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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a syndrome with pleiotropic manifestations including vasculitis and hematologic compromise. A systematic definition of the relationship between adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) mutations and clinical phenotype remains unavailable. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test whether the impact of ADA2 mutations on enzyme function correlates with clinical presentation. METHODS: Patients with DADA2 with severe hematologic manifestations were compared with vasculitis-predominant patients. Enzymatic activity was assessed using expression constructs reflecting all 53 missense, nonsense, insertion, and deletion genotypes from 152 patients across the DADA2 spectrum. RESULTS: We identified patients with DADA2 presenting with pure red cell aplasia (n = 5) or bone marrow failure (BMF, n = 10) syndrome. Most patients did not exhibit features of vasculitis. Recurrent infection, hepatosplenomegaly, and gingivitis were common in patients with BMF, of whom half died from infection. Unlike patients with DADA2 with vasculitis, patients with pure red cell aplasia and BMF proved largely refractory to TNF inhibitors. ADA2 variants associated with vasculitis predominantly reflected missense mutations with at least 3% residual enzymatic activity. In contrast, pure red cell aplasia and BMF were associated with missense mutations with minimal residual enzyme activity, nonsense variants, and insertions/deletions resulting in complete loss of function. CONCLUSIONS: Functional interrogation of ADA2 mutations reveals an association of subtotal function loss with vasculitis, typically responsive to TNF blockade, whereas more extensive loss is observed in hematologic disease, which may be refractory to treatment. These findings establish a genotype-phenotype spectrum in DADA2.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene AK2 encodes the phosphotransferase adenylate kinase 2 (AK2). Human variants in AK2 cause reticular dysgenesis, a severe combined immunodeficiency with agranulocytosis, lymphopenia, and sensorineural deafness that requires hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for survival. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the mechanisms underlying recurrent sinopulmonary infections and hypogammaglobulinemia in 15 patients, ranging from 3 to 34 years of age, from 9 kindreds. Only 2 patients, both of whom had mildly impaired T-cell proliferation, each had a single clinically significant opportunistic infection. METHODS: Patient cells were studied with next-generation DNA sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry, and assays of lymphocyte and mitochondrial function. RESULTS: We identified 2 different homozygous variants in AK2. AK2G100S and AK2A182D permit residual protein expression, enzymatic activity, and normal numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes. All but 1 patient had intact hearing. The patients' B cells had severely impaired proliferation and in vitro immunoglobulin secretion. With activation, the patients' B cells exhibited defective mitochondrial respiration and impaired regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential and quality. Although activated T cells from the patients with opportunistic infections demonstrated impaired mitochondrial function, the mitochondrial quality in T cells was preserved. Consistent with the capacity of activated T cells to utilize nonmitochondrial metabolism, these findings revealed a less strict cellular dependence of T-cell function on AK2 activity. Chemical inhibition of ATP synthesis in control T and B cells similarly demonstrated the greater dependency of B cells on mitochondrial function. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients demonstrate the in vivo sequelae of the cell-specific requirements for the functions of AK2 and mitochondria, particularly in B-cell activation and antibody production.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 811-819, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive-combined immunodeficiency whose clinical spectra include recurrent infections, autoimmunity, malignancies, elevated serum IgE, eczema, and food allergies. Here, we report on patients with loss of function DOCK8 mutations with profound immune dysregulation suggestive of an immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX)-like disorder. METHODS: Immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subpopulations and analysis of DOCK8 protein expression were evaluated by flow cytometry. T regulatory (Treg) cells were isolated by cell sorting, and their suppressive activity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Gene mutational analysis was performed by whole-exome and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Patient 1 (P1) presented at 10 months of age with chronic severe diarrhea and active colitis in the absence of an infectious trigger, severe eczema with elevated serum IgE, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia, suggestive of an IPEX-related disorder. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in DOCK8 at the DOCK-homology region (DHR)-1 (c.1498C>T; p. R500X). Patient P2, a cousin of P1 who carries the same DOCK8 nonsense mutation, presented with eczema and recurrent ear infections in early infancy, and she developed persistent diarrhea by 3 years of age. Patient P3 presented with lymphoproliferation, severe eczema with allergic dysregulation, and chronic diarrhea with colitis. She harbored a homozygous loss of function DOCK8 mutation (c.2402 -1G→A). Treg cell function was severely compromised by both DOCK8 mutations. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 deficiency may present severe immune dysregulation with features that may overlap with those of IPEX and other IPEX-like disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/congênito , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/congênito , Mutação/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Anemia Hemolítica , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genes Recessivos/genética , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente
4.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(7): 707-714, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825155

RESUMO

Mutations in Sp110 are the underlying cause of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI), a combined immunodeficiency that is difficult to treat and often fatal. Because early treatment is critically important for patients with VODI, broadly usable diagnostic tools are needed to detect Sp110 protein deficiency. Several factors make establishing the diagnosis of VODI challenging: (1) Current screening strategies to identify severe combined immunodeficiency are based on measuring T cell receptor excision circles (TREC). This approach will fail to identify VODI patients because the disease is not associated with severe T cell lymphopenia at birth; (2) the SP110 gene contains 17 exons, making it a challenge for Sanger sequencing. The recently developed next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms that can rapidly determine the sequence of all 17 exons are available in only a few laboratories; (3) there is no standard functional assay to test for the effects of novel mutations in Sp110; and (4) it has been difficult to use flow cytometry to identify patients who lack Sp110 because of the low level of Sp110 protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes. We report here a novel flow cytometric assay that is easily performed in diagnostic laboratories and might thus become a standard assay for the evaluation of patients who may have VODI. In addition, the assay will facilitate investigations directed at understanding the function of Sp110.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adenoviridae/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Masculino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(2): 402-12, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25724123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) also classified as autosomal recessive (AR) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Recognizing patients with CID/HIES is of clinical importance because of the difference in prognosis and management. OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the clinical features that distinguish DOCK8 deficiency from other forms of HIES and CIDs, study the mutational spectrum of DOCK8 deficiency, and report on the frequency of specific clinical findings. METHODS: Eighty-two patients from 60 families with CID and the phenotype of AR-HIES with (64 patients) and without (18 patients) DOCK8 mutations were studied. Support vector machines were used to compare clinical data from 35 patients with DOCK8 deficiency with those from 10 patients with AR-HIES without a DOCK8 mutation and 64 patients with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient patients had median IgE levels of 5201 IU, high eosinophil levels of usually at least 800/µL (92% of patients), and low IgM levels (62%). About 20% of patients were lymphopenic, mainly because of low CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts. Fewer than half of the patients tested produced normal specific antibody responses to recall antigens. Bacterial (84%), viral (78%), and fungal (70%) infections were frequently observed. Skin abscesses (60%) and allergies (73%) were common clinical problems. In contrast to STAT3 deficiency, there were few pneumatoceles, bone fractures, and teething problems. Mortality was high (34%). A combination of 5 clinical features was helpful in distinguishing patients with DOCK8 mutations from those with STAT3 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: DOCK8 deficiency is likely in patients with severe viral infections, allergies, and/or low IgM levels who have a diagnosis of HIES plus hypereosinophilia and upper respiratory tract infections in the absence of parenchymal lung abnormalities, retained primary teeth, and minimal trauma fractures.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Fenótipo , Dermatopatias/complicações , Viroses/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/genética , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Lactente , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/mortalidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Sobrevida , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/mortalidade
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(2): 189-98, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627830

RESUMO

Mutations in DOCK8 result in autosomal recessive Hyper-IgE syndrome with combined immunodeficiency (CID). However, the natural course of disease, long-term prognosis, and optimal therapeutic management have not yet been clearly defined. In an international retrospective survey of patients with DOCK8 mutations, focused on clinical presentation and therapeutic measures, a total of 136 patients with a median follow-up of 11.3 years (1.3-47.7) spanning 1693 patient years, were enrolled. Eczema, recurrent respiratory tract infections, allergies, abscesses, viral infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Overall survival probability in this cohort [censored for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)] was 87 % at 10, 47 % at 20, and 33 % at 30 years of age, respectively. Event free survival was 44, 18 and 4 % at the same time points if events were defined as death, life-threatening infections, malignancy or cerebral complications such as CNS vasculitis or stroke. Malignancy was diagnosed in 23/136 (17 %) patients (11 hematological and 9 epithelial cancers, 5 other malignancies) at a median age of 12 years. Eight of these patients died from cancer. Severe, life-threatening infections were observed in 79/136 (58 %); severe non-infectious cerebral events occurred in 14/136 (10 %). Therapeutic measures included antiviral and antibacterial prophylaxis, immunoglobulin replacement and HSCT. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype of DOCK8 deficiency in the largest cohort reported so far and demonstrates the severity of the disease with relatively poor prognosis. Early HSCT should be strongly considered as a potential curative measure.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Incidência , Lactente , /epidemiologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Síndrome de Job/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 124(6): 1289-302.e4, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20004785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic etiologies of the hyper-IgE syndromes are diverse. Approximately 60% to 70% of patients with hyper-IgE syndrome have dominant mutations in STAT3, and a single patient was reported to have a homozygous TYK2 mutation. In the remaining patients with hyper-IgE syndrome, the genetic etiology has not yet been identified. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify a gene that is mutated or deleted in autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis for 9 patients with autosomal-recessive hyper-IgE syndrome to locate copy number variations and homozygous haplotypes. Homozygosity mapping was performed with 12 patients from 7 additional families. The candidate gene was analyzed by genomic and cDNA sequencing to identify causative alleles in a total of 27 patients with autosomal-recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. RESULTS: Subtelomeric biallelic microdeletions were identified in 5 patients at the terminus of chromosome 9p. In all 5 patients, the deleted interval involved dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8), encoding a protein implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Sequencing of patients without large deletions revealed 16 patients from 9 unrelated families with distinct homozygous mutations in DOCK8 causing premature termination, frameshift, splice site disruption, and single exon deletions and microdeletions. DOCK8 deficiency was associated with impaired activation of CD4+ and CD8+T cells. CONCLUSION: Autosomal-recessive mutations in DOCK8 are responsible for many, although not all, cases of autosomal-recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. DOCK8 disruption is associated with a phenotype of severe cellular immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to viral infections, atopic eczema, defective T-cell activation and T(h)17 cell differentiation, and impaired eosinophil homeostasis and dysregulation of IgE.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndrome de Job/genética , Mutação Puntual , Deleção de Sequência , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Linfócitos T/imunologia
8.
J Exp Med ; 204(2): 369-80, 2007 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17296785

RESUMO

A large proportion of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients develop autoimmunity and allergy. CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) natural regulatory T (nTreg) cells play a key role in peripheral tolerance to prevent immune responses to self-antigens and allergens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of WAS protein (WASP) deficiency on the distribution and suppressor function of nTreg cells. In WAS(-/-) mice, the steady-state distribution and phenotype of nTreg cells in the thymus and spleen were normal. However, WAS(-/-) nTreg cells engrafted poorly in immunized mice, indicating perturbed homeostasis. Moreover, WAS(-/-) nTreg cells failed to proliferate and to produce transforming growth factor beta upon T cell receptor (TCR)/CD28 triggering. WASP-dependent F-actin polarization to the site of TCR triggering might not be involved in WAS(-/-) nTreg cell defects because this process was also inefficient in wild-type (WT) nTreg cells. Compared with WT nTreg cells, WAS(-/-) nTreg cells showed reduced in vitro suppressor activity on both WT and WAS(-/-) effector T cells. Similarly, peripheral nTreg cells were present at normal levels in WAS patients but failed to suppress proliferation of autologous and allogeneic CD4(+) effector T cells in vitro. Thus, WASP appears to play an important role in the activation and suppressor function of nTreg cells, and a dysfunction or incorrect localization of nTreg cells may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in WAS patients.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/imunologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Polaridade Celular/imunologia , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
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