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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease accounting for 1% of UK deaths. In the familial form of pulmonary fibrosis, causal genes have been identified in about 30% of cases, and a majority of these causal genes are associated with telomere maintenance. Prematurely shortened leukocyte telomere length is associated with IPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease with similar demographics and shared risk factors. Using mendelian randomisation, we investigated evidence supporting a causal role for short telomeres in IPF and COPD. METHODS: Mendelian randomisation inference of telomere length causality was done for IPF (up to 1369 cases) and COPD (13 538 cases) against 435 866 controls of European ancestry in UK Biobank. Polygenic risk scores were calculated and two-sample mendelian randomisation analyses were done using seven genetic variants previously associated with telomere length, with replication analysis in an IPF cohort (2668 cases vs 8591 controls) and COPD cohort (15 256 cases vs 47 936 controls). FINDINGS: In the UK Biobank, a genetically instrumented one-SD shorter telomere length was associated with higher odds of IPF (odds ratio [OR] 4·19, 95% CI 2·33-7·55; p=0·0031) but not COPD (1·07, 0·88-1·30; p=0·51). Similarly, an association was found in the IPF replication cohort (12·3, 5·05-30·1; p=0·0015) and not in the COPD replication cohort (1·04, 0·71-1·53; p=0·83). Meta-analysis of the two-sample mendelian randomisation results provided evidence inferring that shorter telomeres cause IPF (5·81 higher odds of IPF, 95% CI 3·56-9·50; p=2·19 × 10-12). There was no evidence to infer that telomere length caused COPD (OR 1·07, 95% CI 0·90-1·27; p=0·46). INTERPRETATION: Cellular senescence is hypothesised as a major driving force in IPF and COPD; telomere shortening might be a contributory factor in IPF, suggesting divergent mechanisms in COPD. Defining a key role for telomere shortening enables greater focus in telomere-related diagnostics, treatments, and the search for a cure in IPF. Investigation of therapies that improve telomere length is warranted. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is established that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience sleep disruption. However, it remains unknown whether disruption in the quantity, quality or timing of sleep is a risk factor for the onset of AD. METHODS: We used the largest published genome-wide association studies of self-reported and accelerometer-measured sleep traits (chronotype, duration, fragmentation, insomnia, daytime napping and daytime sleepiness), and AD. Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to estimate the causal effect of self-reported and accelerometer-measured sleep parameters on AD risk. RESULTS: Overall, there was little evidence to support a causal effect of sleep traits on AD risk. There was some suggestive evidence that self-reported daytime napping was associated with lower AD risk [odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.99). Some other sleep traits (accelerometer-measured 'eveningness' and sleep duration, and self-reported daytime sleepiness) had ORs of a similar magnitude to daytime napping, but were less precisely estimated. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found very limited evidence to support a causal effect of sleep traits on AD risk. Our findings provide tentative evidence that daytime napping may reduce AD risk. Given that this is the first MR study of multiple self-report and objective sleep traits on AD risk, findings should be replicated using independent samples when such data become available.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1008718, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045005

RESUMO

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic risk scores (GRS) model genetic risk as a continuum and can discriminate coeliac disease but have not been validated in clinic. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ gene testing is available in clinic but does not include non-HLA attributed risk and is limited by discrete risk stratification. AIM: To accurately characterise both HLA and non-HLA coeliac disease genetic risk as a single nucleotide polymorphism-based GRS and evaluate diagnostic utility. METHODS: We developed a 42 single nucleotide polymorphism coeliac disease GRS from a European case-control study (12 041 cases vs 12 228 controls) using HLA-DQ imputation and published genome-wide association studies. We validated the GRS in UK Biobank (1237 cases) and developed direct genotyping assays. We tested the coeliac disease GRS in a pilot clinical cohort of 128 children presenting with suspected coeliac disease. RESULTS: The GRS was more discriminative of coeliac disease than HLA-DQ stratification in UK Biobank (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC-AUC] = 0.88 [95% CIs: 0.87-0.89] vs 0.82 [95% CIs: 0.80-0.83]). We demonstrated similar discrimination in the pilot clinical cohort (114 cases vs 40 controls, ROC-AUC = 0.84 [95% CIs: 0.76-0.91]). As a rule-out test no children with coeliac disease in the clinical cohort had a GRS below 38th population centile. CONCLUSION: A single nucleotide polymorphism-based GRS may offer more effective and cost-efficient testing of coeliac disease genetic risk in comparison to HLA-DQ stratification. As a comparatively inexpensive test it could facilitate non-invasive coeliac disease diagnosis but needs detailed assessment in the context of other diagnostic tests and against current diagnostic algorithms.

6.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(10): 551-559, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698144

RESUMO

Evidence from observational studies suggest a positive association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the cause-effect relationship is poorly understood and these studies are susceptible to bias and confounding. This study aimed to investigate the causal role of TSH in both benign thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in up to 451,025 UK Biobank participants, using a genetic technique, known as Mendelian randomization (MR). Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry databases were used to identify 462 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and 2031 patients with benign nodular thyroid disease. MR methods using genetic variants associated with serum TSH were used to test causal relationships between TSH and the two disease outcomes. Mendelian randomization provided evidence of a causal link between TSH and both thyroid cancer and benign nodular thyroid disease. Two-sample MR suggested that a 1 s.d. higher genetically instrumented TSH (approximately 0.8 mIU/L) resulted in 4.96-fold higher odds of benign nodular disease (95% CI 2.46-9.99) and 2.00-fold higher odds of thyroid cancer (95% CI 1.09-3.70). Our results thus support a causal role for TSH in both benign nodular thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 325-329, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574563

RESUMO

Large copy-number variants (CNVs) are strongly associated with both developmental delay and cancer, but the type of disease depends strongly on when and where the mutation occurred, i.e., germline versus somatic. We used microarray data from UK Biobank to investigate the prevalence and penetrance of large autosomal CNVs and chromosomal aneuploidies using a standard CNV detection algorithm not designed for detecting mosaic variants. We found 160 individuals that carry >10 Mb copy number changes, including 56 with whole chromosome aneuploidies. Nineteen (12%) individuals had a diagnosis of Down syndrome or other developmental disorder, while 84 (52.5%) individuals had a diagnosis of hematological malignancies or chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Notably, there was no evidence of mosaicism in the blood for many of these large CNVs, so they could easily be mistaken for germline alleles even when caused by somatic mutations. We therefore suggest that somatic mutations associated with blood cancers may result in false estimates of rare variant penetrance from population biobanks.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Aneuploidia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Cromossomos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Mutação/genética , Penetrância , Reino Unido
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1270-1281, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is associated with multiple risk factors but determining causality is difficult. We used a genetic approach [Mendelian randomization (MR)] to identify potential causal modifiable risk factors for GORD. METHODS: We used data from 451 097 European participants in the UK Biobank and defined GORD using hospital-defined ICD10 and OPCS4 codes and self-report data (N = 41 024 GORD cases). We tested observational and MR-based associations between GORD and four adiposity measures [body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), a metabolically favourable higher body-fat percentage and waist circumference], smoking status, smoking frequency and caffeine consumption. RESULTS: Observationally, all adiposity measures were associated with higher odds of GORD. Ever and current smoking were associated with higher odds of GORD. Coffee consumption was associated with lower odds of GORD but, among coffee drinkers, more caffeinated-coffee consumption was associated with higher odds of GORD. Using MR, we provide strong evidence that higher WHR and higher WHR adjusted for BMI lead to GORD. There was weak evidence that higher BMI, body-fat percentage, coffee drinking or smoking caused GORD, but only the observational effects for BMI and body-fat percentage could be excluded. This MR estimated effect for WHR equates to a 1.23-fold higher odds of GORD per 5-cm increase in waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide strong evidence that a higher waist-hip ratio leads to GORD. Our study suggests that central fat distribution is crucial in causing GORD rather than overall weight.

9.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF exposure has been linked to demyelination events. We sought to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF treatment and test whether affected patients were genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF. We compared genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated using carriage of 43 susceptibility loci for MS, in 48 cases to 1219 patients exposed to anti-TNF who did not develop demyelination. RESULTS: Overall, 39 (74%) cases were female. The median age (range) of patients at time of demyelination was 41.5 years (20.7 - 63.2). The median duration of anti-TNF treatment was 21.3 months (0.5 - 99.4) and 19 (36%) patients were receiving concomitant immunomodulators. Most patients had central demyelination affecting the brain, spinal cord or both. Complete recovery was reported in 12 (23%) patients after a median time of 6.8 months (0.1 - 28.7). After 33.0 months of follow-up partial recovery was observed in 29 (55%) patients, relapsing and remitting episodes in 9 (17%), progressive symptoms in 3 (6%): 2 (4%) patients were diagnosed with MS. There was no significant difference between MS GRS scores in cases (mean -3.5 x 10-4, SD 0.0039) and controls (mean -1.1×10-3, SD 0.0042) (p=0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced demyelination events following anti-TNF were more likely female, less frequently treated with an immunomodulator, and had a similar genetic risk to anti-TNF exposed controls who did not. Large prospective studies with pre-treatment neuroimaging are required to identify genetic susceptibility loci.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer is rising, and relatively little is known about modifiable risk factors for the condition. Observational studies have suggested a link between adiposity and thyroid cancer; however, these are subject to confounding and reverse causality. Here, we used data from the UK Biobank and Mendelian randomization approaches to investigate whether adiposity causes benign nodular thyroid disease and differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 379 708 unrelated participants of European ancestry in the UK Biobank and identified 1812 participants with benign nodular thyroid disease and 425 with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We tested observational associations with measures of adiposity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. One and 2-sample Mendelian randomization approaches were used to investigate causal relationships. RESULTS: Observationally, there were positive associations between higher body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.22), higher waist-hip ratio (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23), and benign nodular thyroid disease, but not thyroid cancer. Mendelian randomization did not support a causal link for obesity with benign nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer, although it did provide some evidence that individuals in the highest quartile for genetic liability of type 2 diabetes had higher odds of thyroid cancer than those in the lowest quartile (OR, 1.45; CI, 1.11-1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the findings of observational studies, our results do not confirm a causal role for obesity in benign nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. They do, however, suggest a link between type 2 diabetes and thyroid cancer.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4806, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179833

RESUMO

Overweight in children is strongly associated with parental body mass index (BMI) and overweight. We assessed parental transmitted and non-transmitted genetic contributions to overweight in children from the Danish National Birth Cohort by constructing genetic risk scores (GRSs) from 941 common genetic variants associated with adult BMI and estimating associations of transmitted maternal/paternal and non-transmitted maternal GRS with child overweight. Maternal and paternal BMI (standard deviation (SD) units) had a strong association with childhood overweight [Odds ratio (OR): 2.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74; 2.34) and 1.64 (95% CI 1.43; 1.89)]. Maternal and paternal transmitted GRSs (SD-units) increased odds for child overweight equally [OR: 1.30 (95% CI 1.16; 1.46) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.16; 1.47)]. However, both the parental phenotypic and the GRS associations may depend on maternal BMI, being weaker among mothers with overweight. Maternal non-transmitted GRS was not associated with child overweight [OR 0.98 (95% CI 0.88; 1.10)] suggesting no specific influence of maternal adiposity as such. In conclusion, parental transmitted GRSs, based on adult BMI, contribute to child overweight, but in overweight mothers other genetic and environmental factors may play a greater role.

12.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 252-258, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042192

RESUMO

Testosterone supplementation is commonly used for its effects on sexual function, bone health and body composition, yet its effects on disease outcomes are unknown. To better understand this, we identified genetic determinants of testosterone levels and related sex hormone traits in 425,097 UK Biobank study participants. Using 2,571 genome-wide significant associations, we demonstrate that the genetic determinants of testosterone levels are substantially different between sexes and that genetically higher testosterone is harmful for metabolic diseases in women but beneficial in men. For example, a genetically determined 1 s.d. higher testosterone increases the risks of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.22-1.53)) and polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.33-1.72)) in women, but reduces type 2 diabetes risk in men (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.98)). We also show adverse effects of higher testosterone on breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. Our findings provide insights into the disease impacts of testosterone and highlight the importance of sex-specific genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Software , Reino Unido
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether body mass index (BMI) affects social and socio-economic outcomes. METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization (MR), non-linear MR and non-genetic and MR within-sibling analyses, to estimate relationships of BMI with six socio-economic and four social outcomes in 378 244 people of European ancestry in UK Biobank. RESULTS: In MR of minimally related individuals, higher BMI was related to higher deprivation, lower income, fewer years of education, lower odds of degree-level education and skilled employment. Non-linear MR suggested both low (bottom decile, <22 kg/m2) and high (top seven deciles, >24.6 kg/m2) BMI, increased deprivation and reduced income. Non-genetic within-sibling analysis supported an effect of BMI on socio-economic position (SEP); precision in within-sibling MR was too low to draw inference about effects of BMI on SEP. There was some evidence of pleiotropy, with MR Egger suggesting limited effects of BMI on deprivation, although precision of these estimates is also low. Non-linear MR suggested that low BMI (bottom three deciles, <23.5 kg/m2) reduces the odds of cohabiting with a partner or spouse in men, whereas high BMI (top two deciles, >30.7 kg/m2) reduces the odds of cohabitation in women. Both non-genetic and MR within-sibling analyses supported this sex-specific effect of BMI on cohabitation. In men only, higher BMI was related to lower participation in leisure and social activities. There was little evidence that BMI affects visits from friends and family or having someone to confide in. CONCLUSIONS: BMI may affect social and socio-economic outcomes, with both high and low BMI being detrimental for SEP, although larger within-family MR studies may help to test the robustness of MR results in unrelated individuals. Triangulation of evidence across MR and within-family analyses supports evidence of a sex-specific effect of BMI on cohabitation.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(24): 4197-4207, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630189

RESUMO

Raised albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) is an indicator of microvascular damage and renal disease. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with raised ACR and study the implications of carrying multiple ACR-raising alleles with metabolic and vascular-related disease. We performed a genome-wide association study of ACR using 437 027 individuals from the UK Biobank in the discovery phase, 54 527 more than previous studies, and followed up our findings in independent studies. We identified 62 independent associations with ACR across 56 loci (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 20 were not previously reported. Pathway analyses and the identification of 20 of the 62 variants (at r2 > 0.8) coinciding with signals for at least 16 related metabolic and vascular traits, suggested multiple pathways leading to raised ACR levels. After excluding variants at the CUBN locus, known to alter ACR via effects on renal absorption, an ACR genetic risk score was associated with a higher risk of hypertension, and less strongly, type 2 diabetes and stroke. For some rare genotype combinations at the CUBN locus, most individuals had ACR levels above the microalbuminuria clinical threshold. Contrary to our hypothesis, individuals carrying more CUBN ACR-raising alleles, and above the clinical threshold, had a higher frequency of vascular disease. The CUBN allele effects on ACR were twice as strong in people with diabetes-a result robust to an optimization-algorithm approach to simulating interactions, validating previously reported gene-diabetes interactions (P ≤ 4 × 10-5). In conclusion, a variety of genetic mechanisms and traits contribute to variation in ACR.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3927, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477735

RESUMO

The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10-14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Citocinas/genética , Feto/metabolismo , Genoma Humano/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/genética
16.
Front Genet ; 10: 550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244887

RESUMO

The knowledge of genetic variants shaping human placental transcriptome is limited and they are not cataloged in the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. So far, only one whole genome analysis of placental expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been published by Peng et al. (2017) with no external independent validation. We report the second study on the landscape of placental eQTLs. The study aimed to generate a high-confidence list of placental cis-eQTLs and to investigate their potential functional implications. Analysis of cis-eQTLs (±100 kbp from the gene) utilized 40 placental RNA sequencing and respective whole genome genotyping datasets. The identified 199 placental cis-eSNPs represented 88 independent eQTL signals (FDR < 5%). The most significant placental eQTLs (FDR < 10-5) modulated the expression of ribosomal protein RPL9, transcription factor ZSCAN9 and aminopeptidase ERAP2. The analysis confirmed 50 eSNP-eGenes pairs reported by Peng et al. (2017) and thus, can be claimed as robust placental eQTL signals. The study identified also 13 novel placental eGenes. Among these, ZSCAN9 is modulated by several eSNPs (experimentally validated: rs1150707) that have been also shown to affect the methylation level of genes variably escaping X-chromosomal inactivation. The identified 63 placental eGenes exhibited mostly mixed or ubiquitous expression. Functional enrichment analysis highlighted 35 Gene Ontology categories with the top ranking pathways "ruffle membrane" (FDR = 1.81 × 10-2) contributing to the formation of motile cell surface and "ATPase activity, coupled" (FDR = 2.88 × 10-2), critical for the membrane transport. Placental eGenes were also significantly enriched in pathways implicated in development, signaling and immune function. However, this study was not able to confirm a significant overrepresentation of genome-wide association studies top hits among the placental eSNP and eGenes, reported by Peng et al. (2017). The identified eSNPs were further analyzed in association with newborn and pregnancy traits. In the discovery step, a suggestive association was detected between the eQTL of ALPG (rs11678251) and reduced placental, newborn's and infant's weight. Meta-analysis across REPROMETA, HAPPY PREGNANCY, ALSPAC cohorts (n = 6830) did not replicate these findings. In summary, the study emphasizes the role of genetic variation in driving the transcriptome profile of the human placenta and the importance to explore further its functional implications.

17.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002828, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested that maternal vitamin D (25[OH]D) and calcium supplementation increase birth weight. However, limitations of many trials were highlighted in the reviews. Our aim was to combine genetic and RCT data to estimate causal effects of these two maternal traits on offspring birth weight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed two-sample mendelian randomisation (MR) using genetic instrumental variables associated with 25(OH)D and calcium that had been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS; sample 1; N = 122,123 for 25[OH]D and N = 61,275 for calcium). Associations between these maternal genetic variants and offspring birth weight were calculated in the UK Biobank (UKB) (sample 2; N = 190,406). We used data on mother-child pairs from two United Kingdom birth cohorts (combined N = 5,223) in sensitivity analyses to check whether results were influenced by fetal genotype, which is correlated with the maternal genotype (r ≈ 0.5). Further sensitivity analyses to test the reliability of the results included MR-Egger, weighted-median estimator, 'leave-one-out', and multivariable MR analyses. We triangulated MR results with those from RCTs, in which we used randomisation to supplementation with vitamin D (24 RCTs, combined N = 5,276) and calcium (6 RCTs, combined N = 543) as an instrumental variable to determine the effects of 25(OH)D and calcium on birth weight. In the main MR analysis, there was no strong evidence of an effect of maternal 25(OH)D on birth weight (difference in mean birth weight -0.03 g [95% CI -2.48 to 2.42 g, p = 0.981] per 10% higher maternal 25[OH]D). The effect estimate was consistent across our MR sensitivity analyses. Instrumental variable analyses applied to RCTs suggested a weak positive causal effect (5.94 g [95% CI 2.15-9.73, p = 0.002] per 10% higher maternal 25[OH]D), but this result may be exaggerated because of risk of bias in the included RCTs. The main MR analysis for maternal calcium also suggested no strong evidence of an effect on birth weight (-20 g [95% CI -44 to 5 g, p = 0.116] per 1 SD higher maternal calcium level). Some sensitivity analyses suggested that the genetic instrument for calcium was associated with birth weight via exposures that are independent of calcium levels (horizontal pleiotropy). Application of instrumental variable analyses to RCTs suggested that calcium has a substantial effect on birth weight (178 g [95% CI 121-236 g, p = 1.43 × 10-9] per 1 SD higher maternal calcium level) that was not consistent with any of the MR results. However, the RCT instrumental variable estimate may have been exaggerated because of risk of bias in the included RCTs. Other study limitations include the low response rate of UK Biobank, which may bias MR estimates, and the lack of suitable data to test whether the effects of genetic instruments on maternal calcium levels during pregnancy were the same as those outside of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that maternal circulating 25(OH)D does not influence birth weight in otherwise healthy newborns. However, the effect of maternal circulating calcium on birth weight is unclear and requires further exploration with more research including RCT and/or MR analyses with more valid instruments.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Cálcio/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética
18.
J Crohns Colitis ; 13(12): 1578-1582, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The causes of microscopic colitis are currently poorly understood. Previous reports have found clinical associations with coeliac disease and genetic associations at the human leukocyte antigen [HLA] locus on the ancestral 8.1 haplotype. We investigated pharmacological and genetic factors associated with microscopic colitis in the UK Biobank. METHODS: In total, 483 European UK Biobank participants were identified by ICD10 coding, and a genome-wide association study was performed using BOLT-LMM, with a sensitivity analysis performed excluding potential confounders. The HLA*IMP:02 algorithm was used to estimate allele frequency at 11 classical HLA genes, and downstream analysis was performed using FUMA. Genetic overlap with inflammatory bowel disease [Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis] was investigated using genetic risk scores. RESULTS: We found significant phenotypic associations with smoking status, coeliac disease and the use of proton-pump inhibitors but not with other commonly reported pharmacological risk factors. Using the largest sample size to date, we confirmed a recently reported association with the MHC Ancestral 8.1 Haplotype. Downstream analysis suggests association with digestive tract morphogenesis. By calculating genetic risk scores, we also report suggestive evidence of shared genetic risk with Crohn's disease, but not with ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This report confirms the role of genetic determinants in the HLA in the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis. The genetic overlap with Crohn's disease suggests a common underlying mechanism of disease.

19.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1585, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952852

RESUMO

Sleep is an essential human function but its regulation is poorly understood. Using accelerometer data from 85,670 UK Biobank participants, we perform a genome-wide association study of 8 derived sleep traits representing sleep quality, quantity and timing, and validate our findings in 5,819 individuals. We identify 47 genetic associations at P < 5 × 10-8, of which 20 reach a stricter threshold of P < 8 × 10-10. These include 26 novel associations with measures of sleep quality and 10 with nocturnal sleep duration. The majority of identified variants associate with a single sleep trait, except for variants previously associated with restless legs syndrome. For sleep duration we identify a missense variant (p.Tyr727Cys) in PDE11A as the likely causal variant. As a group, sleep quality loci are enriched for serotonin processing genes. Although accelerometer-derived measures of sleep are imperfect and may be affected by restless legs syndrome, these findings provide new biological insights into sleep compared to previous efforts based on self-report sleep measures.


Assuntos
Polissonografia/métodos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Sono/genética , Acelerometria/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Serotonina/genética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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