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Sci Total Environ ; 711: 135133, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837878


Designed ecosystems are built as part of ongoing urban expansion, providing a suite of valued ecosystem services. However, these new ecosystems could also promote disservices by facilitating the colonization and spread of invasive species. We conduct the first assessment of the quantity and invasion of an overlooked designed ecosystem: stormwater ponds. These ponds are commonly recommended for managing urban hydrology, but little is known about their ecology or extent of proliferation. Using a broad-scale survey of pond coverage in Florida, USA, we found that over 76,000 stormwater ponds have been built just in this state, forming 2.7% of total urban land cover. This extensive pondscape of manufactured habitats could facilitate species spread throughout urban areas and into nearby natural waterbodies. We also conducted a survey of the severity of plant invasion in 30 ponds in Gainesville, FL, US across two pond types (dry vs. wet), and a gradient of management intensities (low, medium, high) and pond ages. We unexpectedly found a high number of invasive plant species (28 in just 30 ponds). Ninety-six percent of surveyed ponds contained from one to ten of these species, with ponds exhibiting high turnover in invader composition (i.e., high beta diversity). The bank sections of dry unmanaged ponds exhibited the highest mean invasive species richness (5.8 ± 1.3) and the inundated centers of wet medium managed ponds exhibited the highest mean invasive species cover (34 ± 12%). Invasive plant richness and cover also tended to be greater in dry ponds with higher soil nutrient levels, and in older wet ponds. Therefore, we found that highly maintained and younger wet ponds were the least invaded. Nevertheless, common management practices that limit plant invasions may also limit native species establishment and invasion may increase in the decades following pond construction.

Ecossistema , Tanques , Florida , Plantas
Environ Manage ; 64(4): 436-455, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444546


Package treatment plants (PTPs) are facilities designed to treat onsite wastewater for small communities, commercial, and residential developments. PTPs are being utilized in a growing number of coastal communities. This study estimated the effects of coastal tourism on onsite wastewater nitrogen (N) inputs to a barrier island surficial aquifer (Bogue Banks, NC). The N-removal effectiveness was assessed for seven PTPs that treated wastewater from vacation properties using a range of technologies: extended aeration; sequencing batch reactor; and advanced media filtration. Influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected monthly from Feb. 2014 to Jan. 2015 and analyzed for particulate and dissolved N. Increased summer visitation associated with coastal tourism resulted in an increase in water use, wastewater inputs, and PTP N loading to the surficial aquifer. However, extended aeration systems did not have significantly elevated TN loads during the summer months because their treatment efficiency increased. N inputs associated with coastal tourism made up approximately 51% of the annual wastewater-related N load to the surficial aquifer. Onsite wastewater N-loading to the surficial aquifer (6.7 kg-N/ha/yr) appeared to be the dominant source of N loading on the island. Water quality data indicated that these N inputs have resulted in increased groundwater NO3 concentrations in the surficial aquifer. Overall, wastewater inputs added approximately 4.6 cm of groundwater recharge annually to the island. Coastal tourism can result in measurable increases in wastewater N loading, groundwater nitrogen concentrations, and groundwater recharge.

Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ilhas , Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias
Water Sci Technol ; 74(7): 1527-1538, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763333


The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of the PO4-P treatment efficiency of onsite wastewater systems (OWS) installed in nutrient-sensitive watersheds of the North Carolina Piedmont. Four OWS including two conventional and two single-pass sand filter (SF) systems were evaluated at sites with clay-rich soils. Piezometers were installed near all of the OWS, and down-gradient from the conventional OWS for groundwater collection and characterization. Septic tanks, groundwater, SF effluent, and surface waters were sampled each season during 2015 (five times) and analyzed for PO4-P and Cl concentrations and for various environmental parameters. The conventional and SF OWS reduced PO4-P concentrations by an average of 99% and 90%, respectively, before discharge to surface waters. Mass-load reductions of PO4-P were also greater for the conventional OWS (mean 95%), relative to SF (83%) systems. The effluents discharged by SF OWS were influencing surface water quality. Additional treatment of the effluent from single-pass SF with reactive media is suggested, along with monitoring of the final effluent for PO4-P concentrations. This research provides important information that is absent from the published literature concerning PO4-P contributions to water resources from OWS in clay soils.

Filtração/instrumentação , Fosfatos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cloretos/química , Filtração/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , North Carolina , Solo/química , Movimentos da Água , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Água