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1.
Lung Cancer ; 144: 10-19, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from a phase 1/2 study (NCT01970865) in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)- or ROS1-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with lorlatinib 100 mg once daily. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PRO measures, including global quality of life (QoL), functioning domains and symptoms, were assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and the 13-item Lung Cancer (QLQ-LC13) module. Mean changes of absolute scores from baseline were assessed. Percentages of patients showing improvement, stability or worsening on each scale were reported, with a change of ≥10 points considered clinically meaningful (CM). RESULTS: 255 patients completed baseline and ≥1 post-baseline PRO assessment. Most patients had CM improvement (42.4 %) or stable (38.0 %) scores for global QoL. Functioning domains with the greatest proportion of patients with improved scores were role (37.6 %) and emotional (36.9 %); only one domain had more patients showing worsening than improving function (cognitive [24.3 % vs 22.4 %]). Most patients showed improved or stable scores for disease-related symptoms. No QLQ-C30 symptom domains had more patients worsening than improving. Symptoms on the QLQ-C30 scale with the greatest proportion of patients with improved scores were fatigue (49.4 %) and insomnia (46.3 %). Four QLQ-LC13 domains had more patients worsening than improving (two most affected were peripheral neuropathy [37.3 % vs 13.7 %] and alopecia [19.2 % vs 13.3 %]). Symptoms on the QLQ-LC13 scale with the greatest proportion of patients with improved scores were cough (42.7 %) and pain in other parts (32.9 %). CONCLUSIONS: Lorlatinib treatment showed CM improvement from baseline in global QOL that was maintained over time. Additionally, there were improvements in physical, emotional, social, and role functioning. Improvements were shown in appetite loss and key symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, cough and fatigue; a worsening in peripheral neuropathy was noted.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 130: 155-167, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is the first-line standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a PD-L1 tumour proportion score (TPS) ≥ 50%. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) 2 patients may receive pembrolizumab, despite the absence of sustaining evidence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: GOIRC-2018-01 is a multicentre, retrospective, observational study. PS 2 NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 TPS ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab from June 2017 to December 2018 at 21 Italian institutions were included. Clinical-pathological characteristics were correlated with disease response and survival outcomes; adverse events were recorded. The primary objective was 6-months progression-free rate (6-months PFR). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three patients (median age 70 years) were enrolled. At a median follow-up of 18.2 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.6-2.5) and 3.0 months (95% CI 2.4-3.5), respectively. 6-months PFR was 27% (95% CI 21-35%). Patients with a PS 2 determined by comorbidities (n = 41) had significantly better outcomes compared with disease burden-induced PS 2 (n = 112). Indeed, 6-months PFR was 49% versus 19%, median PFS 5.6 versus 1.8 months and OS 11.8 versus 2.8 months, respectively. Additional potential prognostic factors (radiotherapy, antibiotics, steroids received before pembrolizumab) correlated with clinical outcomes. The determinant of PS 2 resulted the only factor independently impacting on both PFS and OS. No toxicity issues emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of PS 2 NSCLC patients with PD-L1 TPS ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab were globally dismal but strongly dependent on the reason conditioning the poor PS itself.

3.
Radiol Med ; 125(2): 214-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report criticisms and barriers to the "real-life" application of international guidelines and recent developments in the management of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Italy. METHODS: Three 2-day courses were organized. During the first day, experts in different fields of thoracic oncology gave their lecture on diagnosis and therapy for locally advanced NSCLC. During the second day, all participants were divided into four groups to discuss on a clinical case as a multidisciplinary team (MDT). The aim was to stimulate the discussion on practical issues in the management of NSCLC patients in the real-life practice. RESULTS: A total of 196 physicians were involved in the courses as learners. Invasive diagnosis of nodal disease for staging purposes, a priori definition of "surgical resectability" and a regular MDT with all crucial participants available were the three main key points identified for a good management of these patients. The main barriers to the clinical application of a good diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the patient were the absence of a regular and complete MDT in the South and Centre of Italy, while in the North of Italy, time for discussion of clinical cases in the MDT and waiting lists for staging and therapeutic interventions were deemed as the major concerns. CONCLUSION: The meetings showed that diagnosis and treatment of locally advanced NSCLC are still extremely variable between different Italian regions. Logistic issues, waiting lists, paucity of well-trained staff and expertise seem to be the main barriers to international guidelines application.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Itália , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
4.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(6): 699-707, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In selected metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, radical metastasectomy followed by observation is a potential strategy. It is still to be defined whether systemic therapy should be administered following metastasectomy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential benefit of postoperative treatment with sorafenib compared with observation alone after radical metastasectomy in mRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The RESORT trial was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 2 study conducted between November 2012 and November 2017 in Italy. Patients with clear-cell mRCC pretreated with nephrectomy and undergoing radical metastasectomy (three or fewer lesions) were eligible for the study. Patients were randomized (1:1) within 12 wk from metastasectomy to sorafenib (standard dose 400 mg twice daily) or observation for a maximum of 52 wk. Stratification factors were interval from nephrectomy, site, and number of lesions. Overall, 76 patients were screened and 69 were randomized: 33 were assigned to sorafenib and 36 to observation. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival and the safety profile. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: RFS curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to statistically compare the curves. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: At a median follow-up of 38 mo, median RFS was 37 mo (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-not available [NA]) in the observation arm versus 21 mo (95% CI 11-NA) in the sorafenib arm (log-rank test p = 0.404), with 12-, 24-, and 36-mo RFS probability of 74% versus 63%, 59% versus 49%, and 50% versus 41%, respectively, in the observation versus the sorafenib arm. Any-grade adverse event (AE) rates were 84% in the sorafenib arm and 31% in the observation arm; grade ≥3 AE rates were 22% and 3% in the sorafenib and the observation arm, respectively, with a rate of treatment discontinuation for AEs of 19% in the sorafenib arm. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that systemic treatment with sorafenib did not increase RFS as compared with observation in mRCC patients following radical metastasectomy. PATIENT SUMMARY: This article reports the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sorafenib or managed with an observation-alone strategy after the radical surgery of metastases. We found that sorafenib did not improve the patient outcome in terms of relapse-free survival in this selected population.

5.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov ; 14(3): 242-257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death. In the last decades, the introduction of targeted therapies and more recently, of immunotherapy, has led to significant improvements in different outcomes of this malignant neoplasm. OBJECTIVE: The present review provides a balanced overview of most recent targeted therapies and immunotherapies patented for the treatment of lung cancer. METHODS: An extensive scientific literature and patent databases search were performed to identify peerreviewed studies containing information on recently patented drugs for the treatment of lung cancer, with a particular focus on their safety data and recently patented combinations. RESULTS: The development of therapies directed to different pathways involved in the tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, and metastasis has transformed the clinical practice of lung malignancies. Several clinical trials have shown an improvement in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced/metastatic lung cancer. Safety data, extracted from clinical trials and from the WHO global database of adverse drug reactions (VigiAccessTM database), show that recently patented drugs for the treatment of lung cancer are well-tolerated and most of the adverse events reported are mild to moderate. CONCLUSION: Currently, a consistent number of new drugs and combinations have been introduced for the treatment of patients with advanced-stage lung cancer. Safety data remain essential to better assess the long-term risk/benefit ratio of these valuable emerging therapies. The new patents' development could provide further significant improvements for lung cancer treatment.

6.
Lung Cancer ; 134: 121-126, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considering the frequent expression of somatostatine receptors, we designed the G04.2011 trial to investigate the efficacy of the somatostatine analogue lanreotide in maintenance for SCLC patients after response to standard treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, phase 3 trial was conducted in SCLC expressing somatostatine receptors at baseline Octreoscan, responding after platinum-based chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive maintenance lanreotide 120 mg subcutaneously every 28 days, up to 1 year or progression versus observation. Randomization was stratified according to stage (limited/extended, LD/ED). The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were randomly assigned (39 to lanreotide, 32 to observation) in 9 Italian institutions. Median PFS was 3.6 (95% CI 3.2-3.9) with lanreotide versus 2.3 months (95% CI 1.7-2.9) with observation (HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.90-2.50; P = 0.11). Stage was an independent predictor for PFS (HR 3.14, 95% CI 1.77-5.57; P < 0.0001). Median PFS was 7.0 (95% CI <1-13.5) with lanreotide versus 3.8 months (95% CI <1-8.6) with observation in LD (P = 0.21), and 3.0 (95% CI 2.2-3.8) versus 2.2 (95% 1.7-2.7) in ED (P = 0.19). Median OS was 9.5 (95% CI 4.8-14.3) with lanreotide versus 4.7 months (95% CI <1-16.6) with observation (P = 0.47). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 28% of patients with lanreotide (grade 3 in two patients). CONCLUSION: Although survival outcomes were not significantly prolonged with lanreotide as a maintenance in SCLC expressing somatostatin receptors after response to standard treatment, lanreotide showed a slight PFS benefit in LD SCLC deserving further investigations.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3839-3846, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inflammation indexes and body mass index (BMI) are easily evaluated, predict survival, and are potentially modifiable. We evaluated the potential association of inflammatory indexes and BMI with the clinical outcome of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A prospective cohort of patients with metastatic RCC treated with nivolumab enrolled in the Italian Expanded Access Program from July 2015 through April 2016 was examined. Reference measures of inflammation were identified for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(7): 1255-1265, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In an earlier report of the ASCEND-8 study (open-label, phase I, three-arm study, treatment-naive patients and pre-treated patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC), it was shown that ceritinib 450 mg with food had comparable exposure and better gastrointestinal tolerability than 750-mg fasted. METHODS: Here, we report efficacy and updated safety data from primary efficacy analysis of the ASCEND-8 study. Key secondary endpoints were overall response rate and duration of response, assessed by blinded independent review committee (BIRC) using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. RESULTS: In total, 306 patients were randomized to ceritinib 450-mg fed (n = 108) or 600-mg fed (n = 87) or 750-mg fasted (n = 111), of which 304 patients were included in safety analysis and 198 treatment-naive patients (ALK receptor tyrosine kinase [ALK]-positive by immunohistochemistry) were included in the efficacy analysis (450-mg fed [n = 73], 600-mg fed [n = 51], and 750-mg fasted [n = 74]). The BIRC-assessed overall response rate was 78.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.9-86.9), 72.5% (95% CI: 58.3-84.1), and 75.7% (95% CI: 64.3-84.9), respectively; and the median duration of response (months) by BIRC was not estimable (NE) (95% CI: 11.2-NE), 20.7 (95% CI: 15.8-NE), and 15.4 (95% CI: 8.3-NE), respectively. Based on the safety analysis (n = 304), the 450-mg fed arm showed the highest median relative dose intensity (100% versus 78.5% versus 83.7%), lowest proportion of patients with dose reductions (24.1% versus 65.1% versus 60.9%), and lowest proportion of patients with gastrointestinal toxicities (75.9% versus 82.6% versus 91.8%). CONCLUSION: Ceritinib at a dose of 450 mg with food compared to 750-mg fasted showed consistent efficacy and less gastrointestinal toxicity.

9.
BJU Int ; 123(1): 98-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the safety and efficacy results of patients enrolled in the Italian Nivolumab Renal Cell Cancer Expanded Access Programme. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) previously treated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway were eligible to receive nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. Patients included in the analysis had received ≥1 dose of nivolumab and were monitored for adverse events (AEs) using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.0. RESULTS: A total of 389 patients were enrolled between July 2015 and April 2016, of whom 18% were aged ≥75 years, 6.7% had non-clear cell RCC, 49.6% had bone and 8.2% brain metastases, and 79% had received ≥2 previous lines of therapy. The most common any-grade treatment-related AEs were fatigue (13%) and rash (9%). Twenty-two patients (5.7%) discontinued treatment because of AEs. There were no treatment-related deaths. The objective response rate was 23.1%. At a median follow-up of 12 months, the median progression-free survival was 4.5 months (95% confidence interval 3.7-6.2) and the 12-month overall survival rate was 63%. Similar survival rates were reported among patients with non-clear-cell histology, elderly patients, those with bone and/or brain metastases, and those who had received prior first-line sunitinib or pazopanib, or prior everolimus. CONCLUSION: The safety and efficacy observed were consistent with those reported in the pivotal Checkmate 025 trial. Results in patients with non-clear-cell mRCC who were elderly, pretreated with everolimus, and had bone and/or brain metastases encourage the use of nivolumab in these categories of patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Retratamento , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Onco Targets Ther ; 11: 8945-8950, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573982

RESUMO

Background: The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of ALK is the therapy of choice for ALK-fusion patients. Unfortunately, all patients under this kind of treatment eventually develop acquired resistance through several well-known mechanisms, such as acquisition of a secondary mutation within the kinase domain, activation of a bypass signaling pathway, or a histological change like small-cell lung cancer transformation. At the time of progression, a tissue re-biopsy may give important molecular and morphological information regarding the mechanisms driving resistance to ALK TKIs. However, this procedure is not always feasible and it may not reflect the tumor heterogeneity, and therefore gives incomplete information. To overcome these drawbacks, the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) isolated from plasma, the so-called liquid biopsy, is emerging as a noninvasive and useful tool for detecting resistance mutations. Secondary resistance mutations are common in second-generation TKIs resistant patients and among these, Gly1202Arg (p.G1202R) emerged as the most frequent mutation. Case presentation: We have treated an ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma patient with a sequential strategy of ALK TKIs. Patient follow-up was performed combining clinical, radiological, and molecular profiling. ctDNA was isolated from plasma and by means of ultra-deep next generation sequencing; we searched for secondary ALK resistance mutations on exons 21-25. ALK mutation Gly1202Arg (G1202R) was detected. We have documented consistency between plasma levels of G1202R mutation and radiological progression or improvement. Conclusion: Liquid biopsy appears to be a promising tool to anticipate progression and to drive the therapeutic strategy based upon ALK resistance mutations.

11.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(12): 1654-1667, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lorlatinib is a potent, brain-penetrant, third-generation inhibitor of ALK and ROS1 tyrosine kinases with broad coverage of ALK mutations. In a phase 1 study, activity was seen in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer, most of whom had CNS metastases and progression after ALK-directed therapy. We aimed to analyse the overall and intracranial antitumour activity of lorlatinib in patients with ALK-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: In this phase 2 study, patients with histologically or cytologically ALK-positive or ROS1-positive, advanced, non-small-cell lung cancer, with or without CNS metastases, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0, 1, or 2, and adequate end-organ function were eligible. Patients were enrolled into six different expansion cohorts (EXP1-6) on the basis of ALK and ROS1 status and previous therapy, and were given lorlatinib 100 mg orally once daily continuously in 21-day cycles. The primary endpoint was overall and intracranial tumour response by independent central review, assessed in pooled subgroups of ALK-positive patients. Analyses of activity and safety were based on the safety analysis set (ie, all patients who received at least one dose of lorlatinib) as assessed by independent central review. Patients with measurable CNS metastases at baseline by independent central review were included in the intracranial activity analyses. In this report, we present lorlatinib activity data for the ALK-positive patients (EXP1-5 only), and safety data for all treated patients (EXP1-6). This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01970865. FINDINGS: Between Sept 15, 2015, and Oct 3, 2016, 276 patients were enrolled: 30 who were ALK positive and treatment naive (EXP1); 59 who were ALK positive and received previous crizotinib without (n=27; EXP2) or with (n=32; EXP3A) previous chemotherapy; 28 who were ALK positive and received one previous non-crizotinib ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with or without chemotherapy (EXP3B); 112 who were ALK positive with two (n=66; EXP4) or three (n=46; EXP5) previous ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors with or without chemotherapy; and 47 who were ROS1 positive with any previous treatment (EXP6). One patient in EXP4 died before receiving lorlatinib and was excluded from the safety analysis set. In treatment-naive patients (EXP1), an objective response was achieved in 27 (90·0%; 95% CI 73·5-97·9) of 30 patients. Three patients in EXP1 had measurable baseline CNS lesions per independent central review, and objective intracranial responses were observed in two (66·7%; 95% CI 9·4-99·2). In ALK-positive patients with at least one previous ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EXP2-5), objective responses were achieved in 93 (47·0%; 39·9-54·2) of 198 patients and objective intracranial response in those with measurable baseline CNS lesions in 51 (63·0%; 51·5-73·4) of 81 patients. Objective response was achieved in 41 (69·5%; 95% CI 56·1-80·8) of 59 patients who had only received previous crizotinib (EXP2-3A), nine (32·1%; 15·9-52·4) of 28 patients with one previous non-crizotinib ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EXP3B), and 43 (38·7%; 29·6-48·5) of 111 patients with two or more previous ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EXP4-5). Objective intracranial response was achieved in 20 (87·0%; 95% CI 66·4-97·2) of 23 patients with measurable baseline CNS lesions in EXP2-3A, five (55·6%; 21·2-86·3) of nine patients in EXP3B, and 26 (53·1%; 38·3-67·5) of 49 patients in EXP4-5. The most common treatment-related adverse events across all patients were hypercholesterolaemia (224 [81%] of 275 patients overall and 43 [16%] grade 3-4) and hypertriglyceridaemia (166 [60%] overall and 43 [16%] grade 3-4). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 19 (7%) of 275 patients and seven patients (3%) permanently discontinued treatment because of treatment-related adverse events. No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: Consistent with its broad ALK mutational coverage and CNS penetration, lorlatinib showed substantial overall and intracranial activity both in treatment-naive patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer, and in those who had progressed on crizotinib, second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or after up to three previous ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Thus, lorlatinib could represent an effective treatment option for patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer in first-line or subsequent therapy. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral
12.
N Engl J Med ; 379(21): 2027-2039, 2018 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brigatinib, a next-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, has robust efficacy in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that is refractory to crizotinib. The efficacy of brigatinib, as compared with crizotinib, in patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC who have not previously received an ALK inhibitor is unclear. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC who had not previously received ALK inhibitors to receive brigatinib at a dose of 180 mg once daily (with a 7-day lead-in period at 90 mg) or crizotinib at a dose of 250 mg twice daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by blinded independent central review. Secondary end points included the objective response rate and intracranial response. The first interim analysis was planned when approximately 50% of 198 expected events of disease progression or death had occurred. RESULTS: A total of 275 patients underwent randomization; 137 were assigned to brigatinib and 138 to crizotinib. At the first interim analysis (99 events), the median follow-up was 11.0 months in the brigatinib group and 9.3 months in the crizotinib group. The rate of progression-free survival was higher with brigatinib than with crizotinib (estimated 12-month progression-free survival, 67% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 56 to 75] vs. 43% [95% CI, 32 to 53]; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.74]; P<0.001 by the log-rank test). The confirmed objective response rate was 71% (95% CI, 62 to 78) with brigatinib and 60% (95% CI, 51 to 68) with crizotinib; the confirmed rate of intracranial response among patients with measurable lesions was 78% (95% CI, 52 to 94) and 29% (95% CI, 11 to 52), respectively. No new safety concerns were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who had not previously received an ALK inhibitor, progression-free survival was significantly longer among patients who received brigatinib than among those who received crizotinib. (Funded by Ariad Pharmaceuticals; ALTA-1L ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02737501 .).


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organofosforados/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/análise , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Crizotinibe/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(6): 799-811, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer with highly vascularised tumours. It has poor prognosis and few treatment options after failure of first-line chemotherapy. NGR-hTNF is a vascular-targeting drug that increases penetration of intratumoral chemotherapy and T-cell infiltration by modifying the tumour microenvironment. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of NGR-hTNF in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma who had progressed during or after a first-line treatment. METHODS: NGR015 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial done in 41 centres in 12 countries. Eligible participants had malignant pleural mesothelioma of any histological subtype (epithelial, sarcomatoid, or mixed), were aged 18 years or older, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 and radiologically documented progressive disease after one pemetrexed-based chemotherapy regimen. Participants were randomly assigned to receive weekly NGR-hTNF 0·8 µg/m2 intravenously plus best investigator choice (n=200), or placebo plus best investigator choice (n=200). Best investigator choice was decided before random assignment and could be single-agent gemcitabine (1000-1250 mg/m2 intravenously), vinorelbine (25 mg/m2 intravenously or 60 mg/m2 orally), doxorubicin (60-75 mg/m2 intravenously), or best supportive care only. Patients were randomised (1:1) with a block size of four after stratification for performance status and best investigator choice. The primary study endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is closed to new participants and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01098266). FINDINGS: Between April 12, 2010 and Jan 21, 2013, we enrolled 400 eligible participants. 381 (95%) of 400 patients were selected to receive chemotherapy before all participants were randomly assigned to receive NGF-hTNF plus best investigator choice (n=200) or placebo plus best investigator choice (n=200). At the cutoff date (April 29, 2014), the median follow-up was 18·7 months (IQR 15·1-24·4), and overall survival did not differ between the two treatment groups (median 8·5 months [95% CI 7·2-9·9] in the NGR-hTNF group vs 8·0 months [6·6-8·9] in the placebo group; hazard ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·75-1·18; p=0·58). Grade 3 or worse study-emergent adverse events occurred in 136 (70%) of patients receiving NGR-hTNF versus 118 (61%) of patients receiving placebo, with the most common being neutropenia (35 [18%] of 193 patients vs 36 [19%] of 193 patients), pain (11 [6%] vs 16 [8%]), dyspnoea (nine [5%] vs seven [4%]), and chills (nine [5%] vs none). 50 (26%) patients in the NGR-hTNF group had a serious adverse event, compared with 47 (24%) in the placebo group. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 17 (9%) patients in the NGR-hTNF group and 20 patients (10%) in the placebo group. There were 12 deaths in the NGR-hTNF group and 13 deaths in the placebo group, but none were treatment related. INTERPRETATION: The study did not meet its primary endpoint. The hypothesis-generating findings from the subgroup analyses deserve a confirmatory randomised trial because patients who rapidly progress after first-line treatment have a poor prognosis. FUNDING: MolMed.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Retratamento , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos
14.
Oncotarget ; 9(20): 15340-15349, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632648

RESUMO

Rearrangement in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is one of the oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Several ALK inhibitors (ALKis) have been developed and have demonstrated their efficacy, however the best treatment strategy for ALK positive NSCLC patients has yet to be determined. Our retrospective study has investigated the outcome of 40 ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients treated with two different sequential strategies in our Institute; a "classical group", treated with crizotinib followed by second or third generation ALKis, and the "experimental group", treated upfront with a second generation ALK inhibitor. The primary endpoints investigated were Progression-free survival (PFS) and intracranial activity. The analysis has revealed a significant improvement in PFS (p = 0.050) in the experimental group, furthermore none of these patients developed brain metastasis. There was no statistically significant difference in OS, but all patients in the experimental group were still alive after a median follow up of 15 months. Our retrospective analysis suggests that systemic and intracranial efficacy tends to be better in the experimental group; randomized prospective studies could confirm our observations.

15.
Future Oncol ; 14(4): 353-361, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135281

RESUMO

AIM: Ceritinib was evaluated within a compassionate use program of Italian patients. PATIENTS & METHODS: 70 patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive crizotinib-refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer received ceritinib. RESULTS: Overall response was 40.6%, median progression-free survival was 8.2 months and median survival was 15.5 months. Dose reduction due to treatment-related adverse events occurred in 50.8% of patients starting at 750 mg/day. No significantly different progression-free survival was observed between patients who underwent any time dose reduction (n = 38) versus those who remained on the recommended dose of 750 mg/day (n = 32; p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of ceritinib compassionate use program resembled that of clinical trials. Dose reductions and adjustments did not appear to negatively affect clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Crizotinibe , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos
16.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 18(5): 405-409, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176647

RESUMO

Treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer has changed in the last two decades, with many new drugs, mostly target agents, included in the algorithm, improvement of progression free survival and overall survival, but also higher costs for health systems or health insurances. Herein, we analyze the clinical effectiveness of target therapies for non-small cell lung cancer, according to their clinically meaningful outcome criteria and their cost impact.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/economia , Adulto , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 19(1): 93-104, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond progression after tyrosine kinase inhibitor in EGFR-positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients (BE-POSITIVE) was the first Italian multicenter observational study that reported the outcomes of first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in a "real-life" Caucasian EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) population. The sharing of multi-institutional experiences represents a crucial strategy to enrich knowledge about uncommon EGFR mutations. Therefore, we performed a post hoc analysis of the BE-POSITIVE study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of advanced NSCLC patients with uncommon EGFR mutations who received first-line first-generation EGFR-TKIs in 24 Italian Hospitals were collected. In this analysis we aimed to evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) of EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients harboring uncommon EGFR mutations. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients harboring uncommon EGFR mutations (any mutation other than deletion 19 or substitution of leucine by arginine at codon 858) were included of the original 312 EGFR-mutated cases. Most of them were female (n = 20, 57.1%), former smokers (n = 23, 65.7%), with adenocarcinoma (n = 31, 88.6%). The most frequent EGFR mutations were G719X (n = 6, 17.2%) and L861Q (n = 5, 14.2%). The population presented an ORR of 25.7%, a median PFS of 5.19 months, and a median OS of 14.49 months. When stratified according to type of EGFR mutation, median OS ranged from 3.65 months for unspecified mutations to 21.29 for double EGFR mutations. Median PFS ranged from 1.77 months for unspecified mutations to 20.83 months for concomitant EGFR-anaplastic lymphoma kinase alteration. ORR varied from 0% in exon 18, 20 and double gene alteration to 66.6% in exon 19. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the existence of a strong outcome heterogeneity within patients harboring uncommon EGFR mutations, which needs to be clarified to achieve a real personalized treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo Genético , Medicina de Precisão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 12(9): 1357-1367, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ceritinib, 750 mg fasted, is approved for treatment of patients with ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK)-rearranged (ALK-positive) NSCLC previously treated with crizotinib. Part 1 of the ASCEND-8 study determined whether administering ceritinib, 450 mg or 600 mg, with a low-fat meal may enhance gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability versus 750 mg fasted in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC while maintaining similar exposure. METHODS: ASCEND-8 is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 1 study. Part 1 investigated the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of ceritinib, 450 mg or 600 mg, taken with a low-fat meal versus 750 mg fasted in patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC who were either treatment naive or pretreated with chemotherapy and/or crizotinib. Part 2 will assess efficacy and safety of ceritinib in treatment-naive patients. RESULTS: As of June 16, 2016, 137 patients were randomized (450 mg fed [n = 44], 600 mg fed [n = 47], and 750 mg fasted [n = 46]); 135 patients received ceritinib. Median follow-up duration was 4.14 months. At steady state, relative to 750 mg fasted, 450 mg with food demonstrated comparable PK as assessed by maximum (peak) concentration of drug in plasma and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 hours, whereas 600 mg with food demonstrated approximately 25% higher PK. Relative to 750 mg fasted, 450 mg with food was associated with a lower proportion of patients with GI toxicities, mostly grade 1 (diarrhea [43.2%], nausea [29.5%], and vomiting [18.2%]); there were no grade 3 or 4 events, study drug discontinuations, or serious AEs due to GI toxicities. CONCLUSION: Ceritinib, 450 mg with food, had similar exposure and a more favorable GI safety profile than ceritinib, 750 mg in fasted patients with ALK-positive NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Jejum , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonas/farmacologia
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(9): 1261-1273, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies for malignant mesothelioma are urgently needed. In the DETERMINE study, we investigated the effects of the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody tremelimumab in patients with previously treated advanced malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: DETERMINE was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial done at 105 study centres across 19 countries in patients with unresectable pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma who had progressed after one or two previous systemic treatments for advanced disease. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 and measurable disease as defined in the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.0 for pleural mesothelioma or RECIST version 1.1 for peritoneal mesothelioma. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) in blocks of three, stratified by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer status (low risk vs high risk), line of therapy (second line vs third line), and anatomic site (pleural vs peritoneal), by use of an interactive voice or web system, to receive intravenous tremelimumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo every 4 weeks for 7 doses and every 12 weeks thereafter until a treatment discontinuation criterion was met. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The trial is ongoing but no longer recruiting participants, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01843374. FINDINGS: Between May 17, 2013, and Dec 4, 2014, 571 patients were randomly assigned to receive tremelimumab (n=382) or placebo (n=189), of whom 569 patients received treatment (two patients in the tremelimumab group were excluded from the safety population because they did not receive treatment). At the data cutoff date (Jan 24, 2016), 307 (80%) of 382 patients had died in the tremelimumab group and 154 (81%) of 189 patients had died in the placebo group. Median overall survival in the intention-to-treat population did not differ between the treatment groups: 7·7 months (95% CI 6·8-8·9) in the tremelimumab group and 7·3 months (5·9-8·7) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·92 [95% CI 0·76-1·12], p=0·41). Treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 246 (65%) of 380 patients in the tremelimumab group and 91 (48%) of 189 patients in the placebo group; the most common were dyspnoea (34 [9%] patients in the tremelimumab group vs 27 [14%] patients in the placebo group), diarrhoea (58 [15%] vs one [<1%]), and colitis (26 [7%] vs none). The most common serious adverse events were diarrhoea (69 [18%] patients in the tremelimumab group vs one [<1%] patient in the placebo group), dyspnoea (29 [8%] vs 24 [13%]), and colitis (24 [6%] vs none). Treatment-emergent events leading to death occurred in 36 (9%) of 380 patients in the tremelimumab group and 12 (6%) of 189 in the placebo group; those leading to the death of more than one patient were mesothelioma (three [1%] patients in the tremelimumab group vs two [1%] in the placebo group), dyspnoea (three [1%] vs two [1%]); respiratory failure (one [<1%] vs three [2%]), myocardial infarction (three [1%] vs none), lung infection (three [1%] patients vs none), cardiac failure (one [<1%] vs one [<1%]), and colitis (two [<1%] vs none). Treatment-related adverse events leading to death occurred in five (1%) patients in the tremelimumab group and none in the placebo group. The causes of death were lung infection in one patient, intestinal perforation and small intestinal obstruction in one patient; colitis in two patients, and neuritis and skin ulcer in one patient. INTERPRETATION: Tremelimumab did not significantly prolong overall survival compared with placebo in patients with previously treated malignant mesothelioma. The safety profile of tremelimumab was consistent with the known safety profile of CTLA-4 inhibitors. Investigations into whether immunotherapy combination regimens can provide greater efficacy than monotherapies in malignant mesothelioma are ongoing. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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