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Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14879-14899, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533177


Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a poor prognosis and urgently needs better therapeutic approaches. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is already used in the clinic for several cancers but not yet well investigated for CRC. Currently, systemic administration of ALA offers a limited degree of tumour selectivity, except for intracranial tumours, limiting its wider use in the clinic. The combination of effective ALA-PDT and chemotherapy may provide a promising alternative approach for CRC treatment. Herein, theranostic Ag2S quantum dots (AS-2MPA) optically trackable in near-infrared (NIR), conjugated with endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting Cetuximab (Cet) and loaded with ALA for PDT monotherapy or ALA/5-fluorouracil (5FU) for the combination therapy are proposed for enhanced treatment of EGFR(+) CRC. AS-2MPA-Cet exhibited excellent targeting of the high EGFR expressing cells and showed a strong intracellular signal for NIR optical detection in a comparative study performed on SW480, HCT116, and HT29 cells, which exhibit high, medium and low EGFR expression, respectively. Targeting provided enhanced uptake of the ALA loaded nanoparticles by strong EGFR expressing cells and formation of higher levels of PpIX. Cells also differ in their efficiency to convert ALA to PpIX, and SW480 was the best, followed by HT29, while HCT116 was determined as unsuitable for ALA-PDT. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 2D cell cultures and 3D spheroids of SW480 and HT29 cells using AS-2MPA with either electrostatically loaded, hydrazone or amide linked ALA to achieve different levels of pH or enzyme sensitive release. Most effective phototoxicity was observed in SW480 cells using AS-2MPA-ALA-electrostatic-Cet due to enhanced uptake of the particles, fast ALA release and effective ALA-to-PpIX conversion. Targeted delivery reduced the effective ALA concentration significantly which was further reduced with codelivery of 5FU. Delivery of ALA via covalent linkages was also effective for PDT, but required a longer incubation time for the release of ALA in therapeutic doses. Phototoxicity was correlated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Hence, both AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet based PDT and AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet-5FU based chemo/PDT combination therapy coupled with strong NIR tracking of the nanoparticles demonstrate an exceptional therapeutic effect on CRC cells and excellent potential for synergistic multistage tumour targeting therapy.

Neoplasias Colorretais , Fotoquimioterapia , Pontos Quânticos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas
J Org Chem ; 79(13): 6037-46, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922068


Medium-sized ynolides were prepared by the Lewis acid-mediated fragmentation of bicyclic γ-silyloxy-ß-hydroxy-α-diazolactones in which the Cß-Cγ bond is the ring fusion bond. Although these lactone fragmentation substrates reacted somewhat less efficiently than their carbocyclic counterparts, the fragmentation provided 11-membered ynolides in up to 84% yield. Unlike prior fragmentations of similar substrates, elevated temperatures were required to obtain optimum yields of the ynolide products. The ynolides reported herein have ring sizes of 10 or 11, which are the smallest reported to date.

Compostos Azo/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Lactonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
Org Lett ; 14(1): 264-7, 2012 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22132946


Bicyclic γ-silyloxy-ß-hydroxy-α-diazoketones, in which the Cß-Cγ bond is the ring fusion bond, productively fragment when treated with tin(IV) chloride to provide medium-sized cyclic 2-alkynones. This method provides good to excellent yields of 10-, 11-, and 12-membered alkynone products.

Cicloparafinas/química , Estrutura Molecular
J Org Chem ; 75(2): 296-302, 2010 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20020697


Cyclic gamma-oxy-beta-hydroxy-alpha-diazo carbonyls undergo Lewis acid induced ring fragmentation to provide either ynoates or ynones tethered to an aldehyde, ketone, or ester. The fragmentation precursors are convenient to prepare by adding lithiated alpha-diazo carbonyls to alpha-oxy ketones. The fragmentation appears general and provides a variety of functional group-rich products in good to excellent yield.

Chem Commun (Camb) ; (12): 1248-50, 2007 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17356772


We report the synthesis of a water-soluble flavin polymer using ATRP, whereby the oligoethylene glycol backbone provides both a local hydrophobic environment and redox tuning of the flavin moiety typical of flavoenzyme prototypes.

Enzimas/química , Flavinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta