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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation is a percutaneous intervention for the treatment of resistant hypertension. Randomized studies have shown contradictory results on its efficacy. We present the results of a renal denervation registry for the treatment of resistant hypertension in real-life patients in Spain. METHODS: Multicenter registry of consecutive patients with resistant hypertension treated with renal denervation in Spain between 2009 and 2018. RESULTS: We included 125 patients (mean age, 56 years; 41% female; mean onset of hypertension 14±9 years previously). Office systolic and diastolic blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring decreased 6 months after the intervention (166±20/95±16 to 149±22/87±16 mmHg and 151±14/89±12 to 143±15/84±11, both P <.0001). At 12 months, the blood pressure reduction was maintained and the number of antihypertensive drugs decreased from 4.9±1.2 to 4.4±1.5 (P=.0001). There were no significant procedure-related complications. The response rate to denervation at 1 year was 80%, but there were wide differences between centers. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with resistant hypertension, treatment with renal denervation was related to a decrease in office blood pressure and, more importantly, in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, with a significant reduction in pharmacological treatment.

2.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 24(5): e12685, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490594

RESUMO

As medical education evolves, some traditional teaching methods often get forgotten. For generations, the Lewis ladder diagram (LLD) has helped students understand the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Similarly, clinicians have used LLDs to communicate their proposed mechanisms to their colleagues and trainees. In this article, we revisit this technique of constructing the LLD and demonstrate this process by describing the mechanisms of various bigeminal rhythms.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevention of postischaemic ventricular dilatation progressing towards pathological remodelling is necessary to decrease ventricular wall deterioration. Myocardial tissue engineering may play a therapeutic role due to its capacity to replace the extracellular matrix, thereby creating niches for cell homing. In this experimental animal study, a biomimetic cardiopatch was created with elastomeric scaffolds and nanotechnologies. METHODS: In an experimental animal study in 18 sheep, a cardiopatch was created with adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells seeded into an engineered bioimplant consisting of 3-dimensional bioabsorbable polycaprolactone scaffolds filled with a peptide hydrogel (PuraMatrix™). This patch was then transplanted to cover infarcted myocardium. Non-absorbable poly(ethyl) acrylate polymer scaffolds were used as controls. RESULTS: Fifteen sheep were followed with ultrasound scans at 6 months, including echocardiography scans, tissue Doppler and spectral flow analysis and speckle-tracking imaging, which showed a reduction in longitudinal left ventricular deformation in the cardiopatch-treated group. Magnetic resonance imaging (late gadolinium enhancement) showed reduction of infarct size relative to left ventricular mass in the cardiopatch group versus the controls. Histopathological analysis at 6 months showed that the cardiopatch was fully anchored and integrated to the infarct area with minimal fibrosis interface, thereby promoting angiogenesis and migration of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells to surrounding tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the feasibility and effectiveness of a cardiopatch grafted onto myocardial infarction scars in an experimental animal model. This treatment decreased fibrosis, limited infarct scar expansion and reduced postischaemic ventricular deformity. A capillary network developed between our scaffold and the heart. The elastomeric cardiopatch seems to have a positive impact on ventricular remodelling and performance in patients with heart failure.

5.
Clin Chem ; 65(10): 1187-1189, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362933
6.
Am J Med ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal diuretic treatment strategy for patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction remains unclear. Plasma carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a surrogate of fluid overload and a potentially valuable tool for guiding decongestion therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if a CA125 guided diuretic strategy is superior to usual care in terms of short-term renal function in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction at presentation. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label study randomized 160 patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction into two groups (1:1). Loop diuretics doses were established according to CA125 levels in the CA125-guided group (n=79), and to clinical evaluation in the usual care group (n=81). Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 72 and 24h were the co-primary endpoints, respectively. RESULTS: The mean age was 78±8years, the median amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was 7765pg/mL, and the mean eGFR was 33.7±11.3mL/min/1.73m2. Over 72h, the CA125-guided group received higher furosemide equivalent dose compared to usual care (p=0.011), which translated into higher urine volume (p=0.042). Moreover, patients in the active arm with CA125>35U/mL received the highest furosemide equivalent dose (p<0.001) and had higher diuresis (p=0.013). At 72-h, eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) significantly improved in the CA125-guided group (37.5 vs. 34.8, p=0.036), with no significant changes at 24-h (35.8 vs. 39.5, p=0.391). CONCLUSION: A CA125-guided diuretic strategy significantly improved eGFR and other renal function parameters at 72h in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction. Abreviations.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(3): 479-480, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319926
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e010309, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296084

RESUMO

Background Our aim was to calibrate and externally revalidate the ELAN-HF (European Collaboration on Acute Decompensated Heart Failure) score, to confirm and improve on a previous external validation of the risk score. Methods and Results The ELAN-HF score predicts 6-month all-cause mortality in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure using absolute and percentage change of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels in addition to clinical variables. For the external validation, we used the PRIMA II (Can NT-proBNP-Guided Therapy During Hospital Admission for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Reduce Mortality and Readmissions?) trial. For both data sets, observed versus predicted mortality was compared for the 4 risk categories; and the mean predicted mortality was plotted against the observed mortality with calculation of a correlation coefficient and SEE. The model discriminant ability was determined by comparing the C-statistics for both data sets. The predicted versus actual 6-month mortality values in the derivation cohort were 3.7% versus 3.6% for the low-risk category, 9.4% versus 9.2% for the intermediate-risk category, 24.2% versus 23.5% for the high-risk category, and 54.2% versus 51.1% for the very-high-risk category. The correlation between predicted and observed mortality by deciles was 0.92, with an SEE of ±4%. In the validation cohort, predicted versus actual 6-month mortality values were 3.0% versus 2.2% for the low-risk category, 9.4% versus 8.2% for the intermediate-risk category, 25.0% versus 22.9% for the high-risk category, and 56.8% versus 53.6% for the very-high-risk category. The correlation between predicted and actual mortality by quintiles was 0.99, with an SEE of ±2%. There was no significant difference in C-statistic between the derivation cohort (0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82) and the validation cohort (0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.84; P=0.693). Conclusions Our study confirms that the ELAN-HF score predicts accurately 6-month mortality in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure with the use of easily obtained characteristics.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359563

RESUMO

AIMS: Better management of heart failure (HF) over the past two decades has improved survival, mainly by reducing the incidence of death due to cardiovascular (CV) causes. Deaths due to non-CV causes, particularly cancer, may be increasing. This study explored the modes of death of consecutive patients who attended a HF clinic over 17 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 935 deaths were ascertained from 2002 to 2018 among 1876 patients (mean age 65.8 ± 12.5 years, 75% men, left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%) admitted to our HF clinic. Median follow-up was 4.2 years [1.9-7.8]. Mode of death was curated from patient health records and verified by the Catalan and Spanish health system databases. Trends for every mode of death were assessed by polynomial regression. Two trends were observed: a significant reduction in sudden death (P = 0.03) without changes in HF progression as mode of death (P = 0.26), and a significant increase in non-CV modes of death (P < 0.001). Non-CV deaths accounted for 17.4% of deaths in 2002 and 65.8% of deaths in 2018. A total 138 deaths were due to cancer (37% of non-CV deaths). A significant trend was observed towards a progressive increase in cancer deaths over time (P = 0.002). The main mode of cancer mortality was lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The modes of death in HF have shifted over the last two decades. Patients with HF die less due to sudden death and more due to non-CV causes, mainly cancer. Whether HF triggers cancer, or cancer develops in HF survivors, deserves further insight.

12.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(14): 1537-1548, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285364

RESUMO

Background: Soluble ST2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 1) (sST2) is involved in inflammatory diseases and increased in heart failure (HF). We herein investigated sST2 effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in human cardiac fibroblasts and its pathological role in human aortic stenosis (AS).Methods and results: Using proteomics and immunodetection approaches, we have identified that sST2 down-regulated mitofusin-1 (MFN-1), a protein involved in mitochondrial fusion, in human cardiac fibroblasts. In parallel, sST2 increased nitrotyrosine, protein oxidation and peroxide production. Moreover, sST2 enhanced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL-2). Pharmacological inhibition of transcriptional factor nuclear factor κB (NFκB) restored MFN-1 levels and improved oxidative status and inflammation in cardiac fibroblasts. Mito-Tempo, a mitochondria-specific superoxide scavenger, as well as Resveratrol, a general antioxidant, attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation induced by sST2. In myocardial biopsies from 26 AS patients, sST2 up-regulation paralleled a decrease in MFN-1. Cardiac sST2 inversely correlated with MFN-1 levels and positively associated with IL-6 and CCL-2 in myocardial biopsies from AS patients.Conclusions: sST2 affected mitochondrial fusion in human cardiac fibroblasts, increasing oxidative stress production and inflammatory markers secretion. The blockade of NFκB or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species restored MFN-1 expression, improving oxidative stress status and reducing inflammatory markers secretion. In human AS, cardiac sST2 levels associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study reveals a new pathogenic pathway by which sST2 promotes oxidative stress and inflammation contributing to cardiac damage.

13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319852809, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154828

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is characterized by better prognosis and lower plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure. We assessed whether another anthropometric measure, per cent body fat (PBF), reveals different associations with outcome and heart failure biomarkers (NT-proBNP, high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2)). METHODS: In an individual patient dataset, BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m) 2 , and PBF through the Jackson-Pollock and Gallagher equations. RESULTS: Out of 6468 patients (median 68 years, 78% men, 76% ischaemic heart failure, 90% reduced ejection fraction), 24% died over 2.2 years (1.5-2.9), 17% from cardiovascular death. Median PBF was 26.9% (22.4-33.0%) with the Jackson-Pollock equation, and 28.0% (23.8-33.5%) with the Gallagher equation, with an extremely strong correlation (r = 0.996, p < 0.001). Patients in the first PBF tertile had the worst prognosis, while patients in the second and third tertile had similar survival. The risks of all-cause and cardiovascular death decreased by up to 36% and 27%, respectively, per each doubling of PBF. Furthermore, prognosis was better in the second or third PBF tertiles than in the first tertile regardless of model variables. Both BMI and PBF were inverse predictors of NT-proBNP, but not hs-TnT. In obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, third PBF tertile), hs-TnT and sST2, but not NT-proBNP, independently predicted outcome. CONCLUSION: In parallel with increasing BMI or PBF there is an improvement in patient prognosis and a decrease in NT-proBNP, but not hs-TnT or sST2. hs-TnT or sST2 are stronger predictors of outcome than NT-proBNP among obese patients.

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 148-152, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the main modes of death in heart failure (HF) patients and its prediction remains a real challenge. Our aim was to assess the incidence of SCD at 5 years HF contemporary managed outpatients, and to find a simple prediction model for SCD. METHODS: SCD was considered any unexpected death, witnessed or not, occurring in a previously stable patient with no evidence of worsening HF or any other cause of death. A competing risk strategy was adopted using the Fine-Gray method of Cox regressions analyses that considered other causes of death as the competing event. RESULTS: The derivation cohort included 744 consecutive outpatients (72% men, age 67.9 ±â€¯12.2 years, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 36% ±â€¯14). During follow-up, 312 deaths occurred, 40 SCDs (5.4%). Age, haemoglobin, eGFR, HF duration, high-sensitivity troponin T, NTproBNP, and ST2 were associated with SCD in univariate analyses; HF duration (p = 0.006), eGFR (p < 0.001), LVEF <45% (p = 0.03), and ST2 (p = 0.006) remained in multivariable analysis. A predictive score (ST2-SCD) including dichotomous variables (ST2 > 45, LVEF <45%, HF duration >3 years, eGFR < 55, age ≥ 60 years and male sex) provided a Harrell's C-statistic of 0.82 (0.76-0.89)), reaching 0.87 (0.80-0.95) in the validation cohort (n = 149). CONCLUSIONS: In contemporary managed HF, SCD occurred in 5.4% of outpatients, accounting for 12.8% of all deaths at 5 years. Of the 3 studied biomarkers, only ST2 remained independently associated with SCD. A model containing age, sex, ST2, eGFR, LVEF, and HF duration reasonably predicted 5-years risk of SCD.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(32): 2684-2694, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204432

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is associated with high short-term mortality and a precise CS risk stratification could guide interventions to improve patient outcome. Here, we developed a circulating protein-based score to predict short-term mortality risk among patients with CS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mass spectrometry analysis of 2654 proteins was used for screening in the Barcelona discovery cohort (n = 48). Targeted quantitative proteomics analyses (n = 51 proteins) were used in the independent CardShock cohort (n = 97) to derive and cross-validate the protein classifier. The combination of four circulating proteins (Cardiogenic Shock 4 proteins-CS4P), discriminated patients with low and high 90-day risk of mortality. CS4P comprises the abundances of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, beta-2-microglobulin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B, and SerpinG1. Within the CardShock cohort used for internal validation, the C-statistic was 0.78 for the CardShock risk score, 0.83 for the CS4P model, and 0.84 (P = 0.033 vs. CardShock risk score) for the combination of CardShock risk score with the CS4P model. The CardShock risk score with the CS4P model showed a marked benefit in patient reclassification, with a net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 0.49 (P = 0.020) compared with CardShock risk score. Similar reclassification metrics were observed in the IABP-SHOCK II risk score combined with CS4P (NRI =0.57; P = 0.032). The CS4P patient classification power was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CONCLUSION: A new protein-based CS patient classifier, the CS4P, was developed for short-term mortality risk stratification. CS4P improved predictive metrics in combination with contemporary risk scores, which may guide clinicians in selecting patients for advanced therapies.

16.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 567-572, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204033

RESUMO

In recent years, the study of right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary circulation (PC) coupling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has been a matter of special interest. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) ratio has emerged as a reliable noninvasive index of RV to PC coupling. Thus, we hypothesized that TAPSE/PASP would be a predictor of readmission burden in HFpEF. One thousand one hundred and twenty seven consecutive HFpEF patients discharged for acute HF were included. In 367 patients (32.6%), PASP could not be accurately measured by echocardiography, leaving the final sample size to be 760 patients. Negative binomial regression method was used to evaluate the association between TAPSE/PASP ratio and recurrent admissions. Mean age of the cohort was 75.6 ± 9.7 years and 68.3% were women. At a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 2.0 (2.9) years, 352 (46.3%) patients died and 1,214 readmissions were registered in 482 patients (63.4%), being 506 of them HF-related. There was a stepwise increase in the rates of all-cause and HF readmissions by decreasing TAPSE/PASP ratio. After multivariable adjustment, TAPSE/PASP <0.36 was associated with a higher risk of HF-related recurrent admissions (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 2.24; p = 0.040), whereas patients in the lowest quintile (TAPSE/PASP <0.28) exhibited the highest risk of both all-cause and HF-related recurrent admissions (IRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.87, p = 0.025; and IRR 1.85, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.80, p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, TAPSE/PASP ratio, as a noninvasive index of RV-PC coupling, emerges as a strong predictor of recurrent hospitalizations in HFpEF.

17.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 82(6): 447-451, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180944

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a growing challenge in the Asia Pacific region. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a well-established tool for diagnosis of HF; however, it is relatively underutilized in predicting adverse outcomes in HF. Multiple studies have demonstrated the prognostic role of NT-proBNP in HF. A single value of NT-proBNP >5000 pg/mL predicts a worse outcome in hospitalized patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In stable outpatients with HFrEF, NT-proBNP > 1000 pg/mL predicts a poorer prognosis. NT-proBNP provides the same prognostic information in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as in those with HFrEF. An expert panel composed of cardiologists mainly from Asia Pacific region was convened to discuss the utility of NT-proBNP in HF prognostication. This article summarizes available scientific evidence and consensus recommendations from the meeting.

18.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12669, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and has significant morbidity. A score composed of easily measured electrocardiographic variables to identify patients at risk of AF would be of great value in order to stratify patients for increased monitoring and surveillance. The purpose of this study was to develop an electrocardiographic risk score for new-onset AF. METHODS: A total of 676 patients without previous AF undergoing coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. Points were allocated based on P-wave morphology in inferior leads, voltage in lead 1, and P-wave duration (MVP). Patients were divided into three risk groups and followed until development of AF or last available clinical appointment. RESULTS: Mean age was 65 years, and 68% were male. The high- and intermediate-risk groups were more likely to develop AF than the low-risk group (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-4.4; p = 0.006 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.27; p = 0.009, respectively). The high-risk group had a significantly shorter mean time to development of AF (258 weeks; 95% CI 205-310 weeks) compared to the intermediate- (278 weeks; 95% CI 252-303 weeks) and low-risk groups (322 weeks 95% CI 307-338 weeks), p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: A simple risk score composed of easy-to-measure electrocardiographic variables can help to predict new-onset AF. Further validation studies will be needed to assess the ability of this risk score to predict AF in other populations.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

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