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1.
Sleep Med ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of clinical guidelines recommend that all cardiac rehabilitation patients should be screened for potential sleep disorders with a validated screening instrument. There is currently no consensus on what specific tools should be used. OBJECTIVE: To identify tools that are practical to use in the clinical environment and have high diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We systematically searched online databases to identify patient reported outcome instruments that have been used in published research studies to assess the likelihood of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in cardiac patients. In studies that provided diagnostic data, these data were extracted and verified via an evidence-based diagnostic calculator. Where sufficient numbers of studies were available, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine pooled estimates of specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic odds ratios. Selected papers were qualitatively assessed using the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD). RESULTS: Of the 21 instruments identified, six detected likelihood of OSA, two assessed daytime sleepiness, five assessed insomnia and eight examined sleep quality. A meta-analysis of 14 studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy of moderate OSA, revealed moderate sensitivity for the Berlin Questionnaire, Sens = 0.49 (95% CI 0.45-0.52) and good sensitivity for the Stop-BANG, Sens = 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-0.96) but poor specificity at standard cut-off criteria. CONCLUSION: There are promising practical tools available to screen patients with OSA and other sleep disorders in cardiac rehabilitation settings, but specificity could be improved. Additional assessment of sleep quality may enhance prognostic ability with both OSA and insomnia screening.

2.
Aust J Rural Health ; 29(1): 21-33, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Linking enrolment and professional placement data for students' from 2 universities, this study compares characteristics across universities and health disciplines. The study explores associations between students' location of origin and frequency, duration and type of placements. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort data linkage. SETTING: Two Australian universities, Monash University and the University of Newcastle. PARTICIPANTS: Students who completed medical radiation science, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy or physiotherapy at either university between 2 February 2017 and 28 February 2018. INTERVENTIONS: Location of origin, university and discipline of enrolment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Main measures were whether graduates had multiple rural placements, number of rural placements and cumulative rural placement days. Location of origin, discipline and university of enrolment were the main explanatory variables. Secondary dependent variables were age, sex, socio-economic indices for location of origin, and available placements. RESULTS: A total of 1,315 students were included, of which 22.1% were of rural origin. The odds of rural origin students undertaking a rural placement was more than 4.5 times greater than for urban origin students. A higher proportion of rural origin students had multiple rural placement (56.0% vs 14.9%), with a higher mean number of rural placement days. Public hospitals were the most common placement type, with fewer in primary care, mental health or aged care. CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive association between rural origin and rural placements in nursing and allied health. To help strengthen recruitment and retention of graduates this association could be further exploited, while being inclusive of non-rural students.

3.
Bone ; 144: 115805, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to identify combinations of health service use specific to each major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) site - hip, distal forearm, vertebrae and humerus - associated with recovery of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 12-months post-MOF. METHODS: Patients were 4126 adults aged ≥50 years with a MOF (1657 hip, 1354 distal forearm, 681 vertebral, 434 humerus) from the International Costs and Utilities Related to Osteoporotic fractures Study (Australia, Austria, Estonia, France, Italy, Lithuania, Mexico, Russia, Spain and the UK). HRQoL (pre-fracture and 12-months post-fracture) was measured using the EQ-5D-3L. Health service use data were collected via interviews and medical record reviews and included in-hospital care, outpatient care, supported living, community health services, and medication use. Latent class analyses were undertaken to identify different combinations of health service use ("classes"); and logistic regression to assess associations between classes and HRQoL recovery. Fracture site-specific analyses were performed using pooled data from all 10 countries. RESULTS: The proportion of patients who recovered to their pre-fracture HRQoL at 12-month follow-up varied across fracture sites: 37.3%, 65.8%, 48.9% and 49.5% for hip, distal forearm, vertebrae, and humerus, respectively. We observed several site-specific classes associated with improved odds of HRQoL recovery. Generally, the combination of hospital presentations without admission; primary care center visits; use of osteoporosis-related medications; vitamin D/calcium supplementation; and non-opioid analgesic use was associated with greater likelihood of HRQoL recovery. CONCLUSION: The identified fracture site-specific health service use pathways associated with recovery of HRQoL could potentially improve the management and health outcomes of patients treated for a MOF.

4.
Australas J Ageing ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of education and occupation with handgrip strength (HGS), lower limb strength (LLS) and appendicular lean mass (ALM). METHODS: Measures of HGS, LLS and ALM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were ascertained at baseline in 1090 adults (50-80 years, 51% women), ~3 and 5 years. Education and occupation were self-reported, the latter categorised as high-skilled white collar (HSWC), low-skilled white collar (LSWC) or blue collar. Separate general estimating equations were performed. RESULTS: The highest education group had greater HGS than the middle (0.33 psi) and lowest (0.48 psi) education groups, and 0.34 kg greater ALM than the lowest education group. HGS was 0.46 psi greater for HSWC than LSWC groups. Compared to LSWC groups, LLS was 5.38 and 7.08 kg greater in HSWC and blue-collar groups. Blue-collar and HSWC groups each had ~ 0.60-0.80kg greater ALM than LSWC. CONCLUSION: Progressive muscle loss can be prevented by targeted intervention; thus, we suggest clinical attention be directed towards specific social groups.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960460

RESUMO

Major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) are associated with a rapid decline in health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, there is limited knowledge about which healthcare services positively affect HRQoL postfracture. This study aimed to identify specific combinations of health service use associated with recovery of HRQoL 12 months post-MOF. The analyses included 4126 adults aged ≥50 years with an MOF (1657 hip, 1354 distal forearm, 681 vertebrae, 434 humerus) participating in the International Costs and Utilities Related to Osteoporotic fractures Study (ICUROS), a multinational observational study (Australia, Austria, Estonia, France, Italy, Lithuania, Mexico, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States). HRQoL at prefracture and 12 months postfracture was measured using the EuroQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L). Health service use data were collected via participant interviews and medical record reviews including in-hospital care; outpatient care; community services; and medication use. Data analyses involved two stages: (i) latent class analyses to identify different combinations of health service use ("classes"); and (ii) logistic regression to assess effects of classes on HRQoL recovery. Analyses were repeated excluding hip fractures (non-hip MOFs). Overall, 2057 MOF participants (49.9%) recovered to their prefracture HRQoL at 12-month follow-up; this proportion was higher for non-hip MOFs (n = 1439; 58.3%). Several distinct classes were identified across countries (range, 2-5 classes). Classes that were associated with increased odds of HRQoL recovery were characterized by a combination of hospital presentations without admission; outpatient department visits; allied health visits; vitamin D/calcium supplementation; and/or non-opioid analgesic use. Similar classes were observed for non-hip MOFs. Understanding country-specific healthcare service pathways that influence greater recovery of HRQoL, particularly services that are uncommon in some countries and routine in others, could improve postfracture care on a global scale. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e18476, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) has the potential to improve health outcomes. However, eHealth systems need to match the eHealth literacy needs of users to be equitably adopted. Socially disadvantaged groups have lower access and skills to use technologies and are at risk of being digitally marginalized, leading to the potential widening of health disparities. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to explore the role of eHealth literacy and user involvement in developing eHealth interventions targeted at socially disadvantaged groups. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted across 10 databases for eHealth interventions targeted at older adults, ethnic minority groups, low-income groups, low-literacy groups, and rural communities. The eHealth Literacy Framework was used to examine the eHealth literacy components of reviewed interventions. The results were analyzed using narrative synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 51 studies reporting on the results of 48 interventions were evaluated. Most studies were targeted at older adults and ethnic minorities, with only 2 studies focusing on low-literacy groups. eHealth literacy was not considered in the development of any of the studies, and no eHealth literacy assessment was conducted. User involvement in designing interventions was limited, and eHealth intervention developmental frameworks were rarely used. Strategies to assist users in engaging with technical systems were seldom included in the interventions, and accessibility features were limited. The results of the included studies also provided inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight that eHealth literacy is generally overlooked in developing eHealth interventions targeted at socially disadvantaged groups, whereas evidence about the effectiveness of such interventions is limited. To ensure equal access and inclusiveness in the age of eHealth, eHealth literacy of disadvantaged groups needs to be addressed to help avoid a digital divide. This will assist the realization of recent technological advancements and, importantly, improve health equity.

7.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 40(4): 249-254, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604253

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective at reducing further cardiac events. However, dropout rates are high, and maintenance of behavioral change post-CR is challenging. Health literacy (HL) may influence self-management of cardiac risk, yet few studies have explored this association. This study aimed to describe HL among CR attendees; first to describe the HL profiles of people commencing CR and second to examine HL changes between program entry and completion. METHODS: CR attendees in Melbourne, Australia, completed the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) at program admission and completion. The HLQ measures HL across 9 scales. Cluster analysis grouped participants according to their HL profile. Effect sizes were used to determine changes in HLQ scores. Post-program interviews explored the role of HL in participant recovery. RESULTS: Participants completed baseline (n = 60) and post-program (n = 38) data collection. Mean age was 60.3 ± 11.7 yr, and 38.3% had myocardial infarction and/or percutaneous coronary intervention. Approximately 18% of participants did not complete the program. Five HL clusters were revealed. The clusters most likely to drop out were confident users of the health system. The cluster least likely to drop out reported lower confidence in their ability to find health information and navigate services. Information-seeking ability improved over time, but no other HL improvements were seen. CONCLUSION: There is a wide range of HL profiles in people attending CR. Findings suggest that CR programs should consider a variety of approaches to meet the diverse HL requirements of attendees.

8.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 23(2): 55-60, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The approach to care for persons with an acute illness is different from that for a person with a chronic disease. Whilst the goal of treatment for an acute illness is to cure the disease, a chronic condition has no cure as such, and hence management requires a team approach that is aimed at achieving goals that are jointly set by service users and providers. Severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) is a chronic disease. However, in many mental health services, the approach to care for persons with SPMI is similar to those who have an acute mental illness. AIM: The aims of this paper are twofold: (i) to make an argument for recovery oriented services to focus on meeting clients' needs rather than on symptom reduction, (ii) to propose a model of service provision where clinical mental health services form a part rather than the mainstay of care for people with SPMI. RESULTS: Using examples from Australia's Partner's in Recovery initiative and other recovery literature, we start by describing how SPMI should be treated as a chronic disease that focuses on recovery. We then highlight how mental health services continue to monitor outcomes based on clinical rather than personal recovery. Next, we diagrammatically illustrate how needs can be aligned with the recovery process and illustrate how care coordination can be the hub of service delivery in a hub and spoke model. We conclude with comments on workforce requirements and costs of a needs-based recovery oriented service. DISCUSSION: In a needs based model, the role of the specialist mental health service will move from being at the centre of care to being one of the components of care and the role of the care coordinator will become central. Although, there are as yet no randomised controlled trials to show that meeting needs of persons with SPMI will significantly contribute to their recovery, preliminary studies show that it is possible. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHCARE PROVISION AND USE: The role of the care coordinator becomes the hub of service provision collaborating with agencies such as family practices, specialist mental health services, legal, housing, employment, education, and community services. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: A shift from the current model of care to a needs based approach requires a revolutionary change in the way we do business and will have to be the largest shake up of the mental health service system since deinstitutionalisation. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: It is a long journey from the status quo to a needs based approach. The first step would be to gather more evidence on the usefulness of addressing people's needs in achieving recovery.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Austrália , Doença Crônica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Habitação , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
9.
J Health Commun ; 25(4): 333-343, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419661

RESUMO

Health literacy is the capacity to understand, access, and effectively utilize health information and healthcare to make informed health decisions. This cross-sectional study uses the multi-dimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) to investigate associations between demographic characteristics, self-rated health and health literacy among students (n = 932) in two Australian universities. We used Pearson's chi-square to determine differences in self-rated health between demographic groups, Cohen's defect Sizeto measure differences in HLQ scale scores between demographic groups, and logistic regression to determine associations between HLQ scores and self-rated health. A clear association was found between self-rated health and health literacy: as health literacy increased, so did self-rated health. Findings also demonstrate lower health literacy for culturally and linguistically diverse students, and those studying Arts compared to Health degrees. Lower self-rated health was correlated with HLQ scales including being less active in managing one's own health, having less social support for one's health, possessing insufficient health information and lower confidence in navigating the healthcare system. This study provides a comprehensive picture of potentially vulnerable students and identifies strategies for supporting their health endeavors while studying at university.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287296

RESUMO

Patients often have difficulty comprehending or recalling information given to them by their healthcare providers. Use of 'teach-back' has been shown to improve patients' knowledge and self-care abilities, however there is little guidance for healthcare services seeking to embed teach-back in their setting. This review aims to synthesize evidence about the translation of teach-back into practice including mode of delivery, use of implementation strategies and effectiveness. We searched Ovid Medline, CINAHL, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies reporting the use of teach-back as an educational intervention, published up to July 2019. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed methodologic quality. Implementation strategies were extracted into distinct categories established in the Implementation Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project. Overall, 20 studies of moderate quality were included in this review (four rated high, nine rated moderate, seven rated weak). Studies were heterogeneous in terms of setting, population and outcomes. In most studies (n = 15), teach-back was delivered as part of a simple and structured educational approach. Implementation strategies were infrequently reported (n = 10 studies). The most used implementation strategies were training and education of stakeholders (n = 8), support for clinicians (n = 6) and use of audits and provider feedback (n = 4). Use of teach-back proved effective in 19 of the 20 studies, ranging from learning-related outcomes (e.g. knowledge recall and retention) to objective health-related outcomes (e.g. hospital re-admissions, quality of life). Teach-back was found to be effective across a wide range of settings, populations and outcome measures. While its mode of delivery is well-defined, strategies to support its translation into practice are not often described. Use of implementation strategies such as training and education of stakeholders and supporting clinicians during implementation may improve the uptake and sustainability of teach-back and achieve positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Administração de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 147, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and cardiovascular events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Since it is also known to reduce exercise tolerance, it is important to establish the prevalence of OSA in ACS patients, particularly in those who are commencing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. METHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines a systematic search was conducted in order to identify studies that objectively measured (using polysomnography or portable monitoring) the prevalence of OSA in ACS patients following hospital admission. A data extraction table was used to summarise study characteristics and the quality of studies were independently assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Prevalence Critical Appraisal Tool. Meta-analysis of the selected studies was conducted in order to estimate OSA prevalence as a function of the two main methods of measurement, the severity of OSA, and timing of the OSA assessment following ACS hospital admission. RESULTS: Pooled prevalence estimates of OSA using the "gold standard" polysomnography ranged from 22% for severe OSA to 70% for mild OSA, at any time after hospital admission. Similar prevalence estimates were obtained using portable monitoring, but interpretation of these results are limited by the significant heterogeneity observed among these studies. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of OSA following ACS is high and likely to be problematic upon patient entry into CR programs. Routine screening for OSA upon program entry may be necessary to optimise effectiveness of CR for these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/reabilitação , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Humanos , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Participation in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia is approximately 54% among the general population, but screening among women from some culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds is lower. BreastScreen Victoria apply strategies to increase screening including reminder letters and phone calls; however, these are usually provided in English. Using intervention strategies generated from the Ophelia (OPtimise HEalth LIteracy and Access) community co-design process, translated mammography reminder letters and in-language phone calls were tested within two randomised control trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Women aged 50-75 years who were due for their 2-yearly screening mammography (for RCT#1) or were under-screened, i.e. ≥27 months since last screen (for RCT#2) were randomised into intervention or control groups. RCT#1 compared sending women routine reminder letters (English only) with translated (Arabic or Italian) letters. RCT#2 compared reminder telephone calls to women in their preferred language (Arabic or Italian) to no telephone call. The primary outcome for each trial was screening booking rates within 14-days. Primary outcomes were tested using Pearson's chi-square test. Rates within language group (incidence ratio: IR) were compared using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: For RCT#1 (letters) 1,032 women were randomised into the intervention arm or to usual care. Uptake of screening bookings was similar between both groups, with no differences observed by language group. For RCT#2 (phone calls), 195 women were randomised to the intervention group or to usual care. Overall, 64.2% of women in the intervention arm and 6% in the control arm booked a screening appointment within 14 days (p<0.0001). The IR (95%CI) of booking was 10.1 (3.9, 26.3) times higher among Italian women, and 11.6 (2.9, 46.5) times higher among Arabic women in the intervention compared to usual care groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A service improvement initiative derived from community members and breast screen providers was found to be highly effective. This evidence informed the service provider, BreastScreen Victoria, who have implemented these improvements into routine practice to improve screening among CALD groups and reduce health inequalities.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Comunicação , Idioma , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Alerta , Telefone , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(1): 75-80, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy is an important, modifiable, social determinant of health. This study aims to explore health literacy challenges of people with long-term illness or multimorbidity and provide detailed profiles revealing health literacy strengths and weaknesses within a Danish population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study among Danish individuals (n = 490), health literacy was assessed using the nine-scale Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Using multiple logistic regression and hierarchical cluster analysis, we estimated the association between HLQ scale scores and the likelihood of long-term illness and multimorbidity, and identified socio-demographic and health characteristics related to profiles of health literacy strengths and weaknesses. RESULTS: An increase in 'actively managing my health' and 'social support for health' decreased the odds of having a long-term illness [odds ratio, OR 0.53 (0.31-0.9); OR 0.43 (0.24-0.74)] and multimorbidity [OR 0.51 (0.26-0.98); OR 0.33 (0.17-0.62)], respectively. Conversely, an increase in 'healthcare provider support' increased the odds of having long-term illness [OR 2.97 (1.78-5.08)] and multimorbidity [OR 2.94 (1.53-5.87)], respectively. Five profiles were identified based on the cluster analysis. Each cluster was characterized by specific health characteristics, e.g. Cluster A by better health status (χ2 = 39.976 (4), P < 0.001) and well-being (χ2 = 28.832 (4), P < 0.001) and Cluster D by poor health status (χ2 = 39.976 (4), P < 0.001) and increased likelihood of long-term illness (χ2 = 18.641 (4), P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The association of health literacy with long-term illness and multimorbidity in combination with the health literacy profiling based on cluster analysis provides a comprehensive needs assessment and a promising starting point for the development of health literacy responsive interventions.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447714

RESUMO

Introduction: Persons with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) have multiple and complex needs, many of which are not health related. Mental health services are unable to address these needs without collaboration with other agencies. In the absence of this collaboration, persons with SPMI often fall through the system cracks and are unlikely to experience recovery. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that unmet accommodation needs are associated with unmet needs in other areas. This study aimed to ascertain whether a care coordination model adopted in Australia's Partners in Recovery [PIR] initiative was able to reduce unmet needs in such persons and also if meeting accommodation needs were associated with meeting other needs. Methods: This was a longitudinal study where met and unmet needs of clients measured using the Camberwell Assessment of Needs Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS) were compared at enrolment and exit from the PIR initiative. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between change in accommodation needs and change in other CANSAS variables. Results: In total, 337 clients (66% of 508 clients) had both baseline and follow-up data and were seen within the time frame of 14 to 101 weeks. At baseline, the most frequently reported unmet needs were psychological distress, daytime activity, and company (89%, 72%, and 67%, respectively). At follow-up, these had decreased to 27%, 22%, and 22%, respectively. The proportions of clients with an unmet need at baseline who subsequently progressed to having that need met at follow-up ranged between 62% and over 90%. Change in accommodation needs from unmet to met was associated with changes in monetary needs and needs related to childcare, food, safety to self, education, and access to other services, with the greatest change seen for monetary needs (adjusted OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.76, 4.69). Conclusions: Reducing needs of persons with SPMI is the starting point of recovery and is a good indicator of psychiatric care. Care coordination is a useful way to address multiple and complex needs of persons with SPMI. While addressing needs, priority must be given to meeting accommodation needs.

16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(7): 926.e1-926.e11, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of clinical care pathways (CCPs) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical function following fragility fracture and identify the specific characteristics of CCPs that are associated with improved outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled studies and nonrandomized studies that involved participants aged ≥50 years who sustained a fragility fracture, evaluated the effects of a CCP compared to usual care, and reported outcomes of HRQoL or physical function. METHODS: We systematically searched Ovid Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the earliest records to July 25, 2018. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed methodologic quality. RESULTS: Overall, 22 studies (17 randomized controlled trials, 5 nonrandomized studies) were included, comprising 5842 participants. Twenty-one studies included hip fracture patients, and 1 included wrist fracture patients. Majority of studies (82%) were assessed as high quality. Meta-analyses showed moderate improvements in the CCP group for HRQoL [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12, 0.35] and physical function (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.10, 0.33) compared with usual care post hip fracture. Inpatient CCPs that extended to the outpatient setting showed greater improvements in HRQoL and physical function compared to CCPs that were only inpatient or outpatient. CCPs that included a care coordinator, geriatric assessment, rehabilitation, prevention of inpatient complications, nutritional advice, or discharge planning also showed greater improvements in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Treatment with CCPs following fragility fracture showed greater improvements in HRQoL and physical function compared with usual care. Further research is warranted to assess the combination of CCP components that provide the most beneficial results, evaluate the effect of CCPs in patients with nonhip fractures, and determine which patient groups are more likely to benefit from CCPs.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Clínicos , Idoso Fragilizado , Fraturas do Quadril , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Health Soc Care Community ; 27(4): e246-e256, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848020

RESUMO

This is a cross-sectional study of unmet needs of persons enrolled in Australia's Partners in Recovery (PIR) initiative. It aimed to explore the unmet needs reported by persons with a severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) and to examine the associations between unmet accommodation needs and other unmet needs. The study was undertaken in the Gippsland region of Victoria from February to May 2015. Data were collected from the administrative database for the PIR initiative in Gippsland, which was held by the Gippsland Primary Health Network. Data on unmet needs, as measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Needs Short Appraisal Schedule, were analysed using proportions and logistic regression. Psychological distress, daytime activities, company/someone to spend time with and employment and volunteering were the most commonly reported unmet needs. Participants with unmet accommodation needs were less likely to receive information on their condition or access other services. They also had unmet needs relating to food, money, transport, childcare, looking after home, physical health, psychological distress and self-care. Supported accommodation may not be enough for persons with SPMI who have poor functioning skills and are incapable of looking after themselves. Services such as Housing First that have shown promising results need to be part of a comprehensive strategy to care for persons with severe and enduring mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nível de Saúde , Habitação/organização & administração , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Autocuidado/métodos , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Vitória
18.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(12): 1812-1818, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past studies have found that depression is an independent predictor of death in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether the adverse effect upon mortality of depression, including mild levels, persisted up to 25 years. METHODS: We used an historical design to study patients who had been consecutively admitted to hospital after transmural AMI during the 1980s and enrolled in an exercise training trial. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to 188 patients in the third week after hospital admission. Scores were trichotomised and classified as low (0-5), mild (6-9) or moderate to severe (≥10) depression. The Australian National Death Index was used to determine mortality status. Cox proportional-hazards modelling was undertaken to determine the relationship between the trichotomised BDI-I scores and all-cause mortality over five time periods up to 25 years. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 54.15 years. One hundred fourteen (114) (60.4%) had low or no depression, 47 (25.2%) mild depression and 27 (14.3%) moderate to severe depression. The mortality status of 185 (98.4%) patients was established. Depression was a significant predictor of death, independently of age and severity of myocardial infarction, at 5, 10 and 15 years but not at 20 or 25 years. Patients with mild depression had greater mortality than those with low or moderate to severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: Early identification of depression, including milder levels, is important since patients remain at increased risk for many years. They require ongoing monitoring and appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Depressão , Infarto do Miocárdio , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/mortalidade , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Aust Health Rev ; 43(4): 481-482, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248279

RESUMO

A letter to the editor in response to the recently published article by Hill and Sofra (AHR, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 134-9) on improving health information.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Multimorbidade , Humanos
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 989, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy describes the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health. Suboptimal health literacy is common and is believed to impact up to 60% of Australians. Co-design is a participatory approach to the development of interventions that brings together to staff and patients to design local solutions to local problems. The aim of this study is to describe a staff and patient co-design process that will lead to the development of health literacy interventions in response to identified health literacy needs of hospital patients. METHODS: A mixed methods, two-step sequential explanatory design. Step 1: hospitalised patients surveyed and data analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis to establish health literacy profiles. Step 2: clusters presented as vignettes to patients and clinicians to co-design interventions to address needs. RESULTS: Eight health literacy clusters were identified from surveys. Seven patients attended two patient workshops and 23 staff attended two staff workshops. Three key themes were identified: organisational, provider-patient, and patient self-care. Within these, five sub-themes emerged: "Good quality communication during hospital stay", "Social support for health", "A good discharge", "Care across the continuum" and "Accessing quality information when home". Fifteen potential interventions were produced, including changes to message design and delivery, staff training in assessing for understanding, social support to improve understanding, improving communication consistency across the care continuum, and strategic dissemination of web-based resources. CONCLUSION: This study identified fifteen strategies to address health literacy needs of a hospital population. Implementation and evaluation will identify sets of strategies that have the maximum patient, clinician and organisational benefit. This approach allows for the development of locally-driven, contextually-appropriate interventions to address health literacy needs.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Hospitalização , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Comunicação , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Organizações , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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