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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572119

RESUMO

Geocoding is a powerful tool for environmental exposure assessments that rely on spatial databases. Geocoding processes, locators, and reference datasets have improved over time; however, improvements have not been well-characterized. Enrollment addresses for the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa (IA) and North Carolina (NC), were geocoded in 2012-2016 and then again in 2019. We calculated distances between geocodes in the two periods. For a subset, we computed positional errors using "gold standard" rooftop coordinates (IA; N = 3566) or Global Positioning Systems (GPS) (IA and NC; N = 1258) and compared errors between periods. We used linear regression to model the change in positional error between time periods (improvement) by rural status and population density, and we used spatial relative risk functions to identify areas with significant improvement. Median improvement between time periods in IA was 41 m (interquartile range, IQR: -2 to 168) and 9 m (IQR: -80 to 133) based on rooftop coordinates and GPS, respectively. Median improvement in NC was 42 m (IQR: -1 to 109 m) based on GPS. Positional error was greater in rural and low-density areas compared to in towns and more densely populated areas. Areas of significant improvement in accuracy were identified and mapped across both states. Our findings underscore the importance of evaluating determinants and spatial distributions of errors in geocodes used in environmental epidemiology studies.

2.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(1): 17003, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farmers have a higher incidence of multiple myeloma, and there is suggestive evidence of an elevated prevalence of its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), relative to the general population. Pesticide exposures are suspected to play a role; however, the biologic plausibility for associations with multiple myeloma remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine the prevalence of MGUS and evaluate associations with a wide range of pesticides in a large sample of farmers. METHODS: We obtained sera and assessed MGUS among 1,638 male farmers ≥50 years of age in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate associations with MGUS for recent use (within the 12 months before phlebotomy) and cumulative intensity-weighted lifetime days of use of specific pesticides. RESULTS: The age-standardized MGUS prevalence was significantly elevated among AHS farmers (7.7%) compared with demographically similar men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2.8%) or Olmsted County, Minnesota (3.8%; p<0.001). Recent use of permethrin was associated with MGUS [recent use vs. no recent use, OR=1.82 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.13)], especially among those who had also used it in the past [recent and past use vs. never use, OR=2.49 (95% CI: 1.32, 4.69)]. High intensity-weighted lifetime use of the organochlorine insecticides aldrin and dieldrin was associated with MGUS relative to those who never used either of these pesticides [OR=2.42 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.54); ptrend=0.006]. We also observed a positive association with high lifetime use of petroleum oil/distillates as an herbicide, as well as an inverse association with fonofos use. DISCUSSION: This is the largest investigation of MGUS in farmers and the first to identify an association with MGUS for permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide previously associated with multiple myeloma. Given the continued widespread use of permethrin in various residential and commercial settings, our findings may have important implications for exposed individuals in the general population. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6960.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 623-642, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (P adj > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m2 [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pesticide exposure may impair human olfaction, but empirical evidence is limited. We examined associations between occupational use of 50 specific pesticides and olfactory impairment, both self-reported, among 20 409 participants in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators (mostly farmers, 97% male). METHODS: We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between pesticide use at enrolment (1993-1997) and olfactory impairment reported two decades later (2013-2016), adjusting for baseline covariates. RESULTS: About 10% of participants reported olfactory impairment. The overall cumulative days of any pesticide use at enrolment were associated with a higher odds of reporting olfactory impairment (OR (highest vs lowest quartile): 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.34), p-trend = 0.003). In the analyses of 50 specific pesticides, ever-use of 20 pesticides showed modest associations with olfactory impairment, with ORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.33. Of these, higher lifetime days of use of 12 pesticides were associated with higher odds of olfactory impairment compared with never use (p-trend ≤ 0.05), including two organochlorine insecticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and lindane), two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and malathion), permethrin, the fungicide captan and six herbicides (glyphosate, petroleum distillates, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and metribuzin), although many of these did not exhibit clear, monotonic exposure-response patterns. CONCLUSION: Overall, we found relatively broad associations between pesticides and olfactory impairment, involving many individual pesticides and covering several chemical classes, suggesting that pesticides could affect olfaction through multiple pathways. Future epidemiological studies with objective measurement of olfaction are required to confirm these findings.

6.
Environ Int ; 146: 106187, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many pesticides are known to have thyroid-disrupting properties. However, few studies have evaluated the association between specific pesticide ingredients and risk of thyroid cancer. We investigated self-reported pesticide use and incident thyroid cancer in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large cohort of occupationally-exposed male pesticide applicators. METHODS: The AHS is a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up (1999-2005), participants reported use of 50 pesticides. We characterized exposure as ever use (44 pesticides with ≥5 exposed cases) and by cumulative intensity-weighted lifetime days (22 pesticides with ≥10 exposed cases), a metric that accounts for factors that influence exposure. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox regression for incident thyroid (n = 85 cases) cancer among male participants using follow-up through 2014/2015. RESULTS: Use of the fungicide metalaxyl (HR = 2.03, CI:1.16-3.52) and the organochlorine insecticide lindane (HR = 1.74, CI:1.06-2.84) was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer. The herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl was inversely associated with risk when we restricted to papillary thyroid cancer, the most common subtype (HR = 0.52, CI:0.28-0.96). High use of the insecticide carbaryl (>median intensity-weighted days) was inversely associated with thyroid cancer (HR = 0.20, CI:0.08-0.53, ptrend = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, we observed increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with use of metalaxyl and lindane, and an inverse association with carbaryl. More work is needed to understand the potential role of these chemicals in thyroid carcinogenesis.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

8.
Environ Res ; 191: 110186, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive literature suggests an association between general pesticide use and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, with few exceptions, little is known about associations between specific pesticides and PD. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated use of pesticides and incident PD in 38,274 pesticide applicators and 27,836 of their spouses in the Agricultural Health Study cohort followed over 20 years. METHODS: We used self-reported information on ever-use of 50 specific pesticides as of enrollment for both applicators and spouses, and considered intensity-weighted lifetime days (IWLD) reported at enrollment and through the first 5-year follow-up among applicators. We estimated covariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox regression. We also examined heterogeneity in associations by history of head injury and chemical resistant glove use. RESULTS: A total of 373 applicators and 118 spouses self-reported incident doctor-diagnosed PD. Ever-use of the insecticide terbufos (HR:1.31, 95%CI:1.02-1.68) and the herbicides trifluralin (HR:1.29, 95%CI: 0.99-1.70) and 2,4,5-T (HR:1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04) was associated with elevated PD risk. On the other hand, diazinon (HR:0.73, 95%CI: 0.58-0.94) and 2,4,5-TP (HR:0.39, 95%CI:0.25-0.62) were associated with reduced risk. We observed heterogeneity in ever-use associations by head injury and chemical-resistant glove use for some pesticides, with higher risk among those who reported a history of head injury, or who did not use gloves. PD risk was also elevated for applicators in the highest category of IWLD for dichlorvos, permethrin (animal use), and benomyl. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of increased PD risk for some pesticides. Our results also suggest higher susceptibility for pesticide-associated PD among individuals with head injury as well as protection with use of chemical resistant gloves, although further research is needed to understand the impact of head injury. Research on current and newer pesticides, including mechanisms relevant to PD, is important given widespread pesticide use.

9.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

10.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(3): e097, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613154

RESUMO

Evidence from epidemiologic and laboratory studies relating pesticides to breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Women engaging in agricultural work or living in agricultural areas may experience appreciable exposures to a wide range of pesticides, including herbicides, fumigants, and fungicides. Methods: We examined exposure to herbicides, fumigants, and fungicides in relation to breast cancer risk among farmers' wives with no prior history of breast cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Women provided information on pesticide use, demographics, and reproductive history at enrollment (1993-1997) and at a 5-year follow-up interview. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate associations (hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) between the women's and their husbands' self-reported use of individual pesticides and incident breast cancer risk. Results: Out of 30,594 women, 38% reported using herbicides, fumigants, or fungicides and 1,081 were diagnosed with breast cancer during a median 15.3 years of follow-up. We found elevated risk in relation to women's ever use of the fungicide benomyl (HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 0.9, 2.7) and the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) (HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 0.8, 3.1) and to their husbands' use of the herbicide 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP) (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9, 2.7). We observed few other chemical associations and little evidence of differential risk by tumor estrogen receptor status or linear exposure-response relationships. Conclusion: We did not observe clear excesses between use of specific pesticides and breast cancer risk across exposure metrics, although we did observe elevated risk associated with women's use of benomyl and 2,4,5-T and husbands' use of 2,4,5-TP.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial exposure from house dust has been associated with asthma and atopy in children but whether these relationships are present in adults remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations of house dust microbiota with adult asthma, atopy, and hay fever. METHODS: Vacuumed bedroom dust samples from the homes of 879 participants (average age, 62 years) in the Agricultural Lung Health Study, a case-control study of asthma nested within a farming cohort, were subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize bacterial communities. We defined current asthma and hay fever using questionnaires and current atopy by blood specific IgE level > 0.70 IU/mL to 1 or more of 10 common allergens. We used linear regression to examine whether overall within-sample bacterial diversity differed by outcome, microbiome regression-based kernel association test to evaluate whether between-sample bacterial community compositions differed by outcome, and analysis of composition of microbiomes to identify differentially abundant bacterial taxa. RESULTS: Overall diversity of bacterial communities in house dust was similar by asthma status but was lower (P < .05) with atopy or hay fever. Many individual bacterial taxa were differentially abundant (false-discovery rate, <0.05) by asthma, atopy, or hay fever. Several taxa from Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria were more abundant with asthma, atopy, or hay fever. In contrast, several taxa from Firmicutes were more abundant in homes of individuals with adequately controlled asthma (vs inadequately controlled asthma), individuals without atopy, or individuals without hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Microbial composition of house dust may influence allergic outcomes in adults.

12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67011, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agricultural work and occupational pesticide use have been associated with increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer. However, few prospective studies have investigated links to specific pesticides. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the lifetime use of individual pesticides and the incidence of RCC. METHODS: We evaluated the associations between intensity-weighted lifetime days (IWDs) of 38 pesticides and incident RCC in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Among 55,873 applicators, 308 cases were diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and the end of follow-up (2014-2015). We estimated incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression, controlling for potential confounding factors, with lagged and unlagged pesticide exposures. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increased risk of RCC among the highest users of 2,4,5-T compared with never users [unlagged RRIWD Tertile 3=2.92 (95% CI: 1.65, 5.17; ptrend=0.001)], with similar risk estimates for lagged exposure [20-y lag RRIWD Tertile 3=3.37 (95% CI: 1.83, 6.22; ptrend=0.001)]. In 20-y lagged analyses, we also found exposure-response associations with chlorpyrifos [RRIWD Quartile 4=1.68 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.70; ptrend=0.01)], chlordane [RRIWD Tertile 3=2.06 (95% CI: 1.10, 3.87; ptrend=0.02)], atrazine [RRIWD Quartile 4=1.43 (95% CI: 1.00, 2.03; ptrend=0.02)], cyanazine [RRIWD Quartile 4=1.61 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.50; ptrend=0.02)], and paraquat [RRIWD>Median=1.95 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.70; ptrend=0.04)]. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first prospective study to evaluate RCC risk in relation to various pesticides. We found evidence of associations with RCC for four herbicides (2,4,5-T, atrazine, cyanazine, and paraquat) and two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and chlordane). Our findings provide insights into specific chemicals that may influence RCC risk among pesticide applicators. Confirmation of these findings and investigations of the biologic plausibility and potential mechanisms underlying the observed associations are warranted. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6334.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574374

RESUMO

Insecticide use has been linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), however, findings of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, particularly for NHL subtypes. We analyzed 1690 NHL cases and 5131 controls in the North American Pooled Project (NAPP) to investigate self-reported insecticide use and risk of NHL overall and by subtypes: follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for each insecticide were estimated using logistic regression. Subtype-specific associations were evaluated using ASSET (Association analysis for SubSETs). Increased risks of multiple NHL subtypes were observed for lindane (OR = 1.60, 1.20-2.10: FL, DLCBL, SLL), chlordane (OR = 1.59, 1.17-2.16: FL, SLL) and DDT (OR = 1.36, 1.06-1.73: DLBCL, SLL). Positive trends were observed, within the subsets with identified associations, for increasing categories of exposure duration for lindane (Ptrend = 1.7 × 10-4 ), chlordane (Ptrend = 1.0 × 10-3 ) and DDT (Ptrend = 4.2 × 10-3 ), however, the exposure-response relationship was nonlinear. Ever use of pyrethrum was associated with an increased risk of FL (OR = 3.65, 1.45-9.15), and the relationship with duration of use appeared monotonic (OR for >10 years: OR = 5.38, 1.75-16.53; Ptrend = 3.6 × 10-3 ). Our analysis identified several novel associations between insecticide use and specific NHL subtypes, suggesting possible etiologic heterogeneity in the context of pesticide exposure.

15.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 56(3)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381493

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide studies of methylation in children support a role for epigenetic mechanisms in asthma; however, studies in adults are rare and few have examined non-atopic asthma. We conducted the largest epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of blood DNA methylation in adults in relation to non-atopic and atopic asthma.We measured DNA methylation in blood using the Illumina MethylationEPIC array among 2286 participants in a case-control study of current adult asthma nested within a United States agricultural cohort. Atopy was defined by serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Participants were categorised as atopy without asthma (n=185), non-atopic asthma (n=673), atopic asthma (n=271), or a reference group of neither atopy nor asthma (n=1157). Analyses were conducted using logistic regression.No associations were observed with atopy without asthma. Numerous cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites were differentially methylated in non-atopic asthma (eight at family-wise error rate (FWER) p<9×10-8, 524 at false discovery rate (FDR) less than 0.05) and implicated 382 novel genes. More CpG sites were identified in atopic asthma (181 at FWER, 1086 at FDR) and implicated 569 novel genes. 104 FDR CpG sites overlapped. 35% of CpG sites in non-atopic asthma and 91% in atopic asthma replicated in studies of whole blood, eosinophils, airway epithelium, or nasal epithelium. Implicated genes were enriched in pathways related to the nervous system or inflammation.We identified numerous, distinct differentially methylated CpG sites in non-atopic and atopic asthma. Many CpG sites from blood replicated in asthma-relevant tissues. These circulating biomarkers reflect risk and sequelae of disease, as well as implicate novel genes associated with non-atopic and atopic asthma.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1326-1337, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbicide dicamba has been commonly used agriculturally and residentially. Recent approval of genetically engineered dicamba-resistant crops is expected to lead to increased dicamba use, and there has been growing interest in potential human health effects. A prior analysis in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) suggested associations between dicamba and colon and lung cancer. We re-evaluated dicamba use in the AHS, including an additional 12 years and 2702 exposed cancers. METHODS: The AHS is a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up (1999-2005), participants reported dicamba use. Exposure was characterized by cumulative intensity-weighted lifetime days, including exposure lags of up to 20 years. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable Poisson regression for incident cancers diagnosed from enrollment through 2014/2015. RESULTS: Among 49 922 applicators, 26 412 (52.9%) used dicamba. Compared with applicators reporting no dicamba use, those in the highest quartile of exposure had elevated risk of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (nexposed = 28, RRQ4 = 1.80, CI: 1.26-2.56, Ptrend < 0.001) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, nexposed = 93, RRQ4 = 1.20, CI: 0.96-1.50, Ptrend = 0.01) and decreased risk of myeloid leukaemia (nexposed = 55, RRQ4 = 0.73, CI: 0.51-1.03, Ptrend = 0.01). The associations for liver cancer and myeloid leukaemia remained after lagging exposure of up to 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: With additional follow-up and exposure information, associations with lung and colon cancer were no longer apparent. In this first evaluation of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, there was an association with increasing use of dicamba that persisted across lags of up to 20 years.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1283-1289, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371551

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 228: 113525, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The observed deficit of lung cancer in farmers has been partly attributed to exposure to organic dusts and endotoxins based largely on surrogate metrics. To move beyond these surrogates for etiological studies, we characterized task-based and time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to inhalable endotoxin, (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan, and dust in Iowa farmers. METHODS: We collected 320 personal inhalable dust samples from 32 farmers during 69 sample days in 2015 and 2016. Samples were collected using Button aerosol samplers and analyzed for endotoxin using a kinetic chromogenic amebocyte lysate assay, and for (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan using a Limulus endpoint assay. We assessed relationships between bioaerosol concentrations and selected tasks and farm characteristics using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Bedding work, hog handling, and working in barn/confinement buildings, grain bins, and grain elevators were associated with higher endotoxin exposure. We found a monotonic trend between higher endotoxin concentrations and increasing number of animals. Bedding work, cleaning, and feed/grain storage work were associated with higher (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan concentrations. The median concentrations by task spanned one order of magnitude for inhalable dust and two orders of magnitude for endotoxin and (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan. Pearson correlations between endotoxin and glucan concentrations were 0.22 for TWA exposure and 0.56 for task samples. CONCLUSIONS: This characterization of exposure factors that influence bioaerosol concentrations can support the development of refined bioaerosol exposure metrics for future etiologic analyses of cancer and other health outcomes in farmers.

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