsible for MACE and control lesions was retrospectively performed semiautomatically from cCTA together with machine-learning based CT-FFR. The discriminatory value of plaque markers and CT-FFR to predict MACE was evaluated. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (interquartile range 11.5 to 26.6 months), MACE was observed in 18 patients (21%). In a multivariate analysis the following markers were predictors of MACE (odds ratio [OR]): lesion length (OR 1.16, p = 0.018), low-attenuation plaque (<30 HU) (OR 4.59, p = 0.003), Napkin ring sign (OR 2.71, p = 0.034), stenosis ≥50% (OR 3.83, p 0.042), and CT-FFR ≤0.80 (OR 7.78, p = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics analysis including stenosis ≥50%, plaque markers and CT-FFR ≤0.80 (Area under the curve 0.94) showed incremental discriminatory power over stenosis ≥50% alone (Area under the curve 0.60, p <0.0001) for the prediction of MACE. cCTA-derived plaque markers and machine-learning CT-FFR demonstrate predictive value to identify MACE. In conclusion, combining plaque markers with machine-learning CT-FFR shows incremental discriminatory power over cCTA stenosis grading alone.

5.
Eur J Radiol ; 119: 108657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the impact of gender differences on the diagnostic performance of machine-learning based coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML) for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia. METHOD: Five centers enrolled 351 patients (73.5% male) with 525 vessels in the MACHINE (Machine leArning Based CT angiograpHy derIved FFR: a Multi-ceNtEr) registry. CT-FFRML and invasive FFR ≤ 0.80 were considered hemodynamically significant, whereas cCTA luminal stenosis ≥50% was considered obstructive. The diagnostic performance to assess lesion-specific ischemia in both men and women was assessed on a per-vessel basis. RESULTS: In total, 398 vessels in men and 127 vessels in women were included. Compared to invasive FFR, CT-FFRML reached a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 78% (95%CI 72-84), 79% (95%CI 73-84), 75% (95%CI 69-79), and 82% (95%CI: 76-86) in men vs. 75% (95%CI 58-88), 81 (95%CI 72-89), 61% (95%CI 50-72) and 89% (95%CI 82-94) in women, respectively. CT-FFRML showed no statistically significant difference in the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) in men vs. women (AUC: 0.83 [95%CI 0.79-0.87] vs. 0.83 [95%CI 0.75-0.89], p = 0.89). CT-FFRML was not superior to cCTA alone [AUC: 0.83 (95%CI: 0.75-0.89) vs. 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65-0.81), p = 0.12] in women, but showed a statistically significant improvement in men [0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.87) vs. 0.76 (95%CI: 0.71-0.80), p = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Machine-learning based CT-FFR performs equally in men and women with superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/normas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate the feasibility of a novel structural and computational fluid dynamics-based fractional flow reserve (FFR) algorithm for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), using alternative boundary conditions to detect lesion-specific ischemia. BACKGROUND: A new model of computed tomographic (CT) FFR relying on boundary conditions derived from structural deformation of the coronary lumen and aorta with transluminal attenuation gradient and assumptions regarding microvascular resistance has been developed, but its accuracy has not yet been validated. METHODS: A total of 338 consecutive patients with 422 vessels from 9 Chinese medical centers undergoing CTA and invasive FFR were retrospectively analyzed. CT FFR values were obtained on a novel on-site computational fluid dynamics-based CT FFR (uCT-FFR [version 1.5, United-Imaging Healthcare, Shanghai, China]). Performance characteristics of uCT-FFR and CTA in detecting lesion-specific ischemia in all lesions, intermediate lesions (luminal stenosis 30% to 70%), and "gray zone" lesions (FFR 0.75 to 0.80) were calculated with invasive FFR as the reference standard. The effect of coronary calcification on uCT-FFR measurements was also assessed. RESULTS: Per vessel sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies of 0.89, 0.91, and 0.91 with uCT-FFR, 0.92, 0.34, and 0.55 with CTA, and 0.94, 0.37, and 0.58 with invasive coronary angiography, respectively, were found. There was higher specificity, accuracy, and AUC for uCT-FFR compared with CTA and qualitative invasive coronary angiography in all lesions, including intermediate lesions (p < 0.001 for all). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy was observed in the "gray zone" range versus the other 2 lesion groups (FFR ≤0.75 and >0.80; p = 0.397) and in patients with "gray zone" versus FFR ≤0.75 (p = 0.633) and versus FFR >0.80 (p = 0.364), respectively. No significant difference in the diagnostic performance of uCT-FFR was found between patients with calcium scores ≥400 and <400 (p = 0.393). CONCLUSIONS: This novel computational fluid dynamics-based CT FFR approach demonstrates good performance in detecting lesion-specific ischemia. Additionally, it outperforms CTA and qualitative invasive coronary angiography, most notably in intermediate lesions, and may potentially have diagnostic power in gray zone and highly calcified lesions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the influence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score on the diagnostic performance of machine-learning-based coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR). BACKGROUND: CT-FFR is used reliably to detect lesion-specific ischemia. Novel CT-FFR algorithms using machine-learning artificial intelligence techniques perform fast and require less complex computational fluid dynamics. Yet, influence of CAC score on diagnostic performance of the machine-learning approach has not been investigated. METHODS: Four hundred eighty-two vessels from 314 patients (62.3 ± 9.3 years, 77% male) who underwent cCTA followed by invasive FFR were investigated from the MACHINE (Machine Learning based CT Angiography derived FFR: a Multi-center Registry) registry data. CAC scores were quantified using the Agatston convention. The diagnostic performance of CT-FFR to detect lesion-specific ischemia was assessed across all Agatston score categories (CAC 0, >0 to <100, 100 to <400, and ≥400) on a per-vessel level with invasive FFR as the reference standard. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of CT-FFR versus invasive FFR was superior to cCTA alone on a per-vessel level (78% vs. 60%) and per patient level (83% vs. 73%) across all Agatston score categories. No statistically significant differences in the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, or specificity of CT-FFR were observed across the categories. CT-FFR showed good discriminatory power in vessels with high Agatston scores (CAC ≥ 400) and high performance in low-to-intermediate Agatston scores (CAC >0 to <400) with a statistically significant difference in the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) (AUC: 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.85] vs. 0.85 [95% CI: 0.82-0.89], p = 0.04). CT-FFR showed superior diagnostic value over cCTA in vessels with high Agatston scores (CAC ≥ 400: AUC 0.71 vs. 0.55, p = 0.04) and low-to-intermediate Agatston scores (CAC >0 to <400: AUC 0.86 vs. 0.63, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Machine-learning-based CT-FFR showed superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone in CAC with a significant difference in the performance of CT-FFR as calcium burden/Agatston calcium score increased. (Machine Learning Based CT Angiography Derived FFR: a Multicenter, Registry [MACHINE] NCT02805621).

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(7): e008754, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pregnancy complications, particularly preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus, are described to increase the risk for subsequent coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, black women are at higher risk for CAD. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and extent of CAD as detected by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in black women with and without a history of prior pregnancy complications. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patient characteristics and CCTA findings in groups of black women with a prior history of preterm delivery (n=154), preeclampsia (n=137), or gestational diabetes mellitus (n=148), and a matched control group of black women who gave birth without such complications (n=445). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors of CAD. RESULTS: All groups with prior pregnancy complications showed higher rates of any (≥20% luminal narrowing) and obstructive (≥50% luminal narrowing) CAD (preterm delivery: 29.2% and 9.1%; preeclampsia: 29.2% and 7.3%; and gestational diabetes mellitus: 47.3% and 15.5%) compared with control women (23.8% and 5.4%). After accounting for confounding factors at multivariate analysis, gestational diabetes mellitus remained a strong risk factor of any (odds ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 2.03-5.22; P<0.001) and obstructive CAD (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.80; P<0.001) on CCTA. CONCLUSIONS: Black women with a history of pregnancy complications, particularly gestational diabetes mellitus, have a higher prevalence of CAD on CCTA while only a history of gestational diabetes mellitus was independently associated with any and obstructive CAD on CCTA.

9.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to correlate early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation with noninvasive imaging using cardiac computed tomography (CT). METHODS: CT image data of 260 patients who had undergone wide area circumferential ablation (WACA) between October 2005 and August 2010 as well as from 30 subjects in sinus rhythm without a history of AF (control group) were retrospectively analyzed. To evaluate early outcome of AF ablation, all AF patients underwent follow-up with a 30-day event monitor 3 to 4 months after ablation. In addition, a cardiac CT was also performed 3 to 4 months after ablation to exclude pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis. The presence of early AF was correlated with anatomic and functional PV and left atrial parameters, as assessed by cardiac CT. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients (26.9%) were found to have early recurrence of AF. However, we found no association between PV or left atrial anatomic or functional parameters derived from cardiac imaging with early AF recurrence. Furthermore, no correlation (P>0.05) between AF recurrence and coronary artery stenosis, anatomic origin of the sinoatrial, or atrioventricular nodal arteries was observed. Finally, PV contraction did not predict AF recurrence. However, when comparing PV contraction in WACA patients with the control group, a significant (P<0.05) reduction in left superior PV and right superior PV contractility was found in patients after radiofreqency ablation. CONCLUSIONS: In our relatively large cohort, cardiac CT did not yield any anatomic or functional markers for the prediction of early AF recurrence after undergoing WACA. However, our data may provide insights into functional changes that occur following ablation procedures.

10.
Eur Radiol ; 29(5): 2378-2387, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived plaque markers combined with deep machine learning-based fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) to identify lesion-specific ischemia using invasive FFR as the reference standard. METHODS: Eighty-four patients (61 ± 10 years, 65% male) who had undergone cCTA followed by invasive FFR were included in this single-center retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Various plaque markers were derived from cCTA using a semi-automatic software prototype and deep machine learning-based CT-FFR. The discriminatory value of plaque markers and CT-FFR to identify lesion-specific ischemia on a per-vessel basis was evaluated using invasive FFR as the reference standard. RESULTS: One hundred three lesion-containing vessels were investigated. 32/103 lesions were hemodynamically significant by invasive FFR. In a multivariate analysis (adjusted for Framingham risk score), the following markers showed predictive value for lesion-specific ischemia (odds ratio [OR]): lesion length (OR 1.15, p = 0.037), non-calcified plaque volume (OR 1.02, p = 0.007), napkin-ring sign (OR 5.97, p = 0.014), and CT-FFR (OR 0.81, p < 0.0001). A receiver operating characteristics analysis showed the benefit of identifying plaque markers over cCTA stenosis grading alone, with AUCs increasing from 0.61 with ≥ 50% stenosis to 0.83 with addition of plaque markers to detect lesion-specific ischemia. Further incremental benefit was realized with the addition of CT-FFR (AUC 0.93). CONCLUSION: Coronary CTA-derived plaque markers portend predictive value to identify lesion-specific ischemia when compared to cCTA stenosis grading alone. The addition of CT-FFR to plaque markers shows incremental discriminatory power. KEY POINTS: • Coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived quantitative plaque markers of atherosclerosis portend high discriminatory power to identify lesion-specific ischemia. • Coronary CT angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) shows superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone in detecting lesion-specific ischemia. • A combination of plaque markers with CT-FFR provides incremental discriminatory value for detecting flow-limiting stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/etiologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 16(6): 441-453, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomographic (CT) coronary artery calcium scoring (CAC) has been validated as a well-established screening method for cardiovascular risk stratification and treatment management that is used in addition to traditional risk factors. The purpose of this review is to present an update on current and future applications of CAC. Areas covered: The topic of CAC is summarized from its introduction to current application with focus on the validation and clinical integration including cardiovascular risk prediction and outcome, cost-effectiveness, impact on downstream medical testing, and the technical advances in scanner and software technology that are shaping the future of CAC. Furthermore, this review aims to provide guidance for the appropriate clinical use of CAC. Expert commentary: CAC is a well-established screening test in preventive care that is underused in daily clinical practice. The widespread clinical implementation of CAC will be decided by future technical advances in CT image acquisition, cost-effectiveness, and reimbursement status.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Radiology ; 288(1): 64-72, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634438

RESUMO

Purpose To compare two technical approaches for determination of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR)-FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, FFRCFD) and FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on machine learning algorithm (hereafter, FFRML)-against coronary CT angiography and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Materials and Methods A total of 85 patients (mean age, 62 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 62% men) who had undergone coronary CT angiography followed by invasive FFR were included in this single-center retrospective study. FFR values were derived on-site from coronary CT angiography data sets by using both FFRCFD and FFRML. The performance of both techniques for detecting lesion-specific ischemia was compared against visual stenosis grading at coronary CT angiography, QCA, and invasive FFR as the reference standard. Results On a per-lesion and per-patient level, FFRML showed a sensitivity of 79% and 90% and a specificity of 94% and 95%, respectively, for detecting lesion-specific ischemia. Meanwhile, FFRCFD resulted in a sensitivity of 79% and 89% and a specificity of 93% and 93%, respectively, on a per-lesion and per-patient basis (P = .86 and P = .92). On a per-lesion level, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.89 for FFRML and 0.89 for FFRCFD showed significantly higher discriminatory power for detecting lesion-specific ischemia compared with that of coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.61) and QCA (AUC, 0.69) (all P < .0001). Also, on a per-patient level, FFRML (AUC, 0.91) and FFRCFD (AUC, 0.91) performed significantly better than did coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.65) and QCA (AUC, 0.68) (all P < .0001). Processing time for FFRML was significantly shorter compared with that of FFRCFD (40.5 minutes ± 6.3 vs 43.4 minutes ± 7.1; P = .042). Conclusion The FFRML algorithm performs equally in detecting lesion-specific ischemia when compared with the FFRCFD approach. Both methods outperform accuracy of coronary CT angiography and QCA in the detection of flow-limiting stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Eur Radiol ; 28(5): 2134-2142, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic accuracy between low-kilovolt peak (kVp) (≤ 100) and high-kVp (> 100) third-generation dual-source coronary CT angiography (CCTA) using a kVp-tailored contrast media injection protocol. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients (mean age = 62.6 years, BMI = 29.0 kg/m2) who underwent catheter angiography and CCTA with automated kVp selection were separated into two cohorts (each n = 60, mean kVp = 84 and 117). Contrast media dose was tailored to the kVp level: 70 = 40 ml, 80 = 50 ml, 90 = 60 ml, 100 = 70 ml, 110 = 80 ml, and 120 = 90 ml. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured. Two observers evaluated image quality and the presence of significant coronary stenosis (> 50% luminal narrowing). RESULTS: Diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) with ≤ 100 vs. > 100 kVp CCTA was comparable: per patient = 93.9/92.6% vs. 90.9/92.6%, per vessel = 91.5/97.8% vs. 94.0/96.8%, and per segment = 90.0/96.7% vs. 90.7/95.2% (all P > 0.64). CNR was similar (P > 0.18) in the low-kVp vs. high-kVp group (12.0 vs. 11.1), as ws subjective image quality (P = 0.38). Contrast media requirements were reduced by 38.1% in the low- vs. high-kVp cohort (53.6 vs. 86.6 ml, P < 0.001) and radiation dose by 59.6% (4.3 vs. 10.6 mSv, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Automated tube voltage selection with a tailored contrast media injection protocol allows CCTA to be performed at ≤ 100 kVp with substantial dose reductions and equivalent diagnostic accuracy for coronary stenosis detection compared to acquisitions at > 100 kVp. KEY POINTS: • Low-kVp coronary CT angiography (CCTA) enables reduced contrast and radiation dose. • Diagnostic accuracy is comparable between ≤ 100 and > 100 kVp CCTA. • Image quality is similar for low- and high-kVp CCTA. • Low-kVp image acquisition is facilitated by automated tube voltage selection. • Tailoring contrast injection protocols to the automatically selected kVp-level is feasible.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Doses de Radiação
14.
J Thorac Imaging ; 33(2): 88-96, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817458

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has evolved as a rapid and highly sensitive method for the exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease. Unfortunately, as it pertains to moderate and severe lesions, the ability to discriminate between those that are hemodynamically significant and those that are nonobstructive is lacking. Consequently, this deficiency can result in a significant number of unnecessary referrals for invasive angiography that yields nonobstructive results. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), which assesses the hemodynamic significance of a specific lesion, when performed during invasive angiography, results in improved patient outcomes compared with visual stenosis assessment alone. Through the application of computational analytic methods to CT-derived anatomic coronary models, noninvasive calculation of FFR has become possible. This allows for the improved ability to differentiate between nonobstructive coronary lesions and those that are truly hemodynamically significant. Currently, HeartFlow FFRCT is the only FDA-approved and commercially available CCTA-derived FFR (CT-FFR) platform. By reducing the number of invasive procedures performed for nonobstructive disease, CT-derived FFR has the ability to lower health care expenditures and become the true gatekeeper to invasive angiography.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(12): 2121-2127, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102036

RESUMO

This study investigated the performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) with cCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR) for therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-four patients (62 ± 11 years, 62% men) with at least 1 coronary stenosis of ≥50% on clinically indicated dual-source cCTA, who had subsequently undergone ICA with FFR measurement, were retrospectively evaluated. CT-FFR values were computed using an on-site machine-learning algorithm to assess the functional significance of CAD. The therapeutic strategy (optimal medical therapy alone vs revascularization) and the appropriate revascularization procedure (percutaneous coronary intervention vs coronary artery bypass grafting) were selected using cCTA-CT-FFR. Thirty-six patients (49%) had a functionally significant CAD based on ICA-FFR. cCTA-CT-FFR correctly identified a functionally significant CAD and the need of revascularization in 35 of 36 patients (97%). When revascularization was deemed indicated, the same revascularization procedure (32 percutaneous coronary interventions and 3 coronary artery bypass grafting) was chosen in 35 of 35 patients (100%). Overall, identical management strategies were selected in 73 of the 74 patients (99%). cCTA-CT-FFR shows excellent performance to identify patients with and without the need for revascularization and to select the appropriate revascularization strategy. cCTA-CT-FFR as a noninvasive "one-stop shop" has the potential to change diagnostic workflows and to directly inform therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected CAD.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisões , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Radiology ; 285(1): 17-33, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926310

RESUMO

Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR) by means of a pressure wire technique is the established reference standard for the functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) ( 1 , 2 ). Coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography has emerged as a noninvasive method for direct assessment of CAD and plaque characterization with high diagnostic accuracy compared with ICA ( 3 , 4 ). However, the solely anatomic assessment provided with both coronary CT angiography and ICA has poor discriminatory power for ischemia-inducing lesions. FFR derived from standard coronary CT angiography (FFRCT) data sets by using any of several advanced computational analytic approaches enables combined anatomic and hemodynamic assessment of a coronary lesion by a single noninvasive test. Current technical approaches to the calculation of FFRCT include algorithms based on full- and reduced-order computational fluid dynamic modeling, as well as artificial intelligence deep machine learning ( 5 , 6 ). A growing body of evidence has validated the diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT techniques compared with invasive FFR. Improved therapeutic guidance has been demonstrated, showing the potential of FFRCT to streamline and rationalize the care of patients suspected of having CAD and improve outcomes while reducing overall health care costs ( 7 , 8 ). The purpose of this review is to describe the scientific principles, clinical validation, and implementation of various FFRCT approaches, their precursors, and related imaging tests. © RSNA, 2017.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(8): 1260-1266, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844517

RESUMO

This study investigated the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and multivessel disease to gauge significance and guide management of non-culprit lesions. We retrospectively analyzed data of 48 patients (56 ± 10 years, 60% men) who were admitted for symptoms suggestive of ACS and underwent dual-source cCTA followed by invasive coronary angiography with culprit lesion intervention. Culprit lesions were retrospectively identified on cCTA using images obtained during invasive coronary angiography. Non-culprit lesions with ≥25% luminal stenosis and deferred intervention were evaluated using a machine learning CT-FFR algorithm to determine lesion-specific ischemia (CT-FFR ≤0.80). Follow-up was performed. CT-FFR identified lesion-specific ischemia in 23 of 81 non-culprit lesions. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months, 14 patients (29%) had major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CT-FFR ≤0.80 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.77 [95% confidence interval 1.16 to 12.29], p = 0.027), Framingham risk score (FRS) (HR 2.96 [1.01 to 7.63], p = 0.038), and a CAD-RADS classification ≥3 (HR 3.12 [1.03 to 10.17], p = 0.051) were predictors of MACE. In a risk-adjusted model controlling for FRS and CAD-RADS ≥3, CT-FFR ≤0.80 remained a predictor of MACE (1.56 [1.01 to 2.83], p = 0.048). Receiver operating characteristics analysis including FRS, CAD-RADS ≥ 3, and CT-FFR ≤0.80 (area under the curve 0.78) showed incremental discriminatory power over FRS alone (area under the curve 0.66, p = 0.032). CT-FFR of non-culprit lesions in patients with ACS and multivessel disease adds prognostic value to identify risk of future MACE.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Radiol ; 91: 29-34, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) with tin pre-filtration (Sn100kVp) using iterative beam-hardening correction (IBHC) calcium material reconstruction compared to the standard 120kVp acquisition. BACKGROUND: Third generation dual-source CT (DSCT) CACS with Sn100kVp acquisition allows significant dose reduction. However, the Sn100kVp spectrum is harder with lower contrast compared to 120kVp, resulting in lower calcium score values. Sn100kVp spectral correction using IBHC-based calcium material reconstruction may restore comparable calcium values. METHODS: Image data of 62 patients (56% male, age 63.9±9.2years) who underwent a clinically-indicated CACS acquisition using the standard 120kVp protocol and an additional Sn100kVp CACS scan as part of a research study were retrospectively analyzed. Datasets of the Sn100kVp scans were reconstructed using a dedicated spectral IBHC CACS reconstruction to restore the spectral response of 120kVp spectra. Agatston scores were derived from 120kVp and IBHC reconstructed Sn100kVp studies. Pearson's correlation coefficient was assessed and Agatston score categories and percentile-based risk categorization were compared. RESULTS: Median Agatston scores derived from IBHC Sn100kVp scans and 120kVp acquisition were 31.7 and 34.1, respectively (p=0.057). Pearson's correlation coefficient showed excellent correlation between the acquisitions (r=0.99, p<0.0001). Agatston score categories and percentile-based cardiac risk categories showed excellent agreement (ĸ=1.00 and ĸ=0.99), resulting in a low cardiac risk reclassification of 1.6% with the use of IBHC CACS reconstruction. Image noise was 24.9±3.6HU in IBHC Sn100kVp and 17.1±3.9HU in 120kVp scans (p<0.0001). The dose-length-product was 13.2±3.4mGycm with IBHC Sn100kVp and 59.1±22.9mGycm with 120kVp scans (p<0.0001), resulting in a significantly lower effective radiation dose (0.19±0.07mSv vs. 0.83±0.33mSv, p<0.0001) for IBHC Sn100kVp scans. CONCLUSION: Low voltage CACS with tin filtration using a dedicated IBHC CACS material reconstruction algorithm shows excellent correlation and agreement with the standard 120kVp acquisition regarding Agatston score and cardiac risk categorization, while radiation dose is significantly reduced by 75% to the level of a chest x-ray.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Cálcio , Feminino , Filtração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doses de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estanho
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(5): 712-718, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024654

RESUMO

This study investigated the discriminatory value of quantitative atherosclerotic plaque markers derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) in patients with first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty patients (56.9 ± 9.3 years, 55% men) admitted with their first ACS and Framingham risk score-matched controls with stable CAD were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had undergone cCTA followed by invasive coronary angiography. Total plaque volume, calcified and noncalcified plaque volumes, plaque burden (in %), remodeling index, lesion length, presence of napkin-ring sign, segment involvement score, and segment stenosis score were derived from cCTA and compared between both groups on a per-lesion and per-patient level. Patients with ACS showed a significant higher number of obstructive CAD and higher values for segment stenosis score, segment involvement score, noncalcified plaque volume, lesion length, and remodeling index than the stable angina group (all p <0.05). On a per-lesion level, culprit lesions had significantly higher values for plaque burden, total plaque volume, noncalcified plaque volume, remodeling index, lesion length, and prevalence of napkin-ring sign in comparison to nonculprit lesions (all p <0.05). On receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, a stepwise model demonstrated incremental discriminatory power for identifying ACS both per-patient (area under the curve 0.92, p <0.0001) as well as per-lesion (area under the curve 0.88, p <0.0001). cCTA-derived culprit plaque markers show discriminatory value both on a per-patient and per-lesion level. A combination of markers added to the Framingham risk score yields the greatest discriminatory ability.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Angina Estável/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
20.
Eur Radiol ; 27(5): 1944-1953, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27553939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. RESULTS: Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m2 vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m2, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). CONCLUSION: TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. KEY POINTS: • Third-generation dual-source CT facilitates low-tube-voltage acquisition. • TAVR planning can be performed with reduced contrast volume and radiation dose. • TAVR-planning CT did not result in changes in creatinine levels at follow-up. • TAVR candidates can be safely evaluated by comprehensive low-tube-voltage CT angiography.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Doses de Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos
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