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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569125

RESUMO

Beckner, ME, Pihoker, AA, Darnell, ME, Beals, K, Lovalekar, M, Proessl, F, Flanagan, SD, Arciero, PJ, Nindl, BC, and Martin, BJ. Effects of multi-ingredient preworkout supplements on physical performance, cognitive performance, mood state, and hormone concentrations in recreationally active men and women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Performance enhancement supplement research has primarily focused on the effectiveness of individual ingredients, rather than the combination. This study investigated the acute effects of 2 multi-ingredient preworkout supplements (MIPS), with beta-alanine and caffeine (BAC) and without (NBAC), compared with placebo (PLA) on anaerobic performance, endurance capacity, mood state, cognitive function, vascular function, and anabolic hormones. Thirty exercise-trained individuals (24.4 ± 4.9 years, 15 men and 15 women) completed a fatiguing exercise protocol on 3 separate occasions, 30 minutes after ingestion of BAC, NBAC, or PLA. Outcomes were analyzed using one-way or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, as appropriate (alpha = 0.05). Anaerobic power was greater when supplementing with NBAC (10.7 ± 1.2 W·kg) and BAC (10.8 ± 1.4 W·kg) compared with PLA (10.4 ± 1.2 W·kg) (p = 0.014 and p = 0.022, respectively). BAC improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak time to exhaustion (p = 0.006), accompanied by an increase in blood lactate accumulation (p < 0.001), compared with PLA. Both NBAC and BAC demonstrated improved brachial artery diameter after workout (p = 0.041 and p = 0.005, respectively), but PLA did not. L-arginine concentrations increased from baseline to postsupplement consumption of BAC (p = 0.017). Reaction time significantly decreased after exercise for all supplements. There was no effect of supplement on mood states. Exercise-trained individuals looking to achieve modest improvements in power and endurance may benefit from consuming MIPS before exercise.

2.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(10): 932-936, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to describe and compare the incidence and pattern of musculoskeletal injuries in women and men during the United States Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force work-up and assessment phases in sex-integrated units. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. METHODS: Certified athletic trainers and Navy corpsmen reported injury data for 302 Marines (women: 27.8%, men: 72.2%). Injury frequency, location, cause, type, and activity during injury were described. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare proportions of injured women and men. The cost of injuries was calculated using the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. RESULTS: A greater proportion of women (40.5%) sustained an injury compared with men (18.8%, p < 0.001). The lower extremity was the most frequent location for injury (women: 68% of injuries, men: 60%). The most frequent sub-location was the hip (24%) in women and foot/toes (26%) in men. Marching under load was the most common cause (women: 64%, men: 48%). Most injuries occurred during physical training (women: 78%, men: 66%), and were classified as pain/spasm/ache (women: 56%, men: 36%). The total lifetime cost of these injuries that occurred among 302 Marines was approximately $1.4 million U.S. dollars. CONCLUSIONS: The high risk of lower extremity injuries that occurred while marching under load during physical training, and the greater risk of injuries among women compared to men, indicates the need for further research to identify the components of combat Military Occupational Specialty specific training that could be modified to mitigate injuries.


Assuntos
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(8): 1619-1625, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845049

RESUMO

Concussions are common in military personnel and may result in increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. One plausible explanation for this risk could be that neuromotor deficiencies enhance injury risk after a concussion through altered muscular activation/contraction timing. PURPOSE: To compare military personnel with at least one concussion during the past 1 month to 2 yr (CONCUSSED) to military branch-matched, age-matched, and Special Operations Forces group-matched controls (CONTROL) on physiological, musculoskeletal, and biomechanical performance. METHODS: A total of 48 (24 CONCUSSED, 24 CONTROL) male Air Force and Naval Special Warfare Operators age 19 to 34 yr participated in the study. Participants self-reported demographics/injury history and completed the following assessments: 1) physiological-body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic capacity and lactate threshold; 2) musculoskeletal-lower extremity isokinetic strength testing, including time to peak torque; and 3) biomechanical-single-leg jump and landing task, including landing kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle. A machine learning decision tree algorithm (C5.0) and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the two groups on these outcomes. RESULTS: Despite nonsignificant differences using ANOVA, the C5.0 algorithm revealed CONCUSSED demonstrated quicker time to peak knee flexion angle during the single-leg landing task (≤0.170 s; CONCUSSED: n = 22 vs CONTROL: n = 14), longer time to peak torque in knee extension isokinetic strength testing (>500 ms; CONCUSSED: n = 18 vs CONTROL: n = 4) and larger knee flexion angle at initial contact (>7.7°; CONCUSSED: n = 18 vs CONTROL: n = 2). CONCLUSION: The findings supported the hypothesis that CONCUSSED military personnel would demonstrate altered neuromuscular control in landing strategies and muscular activation. Future research should assess prospectively neuromuscular changes after a concussion and determine if these changes increase risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injuries.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Militares , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Composição Corporal , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Fatores de Risco , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 29(3): 315-321, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160550

RESUMO

Special operation forces participating in mountain warfare/cold weather (MWCW) training have higher energy demands, but adequate fueling is difficult to achieve. The purpose of the study was to determine energy expenditure relative to energy intake and examine fueling patterns during 3 days of MWCW training in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, Land (SEAL) Qualification Training (SQT) students. Ten SQT students (age: 23.3 ± 1.8 years, height: 182.3 ± 6.4 cm, and weight: 83.6 ± 4.5 kg) were fitted for heart rate and accelerometer monitors during MWCW training. Total daily energy expenditure was determined using a combination of direct observation and heart rate-VO2 regression. Total daily energy intake was collected using the Automated Self-Administered 24 (ASA24) assessment tool. Total daily energy expenditure for river crossing, alpine skills, and mountain patrol were 3,913 ± 293, 4,207 ± 400, and 5,457 ± 828 kcals, respectively. Reported total daily energy intakes were 2,854 ± 657 (river crossing) and 2,289 ± 680 kcals (mountain patrol), producing 1,044 ± 784 and 3,112 ± 1,420 kcal deficits, respectively. SQT students consumed 258 ± 95 g (3.1 ± 1.3 g·kg-1·day-1) of carbohydrates, 130 ± 55 g (1.6 ± 0.7 g·kg-1·day-1) of protein, and 113 ± 39 g (1.4 ± 0.5 g·kg-1·day-1) of fat. MWCW training evolutions elicited high total daily energy expenditure and inadequate energy intake, especially before and during active training sessions, which may lead to decreased work output, early onset fatigue, and increased risk of injury. Increasing total daily energy intake by providing fuel/fluids, primarily carbohydrates, during the planned breaks and "downtime" of each training evolution and focusing on provision of the balance of calories/macronutrients needed for a more complete and expedited recovery over dinner and evening snacks will help bridge the energy gap.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adulto , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(4): 494-499, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448087

RESUMO

Optimizing tactical fitness is important for combat readiness and injury prevention, especially as women have entered ground combat military occupational specialties. OBJECTIVES: To assess characteristics of male and female Marines by Combat Fitness Test (CFT) performance clusters. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Anthropometric, body composition (BF%, fat and fat-free mass [FM and FFM], and Fight load index [FLI], physiological (maximal oxygen uptake, lactate threshold and anaerobic power/capacity), and musculoskeletal (isokinetic strength of the knee, shoulder, torso, and isometric strength of the ankle) assessments were obtained from 294 male (M) and female (F) Marines. Hierarchical cluster analysis classified Marines based on performance of two CFT events (sec): Maneuver Under Fire (MANUF) and Movement to Contact (MTC). Following tests for normality, one-way ANOVA or Kruskal Wallis tests, followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests, assessed characteristics across clusters and sex (alpha=0.05). RESULTS: Two clusters (C) were determined: C1: N=66F, 16M and C2: N=18F, 194M, with C2 demonstrating better performance on the MANUF and MTC. C1F demonstrated significantly greater BF% and FLI than C1M, C2F, and C2M. C2M demonstrated significantly greater knee flexion strength than C1F and C2F, but C1M was only significantly greater than C1F. C2M demonstrated significantly greater ankle eversion and inversion strength than C1F. CONCLUSIONS: Women with increased BF%, increased FM and reduced FFM relative to a fighting load may have decreased performance in combat-related tasks. Training programs based on an individual Marine's baseline body composition and fitness characteristics can enhance combat fitness and force readiness.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Militares , Aptidão Física , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Força Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 4(1): e000471, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622731

RESUMO

Objectives: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) are an important concern in military populations. The purpose of this study was to describe the burden of MSI and associated financial cost, in a sample of US Air Force Special Operations Command Special Tactics Operators. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical records of the Operators were reviewed during the years 2014-2015. MSI that occurred during a 1-year period prior to the date of review were described. MSI attributes described included incidence, anatomic location, cause, activity when MSI occurred, type and lifetime cost of MSI estimated using the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results: A total of 130 Operators participated in the study (age: 29.1±5.2 years). The 1-year cumulative incidence of MSI was 49.2 injured Operators/100 Operators/year. The most frequent anatomic location and sublocation for MSI were the lower extremity (40.9% of MSI) and shoulder (20.9%), respectively. Lifting was a common cause of MSI (21.8%). A large per cent of MSI (55.5%) occurred while Operators were engaged in either physical or tactical training. Common MSI types were pain/spasm/ache (44.5%). Many MSI (41.8%) were classified as potentially preventable by an injury prevention training programme. The total lifetime cost of these MSI was estimated to be approximately US$1.2 million. Conclusion: MSI are an important cause of morbidity and financial cost in this sample of Air Force Special Tactics Operators. There is a need to develop a customised injury prevention programme to reduce the burden and cost of MSI in this population.

8.
BMJ Open ; 7(12): e017434, 2017 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported data are often used in research studies among military populations. OBJECTIVE: The accuracy of self-reported musculoskeletal injury data among elite military personnel was assessed for issues with recall. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Applied research laboratory at a military installation. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 101 subjects participated (age 28.5±5.6 years). Study participants were active duty military personnel, with no conditions that precluded them from full duty. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported and medical record reviewed injuries that occurred during a 1-year period were matched by anatomic location, injury side (for extremity injuries), and injury year and type. The accuracy of recall was estimated as the per cent of medical record reviewed injuries correctly recalled in the self-report. The effect of injury anatomic location, injury type and severity and time since injury, on recall, was also assessed. Injuries were classified as recent (≤4 years since injury) or old injuries (>4 years since injury). Recall proportions were compared using Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: A total of 374 injuries were extracted from the subjects' medical records. Recall was generally low (12.0%) and was not different between recent and old injuries (P=0.206). Injury location did not affect recall (P=0.418). Recall was higher for traumatic fractures as compared with less severe non-fracture injuries (P values 0.001 to <0.001). Recall for non-fracture injuries was higher for recent as compared with old injuries (P=0.033). This effect of time since injury on recall was not observed for fractures (P=0.522). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study highlight the importance of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of self-reported injury data before their use in research studies in military populations and the need for future research to identify modifiable factors that influence recall.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Rememoração Mental , Militares , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Athl Train ; 52(12): 1153-1160, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227730

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Seventy-seven percent of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by United States Army Special Forces Operators are preventable. Identification of predictive characteristics will promote the development of screening methods to augment injury-prevention programs. OBJECTIVE: To determine physical and performance characteristics that predict musculoskeletal injuries. SETTING: Clinical laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 95 Operators (age = 32.7 ± 5.1 years, height = 179.8 ± 6.9 cm, mass = 89.9 ± 12.7 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Laboratory testing consisted of body composition, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, upper and lower body strength and flexibility, balance, and biomechanical evaluation. Injury data were captured for 12 months after laboratory testing. Injury frequencies, cross-tabulations, and relative risks (RRs) were calculated to evaluate the relationships between physical characteristics and injury proportions. Between-groups differences (injured versus uninjured) were assessed using appropriate t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Less shoulder-retraction strength (RR = 1.741 [95% confidence interval = 1.003, 3.021]), knee-extension strength (RR = 2.029 [95% confidence interval = 1.011, 4.075]), and a smaller trunk extension : flexion ratio (RR = 0.533 [95% confidence interval = 0.341, 0.831]) were significant risk factors for injury. Group comparisons showed less trunk strength (extension: P = .036, flexion: P = .048) and smaller right vertical ground reaction forces during landing ( P = .025) in injured Operators. Knee strength, aerobic capacity, and body mass index were less in the subgroup of spine-injured versus uninjured Operators ( P values = .013-.036). CONCLUSIONS: Knee-extension and shoulder-retraction strength were risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in Operators. Less trunk-flexion and -extension strength, higher body mass index, lower aerobic capacity, and increased ground reaction forces during landing were characteristics that may also contribute to musculoskeletal injury. Having 2 or more risk factors resulted in a greater injury proportion (χ2 = 13.512, P = .015); however, more research is needed. Athletic trainers working in the military or similar high-demand settings can use these data to augment screening and injury-prevention protocols.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S11-S16, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097231

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal injuries have negatively impacted tactical readiness. The identification of prospective and modifiable risk factors of preventable musculoskeletal injuries can guide specific injury prevention strategies for Soldiers and health care providers. OBJECTIVES: To analyze physiological and neuromuscular characteristics as predictors of preventable musculoskeletal injuries. DESIGN: Prospective-cohort study. METHODS: A total of 491 Soldiers were enrolled and participated in the baseline laboratory testing, including body composition, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power/capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, static balance, and landing biomechanics. After reviewing their medical charts, 275 male Soldiers who met the criteria were divided into two groups: with injuries (INJ) and no injuries (NOI). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and significant predictors of musculoskeletal injuries (p<0.05). RESULTS: The final multiple logistic regression model included the static balance with eyes-closed and peak anaerobic power as predictors of future injuries (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current results highlighted the importance of anaerobic power/capacity and static balance. High intensity training and balance exercise should be incorporated in their physical training as countermeasures.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Militares , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S85-S90, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899656

RESUMO

Women can serve in all military occupational specialties (MOS); however, musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics that predict successful completion of ground combat MOS schools by female Marines are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine which demographic, musculoskeletal, and physiological characteristics predict graduation from infantry and vehicle ground combat MOS schools in female Marines. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Prior to MOS school, the following were assessed in 62 female Marines (22.0±3.0yrs, 163.9±5.8cm, 63.4±7.2kg): isokinetic shoulder, trunk, and knee and isometric ankle strength; body composition; anaerobic power (AP)/capacity (AC); maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); and field-based fitness tests (broad jump, medicine ball throw, pro-agility). Both absolute and normalized (%body mass: %BM) values were utilized for strength, AP, AC, and VO2max. Select tests from each Marine's most recent Physical Fitness Test (PFT: abdominal crunches, 3-mile run time) and Combat Fitness Test (CFT: Maneuver Under Fire, Movement to Contact) were recorded. Participants were classified as graduated (N=46) or did not graduate (N=16). Simple logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of MOS school graduation. Statistical significance was set a priori at α=0.05. RESULTS: Absolute and normalized ankle inversion and eversion strength, normalized anaerobic capacity, absolute and normalized VO2max, right pro-agility, and PFT 3-mile run time significantly predicted MOS school graduation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Greater ankle strength, better agility, and greater anaerobic and aerobic capacity are important for successful completion of ground combat MOS school in female Marines. Prior to entering ground combat MOS school, it is recommended that female Marines should train to optimize these mobility-centric characteristics.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S51-S56, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this analysis was to describe the incidence and common types of medical chart-reviewed musculoskeletal injuries, among four distinct groups of Naval Special Warfare (NSW) personnel: Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) Operators, SEAL Qualification Training (SQT) students, Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewman (SWCC) Operators, and Crewman Qualification Training (CQT) students. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for 920 NSW personnel. MSI were described and classified by frequency and incidence; anatomic location; injury type and cause; activity during injury; and potential for prevention. RESULTS: The frequency of MSI was 23.1, 46.5, 31.6, and 17.0 per 100 participants per year among SEAL, SQT, SWCC, and CQT, respectively. Upper extremity MSI were the most common in SEAL, lower extremity MSI were common in the other groups. The most frequent MSI anatomic sub-locations varied across groups (SEAL: shoulder, 21.6% of MSI; SQT: foot and toes, 17.0%; SWCC: lumbopelvic spine, 21.7%; and CQT: knee, 30.3%). Pain/spasm/ache were the most common MSI type in SEAL (29.7%) and SWCC (21.7%), tendonitis/tenosynovitis/tendinopathy was the most common MSI type in SQT (21.0%), and tendonitis/tenosynovitis/tendinopathy and fracture were the most common in CQT (15.2% each). A considerable proportion of MSI were classified as potentially preventable-SEAL: 35.1%, SQT: 53.0%, SWCC: 36.7%, and CQT: 21.2%. CONCLUSIONS: MSI cause considerable morbidity among NSW Operators and students, with distinct patterns of distribution by anatomic location and injury type. Since many injuries may be preventable, targeted interventions may be able to mitigate MSI risk.


Assuntos
Militares , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S34-S39, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research has examined lower extremity (LE) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) patterns and risk factors in Special Operations Forces (SOF) trainees, conventional military personnel, and athletes; however, it is unclear if SOF have the same patterns/risk factors. This study aimed to determine the association of musculoskeletal, balance, and physiological characteristics with LE MSI in SOF. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: A total of 726 Air Force (N=140), Navy Sea, Air, and Land (N=301), and Special Warfare Combatant Crewmen (N=285) SOF (age=25.72±4.77years, height=178.34±6.63cm, weight=84.28±9.03kg) participated in laboratory testing, including: LE muscular strength and flexibility; balance; body composition; anaerobic power/capacity; and aerobic capacity. Medical charts were reviewed for LE MSI 365days following laboratory testing. Participants were assigned by injury status and laboratory data stratified by tertile. Chi-square statistics were calculated to determine the frequency of LE MSI across tertiles for each characteristic. RESULTS: There was a significant association between LE MSI and: ankle inversion strength (weaker side: Χ(2)=17.703; stronger side: Χ(2)=18.911; p≤0.001); ankle eversion/inversion strength ratio (lower side: Χ(2)=13.456; higher side: Χ(2)=16.885; p≤0.001); hamstring flexibility (less flexible: Χ(2)=19.930; more flexible Χ(2)=15.185; p≤0.001); gastrocnemius-soleus flexibility (less flexible: Χ(2)=7.889, p=0.019); dynamic balance asymmetry (Χ(2)=7.444, p=0.024); Vestibular and Preference ratios (Χ(2)=9.124, p=0.010 and Χ(2)=6.572, p=0.037, respectively); and aerobic capacity (Χ(2)=13.935, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics associated with LE MSI are unique in SOF. Human performance program initiatives should include efforts to optimize ankle strength and flexibility, maintain moderate hamstring flexibility, expand dynamic balance strategies, and maximize aerobic capacity to reduce LE MSI risk.


Assuntos
Militares , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Maleabilidade/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20 Suppl 4: S23-S27, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757381

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal injury (MSI) data typically are obtained from medical chart-review (MCR) or injury self-reports (ISR). MSI incidence may be under-counted if only one source is utilized, as MCR will not capture MSI for which medical care was not sought, and ISR may be affected by issues with recall. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to determine MSI incidence from two sources (MCR, ISR) and to estimate the incidence, after accounting for the under-counting in both sources, among a sample of U.S. Army soldiers. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. METHODS: The estimated cumulative incidence during a one-year period was calculated from the two sources of MSI data using a novel statistical analysis (capture-recapture-CRC). RESULTS: MSI data were available for 287 soldiers (age: 27.5±6.3years (mean±standard deviation)). The one-year cumulative incidence of MSI was 17.8% (MCR), 19.5% (ISR), and 54.0% (CRC). CRC analysis showed that there was under-counting from both sources of data and the percent of CRC estimated MSI observed were 32.9% (MCR), 36.1% (ISR), and 57.4% (MCR and ISR combined). When analyzed by MSI type, percent of CRC estimated MSI counted from both sources was highest (75.0%) for fracture, followed by sprain (53.8%), strain (43.8%), and pain/spasm/ache (35.8%). CONCLUSIONS: There was under-counting of MSI from both sources of data, and the under-counting varied by MSI type. There is a need for further investigation of the relative benefits of various sources of MSI data and the application of the capture-recapture analysis in military populations.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(11 Suppl 2): S307-S313, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth. METHODS: The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric. RESULTS: Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Exercício Físico , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Relatório de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Benchmarking , Criança , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Jogos e Brinquedos , Comportamento Sedentário , Esportes , Estados Unidos
17.
Mil Med ; 181(8): 900-6, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483531

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries among Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division. A total of 451 subjects (age: 27.6 ± 6.2 years, gender: males 395/451 = 87.6%) volunteered. Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Injury frequency, injury anatomic location and sublocation, injury cause, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. Injury frequency was 29.5 injuries per 100 subjects per year. Most injures affected the lower extremity (60.2% of injuries) and common anatomic sublocations for injuries were the ankle (17.3%) and knee (15.0%). Frequent causes of injuries were running (13.5%) and direct trauma (9.0%). Physical training was associated with 29.3% of the injuries. A majority of injuries were classified as pain/spasm/ache (29.3%), without further elucidation of pathology. Other frequent injury types were sprain (21.8%) and strain (14.3%). The descriptive epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in this population underscores the need to explore the modifiable risk factors of potentially preventable lower extremity injuries associated with physical training and running. There is scope for the development of an optimized and targeted physical training program for injury prevention in this population.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Entorses e Distensões/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(11): 2979-2990, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26937774

RESUMO

Prins, PJ, Goss, FL, Nagle, EF, Beals, K, Robertson, RJ, Lovalekar, MT, and Welton, GL. Energy drinks improve five-kilometer running performance in recreational endurance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2979-2990, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate exercise performance time and related physiological and perceptual responses of recreational endurance runners after they had ingested a commercially available energy drink (Red Bull, Red Bull GmbH, Fuschl am See, Austria) containing caffeine, glucose, and taurine. Recreational endurance runners (n = 18; 13 men and 5 women; age: 20.39 ± 3.27 years; weight: 71.25 ± 17.17 kg; height: 178.00 ± 7.57 cm; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 55.94 ± 7.66 ml·kg·min) participated in a double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures study where they were randomized to supplement with 500 ml of the commercially available energy drink Red Bull and a noncaffeinated, sugar-free placebo (PLA) 60 minutes before completing a 5-km time trial on a treadmill, separated by 7 days. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (RPE-Overall; RPE-Chest; RPE-Legs), and affect were recorded at rest, 1 hour before ingestion, at 5-minute intervals during the 5-km time trial, and immediately after exercise. Session RPE and session affect were obtained 5 minutes after completion of the 5-km time trial. The distance covered at each 5-minute interval during the 5-km time trial was recorded. Performance improved with the energy drink compared with placebo (Red Bull: 1,413.2 ± 169.7 vs. PLA: 1,443.6 ± 179.2 seconds; p = 0.016), but there were no differences in RPE, affect, session RPE, session affect, or the distance covered at 5-minute splits between the two 5-km time trials (p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that consuming a commercially available energy drink before exercise can improve 5-km performance. These results may have application for altering pre-exercise nutritional strategies in recreational runners.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(1): 39-52, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26154155

RESUMO

Human performance training and prevention strategies are necessary to promote physical readiness and mitigate musculoskeletal injuries of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operator. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of 2 training programs when performed during a training evolution of Operators. A total of 85 Operators (experimental: n = 46, age: 29.4 ± 5.5 years, height: 176.7 ± 6.4 cm, mass: 86.7 ± 11.6 kg; control: n = 39, age: 29.0 ± 6.0 years, height: 177.1 ± 6.3 cm, mass: 85.7 ± 12.5 kg) participated in a trial to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve physical, physiological, and performance characteristics. Operators in the experimental group performed a 12-week block-periodized program, whereas those in the control group performed a nonlinear periodized program. Pretesting/posttesting was performed to assess body composition, aerobic capacity/lactate threshold, muscular strength, flexibility, landing biomechanics, postural stability, and tactically relevant performance. The experimental group demonstrated a significant loss in body fat, fat mass, and body mass compared with the control group, whereas aerobic capacity increased for the both groups. The experimental group demonstrated a significant increase in posterior shoulder flexibility and ankle dorsiflexion, whereas the control group had a significant reduction in shoulder, knee, and ankle flexibility. The experimental group also improved landing strategies and balance. Both groups improved upper and lower muscular power and upper-body muscular endurance, whereas only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in agility and total body muscular strength. Implementation of a population-specific training program provides structured and progressive training effectively and promotes physical readiness concurrently with tactical training without overload.


Assuntos
Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Força Muscular , Medicina Naval , Resistência Física , Equilíbrio Postural , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mil Med ; 180(12): 1239-46, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633668

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Militares , Avaliação Nutricional , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/normas , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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