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1.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(10): 891-899, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504679

RESUMO

This study was designed to correlate clinical findings with the extent of pathologic a-synuclein (aSyn) in the brain using the Unified Staging System for Lewy Body disorders (USSLB). Data from 280 cases from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders are presented. Each case had a complete USSLB staging and at least 1 full research clinical assessment, including subspecialty neurologist-administered movement and cognitive evaluation. Of the 280, 25.7% were cognitively normal, 8.6% had mild cognitive impairment, and 65.7% had dementia. All cases could be categorized into 1 of 5 USSLB stages (8.6% stage I-olfactory bulb only; 15.4% IIa-brainstem predominant; 13.6% IIb-limbic predominant; 31.8% III-brainstem and limbic; and 30.7% IV-neocortical) yet using the Braak staging system 70 cases (25.3%) could not be classified. Those with USSLB stages III and IV died at a younger age. Multiple measures of motor parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, hyposmia, and probable RBD were significantly correlated with increasing USSLB stage. We conclude that the USSLB is the most comprehensive staging system for all Lewy body disorders and allows for categorization and ranking of all brains with significant correlations to many motor and nonmotor clinical signs and symptoms.

2.
Cells ; 8(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387311

RESUMO

Experimental studies of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have mostly investigated microglia, the brain-resident macrophages. This review focused on human microglia obtained at rapid autopsies. Studies employing methods to isolate and culture human brain microglia in high purity for experimental studies were discussed. These methods were employed to isolate human microglia for investigation of a number of features of neuroinflammation, including activation phenotypes, neurotoxicity, responses to abnormal aggregated proteins such as amyloid beta, phagocytosis, and the effects of aging and disease on microglia cellular properties. In recent years, interest in human microglia and neuroinflammation has been renewed due to the identification of inflammation-related AD genetic risk factors, in particular the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-2. Because of the difficulties in developing effective treatments for AD, there has been a general need for greater understanding of the functions of microglia in normal and AD brains. While most experimental studies on neuroinflammation have employed rodent microglia, this review considered the role of human microglia in experimental studies. This review focused on the development of in vitro methodology for the culture of postmortem human microglia and the key findings obtained from experimental studies with these cells.

4.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 9(3): 543-552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some epidemiology studies suggest that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting data suggest lower rates of ASCVD in PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine, with data from a longitudinal clinicopathological study, whether ASCVD risk factors are associated with a PD diagnosis and/or increased brain or peripheral load of Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS). METHODS: All subjects were followed to autopsy and neuropathological examination in the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Multivariable regression models, including age, gender, and smoking history, were used to investigate the association of a PD diagnosis or brain or submandibular gland LTS load with ASCVD risk factors. RESULTS: 150 subjects were included (PD n = 60, controls n = 90). Univariable comparisons and regression models showed a general trend to inverse associations. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) of brain LTS load for carotid artery disease was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.98; p = 0.02), for anticoagulant use 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90 to 0.99; p = 0.04) and for abnormal heart weight 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99; p = 0.01). Composite clinical and overall (clinical + pathology composite risk scores) composite risk scores were also significantly lower in the PD subjects (p = 0.0164 and 0.0187, respectively). Submandibular gland LTS load was not significantly related to ASCVD conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows associations of higher brain LTS with lower prevalence of both clinical and pathological indices of ASCVD in PD subjects versus age-similar controls. We suggest that this is due to α-synuclein pathology-induced sympathetic denervation in PD.

5.
Cells ; 8(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340569

RESUMO

Inflammation is considered a key pathological process in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but there are still mechanisms not understood. In the brain, most microglia are performing essential homeostatic functions, but can also respond to pathogenic stimuli by producing harmful pro-inflammatory cytokines or free radicals. Distinguishing between damaging and homeostatic microglia in human diseased brain tissues is a challenge. This report describes findings using a monoclonal antibody to CD105/Endoglin (R&D Systems MAB1097) that identifies subtypes of activated microglia. CD105/Endoglin is a co-receptor for transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) receptor that antagonizes TGFß signaling. CD105/Endoglin is a marker for vascular endothelial cells, but was originally identified as a marker for activated macrophages. This antibody did not identify endothelial cells in brain sections, only microglia-like cells. In this study, we examined with this antibody tissue section from middle temporal gyrus derived from human brains from normal control subjects with low-plaque pathology, high-plaque pathology, and AD cases, and also substantia nigra samples from control and PD cases, in conjunction with antibodies to markers of pathology and microglia. In low-plaque pathology cases, CD105-positive microglia were mostly absent, but noticeably increased with increasing pathology. CD105-positive cells strongly colocalized with amyloid-beta plaques, but not phosphorylated tau positive tangles. In substantia nigra, strong microglial CD105 staining was observed in microglia associated with degenerating dopaminergic neurons and neuromelanin. In PD cases with few surviving dopaminergic neurons, this staining had decreased. By Western blot, this antibody identified polypeptide bands of 70 kDa in brain samples, and samples from microglia, macrophages, and brain endothelial cells. In comparison with other tested CD105 antibodies, this antibody did not recognize the glycosylated forms of CD105 on Western blots. Overall, the data indicate that this antibody and this marker could have utility for subtyping of microglia in pathologically-involved tissue.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(3): 691-713, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256118

RESUMO

We used Illumina Human HT-12 v4 arrays to compare RNA expression of middle temporal gyrus (MTG; BA21) in Alzheimer's disease (AD = 97) and non-demented controls (ND = 98). A total of 938 transcripts were highly differentially expressed (adj p < 0.01; log2 FC ≥ |0.500|, with 411 overexpressed and 527 underexpressed in AD. Our results correlated with expression profiling in neurons from AD and ND obtained by laser capture microscopy in MTG from an independent dataset (log2 FC correlation: r = 0.504; p = 2.2e-16). Additionally, selected effects were validated by qPCR. ANOVA analysis yielded no difference between genders in response to AD, but some gender specific genes were detected (e.g., IL8 and AGRN in males, and HSPH1 and GRM1 in females). Several transcripts were associated with Braak staging (e.g., AEBP1 and DNALI1), antemortem MMSE (e.g., AEBP1 and GFAP), and tangle density (e.g., RNU1G2, and DNALI1). At the pathway level, we detected enrichment of synaptic vesicle processes and GABAergic transmission genes. Finally, applying the Weighted Correlation Network Analysis, we identified four expression modules enriched for neuronal and synaptic genes, mitochondria-associated membrane, chemical stimulus and olfactory receptor and non-coding RNA metabolism genes. Our results represent an extensive description of MTG mRNA profiling in a large sample of AD and ND. These data provide a list of genes associated with AD, and correlated to neurofibrillary tangles density. In addition, these data emphasize the importance of mitochondrial membranes and transcripts related to olfactory receptors in AD.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217566, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathology has demonstrated a high rate of comorbid pathology in dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (ADD). The most common major comorbidity is Lewy body disease (LBD), either as dementia with Lewy bodies (AD-DLB) or Alzheimer's disease with Lewy bodies (AD-LB), the latter representing subjects with ADD and LBD not meeting neuropathological distribution and density thresholds for DLB. Although it has been established that ADD subjects with undifferentiated LBD have a more rapid cognitive decline than those with ADD alone, it is still unknown whether AD-LB subjects, who represent the majority of LBD and approximately one-third of all those with ADD, have a different clinical course. METHODS: Subjects with dementia included those with "pure" ADD (n = 137), AD-DLB (n = 64) and AD-LB (n = 114), all with two or more complete Mini Mental State Examinations (MMSE) and a full neuropathological examination. RESULTS: Linear mixed models assessing MMSE change showed that the AD-LB group had significantly greater decline compared to the ADD group (ß = -0.69, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.33, p<0.001) while the AD-DLB group did not (ß = -0.30, 95% CI: -0.73, 0.14, p = 0.18). Of those with AD-DLB and AD-LB, only 66% and 2.1%, respectively, had been diagnosed with LBD at any point during their clinical course. Compared with clinically-diagnosed AD-DLB subjects, those that were clinically undetected had significantly lower prevalences of parkinsonism (p = 0.046), visual hallucinations (p = 0.0008) and dream enactment behavior (0.013). CONCLUSIONS: The probable cause of LBD clinical detection failure is the lack of a sufficient set of characteristic core clinical features. Core DLB clinical features were not more common in AD-LB as compared to ADD. Clinical identification of ADD with LBD would allow stratified analyses of ADD clinical trials, potentially improving the probability of trial success.

8.
Brain Res ; 1719: 217-224, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176712

RESUMO

We explored RNA expression changes in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) of Alzheimer's Disease patients (AD) by RNA sequencing the whole transcriptome of 8 AD and 8 Non-Demented (ND) controls. We used three additional expression datasets from related brain regions to validate the findings. The results highlighted the upregulation of AEBP1 and downregulation of NRN1 in AD, as well as their association with Braak staging and neurofibrillary tangles density. Furthermore, more than 400 protein-coding RNAs enriched for "Clathrin-mediated endocytosis" were validated in independent datasets from the same brain region. Finally, using in silico prediction analysis we found a signature of 52 non-protein coding RNAs that perturb key pathways involved in GABAergic transmission and peptide chain elongation. The association of AEBP1 in our data confirmed other published work examining gene expression in the hippocampus of AD patients. NRN1 is involved in neurite outgrowth, and in previous studies it has been shown to reverse synaptic defects and cognitive function impairment in Tg2576 mice. Finally, our results on non-protein coding RNAs suggest a role of these transcripts in altering synaptic and amyloid-ß associated pathways.

9.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 65: 73-78, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verbal fluency deficits are common in patients with Parkinson's disease. The association of these impairments with regional neuropathological changes is unexplored. OBJECTIVES: Determine if patients with verbal fluency impairments have greater neuropathological burden in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions and if Lewy bodies or neurofibrillary tangles were associated with verbal fluency impairments. METHODS: Data was derived from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders. 47 individuals who completed phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks and met clinicopathological criteria for Parkinson's disease (with and without comorbid Alzheimer's disease) were included. Impairment on fluency tasks was defined by normative data, and the density of neuropathology in temporal, limbic, and frontal regions was compared between groups. RESULTS: Individuals with semantic fluency impairments had greater total pathology (Lewy bodies + neurofibrillary tangles) in limbic structures (W = 320.0, p = .033, rpb = .33), while those who had phonemic fluency impairments had increased total neuropathology in frontal (W = 364.5, p = .011, rpb = .37), temporal (W = 356.5, p = .022, rpb = .34), and limbic regions (W = 357.0, p = .024, rpb = .34). Greater Lewy body density was found in those with verbal fluency impairments, though trends for greater neurofibrillary tangle density were noted as well. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired phonemic fluency was associated with higher Lewy body and tangle burden in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions, while impaired semantic fluency was associated with greater limbic pathology. Though neurofibrillary tangles trended higher in several regions in those with impaired verbal fluency, higher Lewy body density in general was associated with verbal fluency deficits. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1619, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962425

RESUMO

In advanced age, some individuals maintain a stable cognitive trajectory while others experience a rapid decline. Such variation in cognitive trajectory is only partially explained by traditional neurodegenerative pathologies. Hence, to identify new processes underlying variation in cognitive trajectory, we perform an unbiased proteome-wide association study of cognitive trajectory in a discovery (n = 104) and replication cohort (n = 39) of initially cognitively unimpaired, longitudinally assessed older-adult brain donors. We find 579 proteins associated with cognitive trajectory after meta-analysis. Notably, we present evidence for increased neuronal mitochondrial activities in cognitive stability regardless of the burden of traditional neuropathologies. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for increased synaptic abundance and decreased inflammation and apoptosis in cognitive stability. Importantly, we nominate proteins associated with cognitive trajectory, particularly the 38 proteins that act independently of neuropathologies and are also hub proteins of protein co-expression networks, as promising targets for future mechanistic studies of cognitive trajectory.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 69(2): 355-362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows tau acetylation has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain at early Braak stages and is involved in regulating tau early accumulation. However, the effects of deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) on tau acetylation and its aggregations are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of Sirt3 on tau acetylation and its aggregations. METHODS: We investigated the protein levels of Sirt3 and tangle tau in human postmortem brains slices from AD, mild cognitive impairment, and age- and education-matched cognitively normal subjects, and AD model mice. We also measured tau acetylation levels in hippocampal HT22 cells after Sirt3 knockdown or overexpression. RESULTS: The level of Sirt3 was inversely related with tau protein in brain slices from both human being and AD model mice. Mechanistically, tau acetylation decreased dramatically with Sirt3 overexpression, while tau acetylation increased after Sirt3 knockdown in hippocampal HT22 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sirt3 may play a role in tau acetylation and could be a potential target for novel therapy to alleviate tau accumulation.

12.
Neurobiol Dis ; 127: 492-501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953760

RESUMO

Recent large-scale genetic studies have allowed for the first glimpse of the effects of common genetic variability in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), identifying risk variants with appreciable effect sizes. However, it is currently well established that a substantial portion of the genetic heritable component of complex traits is not captured by genome-wide significant SNPs. To overcome this issue, we have estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetic variability (SNP heritability) in DLB using a method that is unbiased by allele frequency or linkage disequilibrium properties of the underlying variants. This shows that the heritability of DLB is nearly twice as high as previous estimates based on common variants only (31% vs 59.9%). We also determine the amount of phenotypic variance in DLB that can be explained by recent polygenic risk scores from either Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD), and show that, despite being highly significant, they explain a low amount of variance. Additionally, to identify pleiotropic events that might improve our understanding of the disease, we performed genetic correlation analyses of DLB with over 200 diseases and biomedically relevant traits. Our data shows that DLB has a positive correlation with education phenotypes, which is opposite to what occurs in AD. Overall, our data suggests that novel genetic risk factors for DLB should be identified by larger GWAS and these are likely to be independent from known AD and PD risk variants.

13.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 29, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819250

RESUMO

The deposition of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may occur first in axons of neurons and then progress back into the cell bodies to form neurofibrillary tangles, however, studies have not directly analyzed this relationship in relatively discrete circuits within the human hippocampus. In the early phases of tau deposition, both AT8 phosphorylation and exposure of the amino terminus of tau occurs in tauopathies, and these modifications are linked to mechanisms of synaptic and axonal dysfunction. Here, we examined the localization of these tau pathologies in well-characterized post-mortem human tissue samples from the hippocampus of 44 cases ranging between non-demented and mild cognitively impaired to capture a time at which intrahippocampal pathways show a range in the extent of tau deposition. The tissue sections were analyzed for AT8 (AT8 antibody), amino terminus exposure (TNT2 antibody), and amyloid-ß (MOAB2 antibody) pathology in hippocampal strata containing the axons and neuronal cell bodies of the CA3-Schaffer collateral and dentate granule-mossy fiber pathways. We show that tau pathology first appears in the axonal compartment of affected neurons in the absence of observable tau pathology in the corresponding cell bodies in several cases. Additionally, deposition of tau in these intrahippocampal pathways was independent of the presence of Aß plaques. We confirmed that the majority of tau pathology positive neuropil threads were axonal in origin and not dendritic using an axonal marker (i.e. SMI312 antibody) and somatodendritic marker (i.e. MAP2 antibody). Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that AT8 phosphorylation and amino terminus exposure are early pathological events and that the deposition of tau pathology, at least in the studied pathways, occurs first in the axonal compartment prior to observable pathology in the somata. These findings highlight the importance on targeting tau deposition, ideally in the initial phases of its deposition in axons.

14.
Neurobiol Dis ; 127: 142-146, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798004

RESUMO

Atypical parkinsonism syndromes are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that include corticobasal degeneration (CBD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The APOE ε4 allele is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease; however, the role of APOE in atypical parkinsonism syndromes remains controversial. To examine the associations of APOE ε4 and ε2 alleles with risk of developing these syndromes, a total of 991 pathologically-confirmed atypical parkinsonism cases were genotyped using the Illumina NeuroChip array. We also performed genotyping and logistic regression analyses to examine APOE frequency and associated risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 571) and Parkinson's disease (n = 348). APOE genotypes were compared to those from neurologically healthy controls (n = 591). We demonstrate that APOE ε4 and ε2 carriers have a significantly increased and decreased risk, respectively, of developing Alzheimer's disease (ε4: OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 3.23-5.26, p = 3.67 × 10-30; ε2: OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.13-0.34; p = 5.39 × 10-10) and LBD (ε4: OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 2.34-3.71, p = 6.60 × 10-20; ε2: OR = OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.26-0.59; p = 6.88 × 10-6). No significant associations with risk for CBD, MSA, or PSP were observed. We also show that APOE ε4 decreases survival in a dose-dependent manner in Alzheimer's disease and LBD. Taken together, this study does not provide evidence to implicate a role of APOE in the neuropathogenesis of CBD, MSA, or PSP. However, we confirm association of the APOE ε4 allele with increased risk for LBD, and importantly demonstrate that APOE ε2 reduces risk of this disease.

15.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(2): 279-296, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547227

RESUMO

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. We immunoprecipitated tau from CSF and identified several endogenous peptides ending at amino acid (aa) 123 or 224 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. We raised neo-epitope-specific antibodies against tau fragments specifically ending at aa 123 and 224, respectively. With these antibodies, we performed immunohistochemistry on brain tissue and designed immunoassays measuring N-123, N-224, and x-224 tau. Immunoassays were applied to soluble brain fractions from pathologically confirmed subjects (81 AD patients, 33 controls), CSF from three cross-sectional and two longitudinal cohorts (a total of 133 AD, 38 MCI, 20 MCI-AD, 31 PSP, 15 CBS patients, and 91 controls), and neuronally- and peripherally-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs and PDEVs, respectively) in serum from four AD patients and four controls. Anti-tau 224 antibody stained neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, while anti-tau 123 only showed weak cytoplasmic staining in AD. N-224 tau was lower in the AD soluble brain fraction compared to controls, while N-123 tau showed similar levels. N-224 tau was higher in AD compared to controls in all CSF cohorts (p < 0.001), but not N-123 tau. Decrease in cognitive performance and conversion from MCI to AD were associated with increased baseline CSF levels of N-224 tau (p < 0.0001). N-224 tau concentrations in PSP and CBS were significantly lower than in AD (p < 0.0001) and did not correlate to t-tau and p-tau. In a longitudinal cohort, CSF N-224 tau levels were stable over 6 months, with no significant effect of treatment with AChE inhibitors. N-224 tau was present in NDEVs, while N-123 tau showed comparable concentrations in both vesicle types. We suggest that N-123 tau is produced both in CNS and PNS and represents a general marker of tau metabolism, while N-224 tau is neuron-specific, present in the tangles, secreted in CSF, and upregulated in AD, suggesting a link between tau cleavage and propagation, tangle pathology, and cognitive decline.

16.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 139(1): 76-81, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify clinical features predictive of Lewy body pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in an ongoing longitudinal clinicopathologic study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We queried the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND) database for dementia cases with AD pathology (1997-2015). Subjects received longitudinal comprehensive clinical evaluations including motor/neuropsychological assessment and Apo-E4 genotyping. All cases were autopsied and had standard neuropathological assessments for AD and Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS). Subjects were categorized based on standardized pathological criteria with AD cases that had LTS but did not meet DLB pathologic criteria being categorized as ADLB. We performed pairwise comparison between the different diagnoses and multivariable modelling to identify clinical symptoms that predict the pathological diagnosis. RESULTS: We identified 32 DLB/AD, 54 ADLB, 70 AD only and 41 PDD/AD cases. AD subjects with LTS pathology had higher UPDRS II and III total scores as well as generally higher individual scores compared to AD alone. While depression scales and Trail-making Test A correlated significantly with LTS, other neuropsychological variables were not significantly different. Apo E4 occurrence was similar in all groups (40%-49%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the presence (or absence) of LTS influences motor and non-motor clinical findings in AD patients. These findings may lead to biomarkers that allow for more targeted treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Corpos de Lewy/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 696: 132-139, 2019 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579993

RESUMO

Many studies have been directed at understanding mechanisms of tau aggregation and therapeutics, nearly all focusing on the brain. It is critical to understand the presence of tau in peripheral tissues since this may provide new insights into disease progression and selective vulnerability. The current study sought to determine the presence of select tau species in peripheral tissues in elderly individuals and across an array of tauopathies. Using formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections, we examined abdominal skin, submandibular gland, and sigmoid colon among 69 clinicopathologically defined cases: 19 lacking a clinical neuropathological diagnosis (normal controls), 26 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 21 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 3 with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies for "total" tau (HT7) and two phosphorylated tau species (AT8 and pT231). HT7 staining of abdominal skin revealed immunoreactivity of potential nerve elements in 5% of cases (1 AD, 1 AD/PSP, and 1 CBD out of 55 cases examined); skin sections lacked AT8 and pT231 immunoreactive nerve elements. Submandibular glands from all cases had HT7 immunoreactive nerve elements; while pT231 was present in 92% of cases, and AT8 in only 3 cases (2 AD and one AD/PSP case). In sigmoid colon, HT7 immunoreactivity was present in all but 2 cases (97%), pT231 in 54%, and AT8 was present in only 5/62 cases (8%). These data suggest select tau species in CNS tauopathies do not have a high propensity to spread to the periphery and this may hold clues for the understanding of CNS tau pathogenicity and vulnerability.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Tauopatias/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16725, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425303

RESUMO

The aggregation of intracellular tau protein is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The extent and the stereotypical spread of tau pathology in the AD brain are correlated with cognitive decline during disease progression. Here we present an in-depth analysis of endogenous tau fragmentation in a well-characterized cohort of AD and age-matched control subjects. Using protein mass spectrometry and Edman degradation to interrogate endogenous tau fragments in the human brain, we identified two novel proteolytic sites, G323 and G326, as major tau cleavage events in both normal and AD cortex. These sites are located within the sequence recently identified as the structural core of tau protofilaments, suggesting an inhibitory mechanism of fibril formation. In contrast, a different set of novel cleavages showed a distinct increase in late stage AD. These disease-associated sites are located outside of the protofilament core sequence. We demonstrate that calpain 1 specifically cleaves at both the normal and diseased sites in vitro, and the site selection is conformation-dependent. Monomeric tau is predominantly cleaved at G323/G326 (normal sites), whereas oligomerization increases cleavages at the late-AD-associated sites. The fragmentation patterns specific to disease and healthy states suggest novel regulatory mechanisms of tau aggregation in the human brain.

19.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448004

RESUMO

The role of genetic variability in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is now indisputable; however, data regarding copy number variation (CNV) in this disease has been lacking. Here, we used whole-genome genotyping of 1454 DLB cases and 1525 controls to assess copy number variability. We used 2 algorithms to confidently detect CNVs, performed a case-control association analysis, screened for candidate CNVs previously associated with DLB-related diseases, and performed a candidate gene approach to fully explore the data. We identified 5 CNV regions with a significant genome-wide association to DLB; 2 of these were only present in cases and absent from publicly available databases: one of the regions overlapped LAPTM4B, a known lysosomal protein, whereas the other overlapped the NME1 locus and SPAG9. We also identified DLB cases presenting rare CNVs in genes previously associated with DLB or related neurodegenerative diseases, such as SNCA, APP, and MAPT. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting genome-wide CNVs in a large DLB cohort. These results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution of CNVs in DLB risk.

20.
Nat Neurosci ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482917

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, the legends for Supplementary Figs. 4-8 and 10-14 contained errors. The Supplementary Figure legends have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

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