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1.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate an improved prognostic performance of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) algorithm for risk stratification of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) compared to the 2008 ESC algorithm. The modified FAST and Bova scores appear especially helpful to identify PE patients at intermediate-high risk. METHODS: We validated the prognostic performance of the modified FAST score compared to other scores for risk stratification in a post-hoc analysis of 868 normotensive PE patients included in the prospective Italian Pulmonary Embolism Registry. In-hospital adverse outcome was defined as PE-related death, mechanical ventilation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation or administration of catecholamines. RESULTS: Overall, 27 patients (3.1%) had an adverse outcome and 32 patients (3.7%) died. The rate of an adverse outcome was highest in the intermediate-high risk classes of the 2019 ESC algorithm (7.5%) and the modified FAST score (5.3%) while the Bova score failed to discriminate between intermediate-low and intermediate-high-risk patients. Patients classified as intermediate-high risk by the 2019 ESC algorithm (Odds Ratio [OR], 4.2 [95% CI, 1.9-9.0]) and modified FAST score (OR, 2.8 [1.3-6.2]) had a higher risk of an adverse outcome compared to patients classified by the Bova score (OR, 1.6 [0.7-3.7]). The c-index was higher for the 2019 ESC algorithm and the modified FAST score (AUC, 0.69 [0.58-0.79] and 0.67 [0.59-0.76]) compared to the Bova score (AUC, 0.64 [0.55-0.73]). CONCLUSIONS: The 2019 ESC algorithm provided the best prognostic performance, but also the modified FAST score accurately stratified normotensive PE patients in different risk classes while the Bova score failed to identify patients at highest risk.

2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955918

RESUMO

The association between preceding treatment with antiplatelet agents (APs), vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. The aim of this multicenter, prospective cohort study was to assess the risk for death after ICH in consecutive patients who were on treatment with APs, VKAs, DOACs, or no antithrombotic agent. The primary outcome was in-hospital death by day 30. ICH volume at admission and volume expansion were centrally assessed. Out of 598 study patients, in-hospital death occurred in 21% of patients who were on treatment with APs, 25% with VKAs, 30% with DOACs, and 13% with no antithrombotics. Crude death rate was higher in patients on antithrombotics as compared to patients receiving no antithrombotic agent. At multivariate analysis, age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10), previous stroke (HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.14-2.93), GCS ≤8 at admission (HR 6.06; 95% CI 3.16-9.74) and GCS 9-12 (HR 3.38; 95% CI 1.81-6.33) were independent predictors of death. Treatment with APs (HR 1.29; 95% CI 0.61-2.76), VKAs (HR 1.42; 95% CI 0.70-2.88) or DOACs (HR 1.28; 95% CI 0.61-2.73) were not predictors of death in the overall study population, in non-trauma associated ICH as well as when GCS was not included in the model. ICH volume and volume expansion were independent predictors of death. In conclusion, preceding treatment with antithrombotic is associated with the severity of ICH. Age, previous stroke and clinical severity at presentation were independent predictors of in-hospital death in patients with ICH.

3.
Blood ; 135(5): 305-316, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917399

RESUMO

All patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) should receive anticoagulant treatment in the absence of absolute contraindications. Initial anticoagulant treatment is crucial for reducing mortality, preventing early recurrences, and improving long-term outcome. Treatment and patient disposition should be tailored to the severity of clinical presentation, to comorbidities, and to the potential to receive appropriate care in the outpatient setting. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) used in fixed doses without laboratory monitoring are the agents of choice for the treatment of acute VTE in the majority of patients. In comparison with conventional anticoagulation (parenteral anticoagulants followed by vitamin K antagonists), these agents showed improved safety (relative risk [RR] of major bleeding, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.83) with a similar risk of recurrence (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.77-1.06). Vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins are still alternatives to DOACs for the treatment of VTE in specific patient categories such as those with severe renal failure or antiphospholipid syndrome, or cancer, respectively. In addition to therapeutic anticoagulation, probably less than 10% of patients require reperfusion by thrombolysis or interventional treatments; those patients are hemodynamically unstable with acute pulmonary embolism, and a minority of them have proximal limb-threatening deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The choice of treatment should be driven by the combination of evidence from clinical trials and by local expertise. The majority of patients with acute DVT and a proportion of selected hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism can be safely managed as outpatients.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 301: 167-172, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) era, extended anticoagulation is an attractive strategy after venous thromboembolism (VTE). The role of currently available bleeding risk scores for VTE patients treated with DOACs in clinical practice is undefined. METHODS: Consecutive patients with VTE were included in a prospective multicenter cohort at the initiation of treatment with DOACs. The role of ATRIA, HAS-BLED, Kuijer, ORBIT, RIETE and VTE-BLEED scores in predicting major bleeding (ISTH definition) while on DOAC treatment was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 1034 patients were included and followed for one year or until the end of treatment or the occurrence of major bleeding. During study period, 26 major bleedings occurred in 25 patients (2.8% patient-year). Anemia, bleeding history and creatinine clearance <60 ml/min were significant predictors of major bleedings. The predictive value of bleeding risk scores was modest. In the 12-month study period, ORBIT (HR intermediate-high vs. low risk patients 3.62, 95% CI 1.65-7.94 and c-statistics 0.645, 95% CI 0.523-0.767) and VTE-BLEED (HR high vs. low 16.11, 95% CI 2.18-119.09 and c-statistics 0.674, 95% CI 0.593-0.755) score significantly predicted major bleeding. The lowest incidence of major bleeding (0.3%) was observed in the low-risk category of VTE-BLEED, while the highest (7.1%) in the high-risk category of ORBIT. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-life cohort of patients with VTE treated with DOACs, the predictive value of currently available bleeding risk scores was modest and not statistically different. Whether these scores can be used for decision making on anticoagulation should be assessed in management studies.

5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 49(2): 251-258, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520364

RESUMO

Rapidly available tests might be useful to measure the anticoagulant effect of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs) in emergency situations as bleedings, surgery, or before thrombolysis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DOAs on global thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Coagulation parameters assessed at peak and trough in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation receiving apixaban, dabigatran or rivaroxaban at steady-state (patients) were compared to those of healthy volunteers (controls). Citrated blood samples were tested by ROTEM using diluted EXTEM assay, with and without the addition of an anti-FXa catcher, and using ECATEM-B, with and without the addition of an anti-FIIa catcher. Overall 30 patients (10 for each DOA) and 15 controls were included. The mean clotting time (CT) of patients at peak and trough were significantly higher compared to controls. The mean CT was significantly shortened after the addition of the anti-FXa catcher to apixaban (p = 0.005 for peak and p = 0.009 for trough) and to rivaroxaban samples (p = 0.005 for both peak and trough) and after the addition of anti-FIIa cather to dabigatran samples (p = 0.005 for both peak and trough). ROC curve analyses showed a good accuracy for CT and for CT/CT + catcher (CTc) in measuring dabigatran anticoagulant activity (AUC 1.000 and 0.993, respectively); for CT, CT/CTc and clot formation time (CFT)/CFT + catcher (CFTc) in measuring both apixaban activity (0.917, 0.880 and 0.880, respectively) and rivaroxaban activity (0.973, 0.987 and 0.860, respectively). In this study the use of ad-hoc designed reagents and catcher molecules was able to accurately identify DOAs activity at ROTEM.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(4): 509-518, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120118

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for ≥3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of α = 0.004 (<6 primary outcome events). From May 2014 through June 2018, consecutive patients were enrolled in seven countries. Of the 525 patients included in the interim analysis, three (0.6%; one-sided upper 99.6% confidence interval 2.1%) suffered symptomatic non-fatal VTE recurrence, a number sufficiently low to fulfil the condition for early termination of the trial. Major bleeding occurred in 6 (1.2%) of the 519 patients comprising the safety population. There were two cancer-related deaths (0.4%). CONCLUSION: Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.

8.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of extending prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond hospital discharge after laparoscopic surgery for cancer is undefined. Extended prophylaxis with rivaroxaban is effective in reducing post-operative VTE after major orthopedic surgery without safety concern. METHODS: PROLAPS II is an investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind study aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of extended antithrombotic prophylaxis with rivaroxaban compared with placebo after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in patients who had received antithrombotic prophylaxis with low molecular-weight heparin for 7 ± 2 days (NCT03055026). Patients are randomized to receive rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily) or placebo for 3 weeks (up to day 28 ± 2 from surgery). The primary study outcome is a composite of symptomatic objectively confirmed VTE, asymptomatic ultrasonography-detected DVT or VTE-related death at 28 ± 2 days from laparoscopic surgery. The primary safety outcome is major bleeding defined according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Symptomatic objectively confirmed VTE, asymptomatic ultrasonography-detected DVT, major bleeding or death by day 28 ± 2 and by day 90 from surgery are secondary outcomes. Assuming an 8% event rate with placebo and 60% reduction in the primary study outcome with rivaroxaban, 323 patients per group are necessary to show a statistically significant difference between the study groups. DISCUSSION: The PROLAPS II is the first study with an oral anti-Xa agent in cancer surgery. The study has the potential to improve clinical practice by answering the question on the clinical benefit of extending prophylaxis after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer.

9.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(11): 671-684, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697276

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease and pulmonary embolism share thrombosis as a common mechanism. Some well-known risk factors for arterial thromboembolism are recognized as "weak risk factors" of venous one, too. Arterial and venous thrombosis share also some pathophysiological mechanisms, including inflammation, endothelial damage, and hypercoagulability. It is likely, thus, that any disease related to arterial and venous thrombosis belong to the same "pan-vascular syndrome", that constitutes itself a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease. According to the available data, there are elements for implementing an omni-comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation after an episode of venous thromboembolism, requiring the investigations, in addition to the known unrecognized prothrombotic conditions, also of indirect signs and risk factors for a possible arterial thromboembolic event. Large, prospective studies are needed to establish the more appropriate therapeutic strategies in this context.The aim of the present statement is to make aware all the physicians involved in the management of arterial and venous diseases and to provide some tools for evaluating the implications of related major risk factors. Thus, it could be possible to lay the foundation for a reduction of total cardiovascular risk, in terms of primary and secondary prevention of arterial and venous thromboembolism.

11.
Data Brief ; 23: 103794, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372440

RESUMO

The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Patients aged 90 years or older with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants: A multicentre observational study" [1]. This article unveils original data of a cohort of 546 patients aged 90 years or older with non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants. Here, we describe the time course of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism and of major bleeding according to the presence of outcome predictors and report the causes of permanent discontinuation and of death. Furthermore, we report data on the incidence of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism, of major bleeding, of permanent discontinuation and of all-cause death comparing i) oral anticoagulant naïve users vs. long-term oral anticoagulant users, ii) patients on anticoagulant therapy for less than 2 years (new users) vs. patients on anticoagulant therapy for more than 2 years. The material of this data article provides a better understanding on the use of oral anticoagulants in this fragile population and facilitates further critical analysis. Moreover, it aims at highlighting the importance of increasing knowledge in patients aged 90 years or older. These patients are often excluded from or under-represented in clinical trials and cohort studies.

12.
BMJ ; 366: l4363, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of a first recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) event after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment in patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE, and the cumulative incidence for recurrent VTE up to 10 years. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from inception to 15 March 2019). STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies reporting symptomatic recurrent VTE after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment in patients with a first unprovoked VTE event who had completed at least three months of treatment. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two investigators independently screened studies, extracted data, and appraised risk of bias. Data clarifications were sought from authors of eligible studies. Recurrent VTE events and person years of follow-up after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment were used to calculate rates for individual studies, and data were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Sex and site of initial VTE were investigated as potential sources of between study heterogeneity. RESULTS: 18 studies involving 7515 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled rate of recurrent VTE per 100 person years after discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment was 10.3 events (95% confidence interval 8.6 to 12.1) in the first year, 6.3 (5.1 to 7.7) in the second year, 3.8 events/year (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 4.5) in years 3-5, and 3.1 events/year (1.7 to 4.9) in years 6-10. The cumulative incidence for recurrent VTE was 16% (95% confidence interval 13% to 19%) at 2 years, 25% (21% to 29%) at 5 years, and 36% (28% to 45%) at 10 years. The pooled rate of recurrent VTE per 100 person years in the first year was 11.9 events (9.6 to 14.4) for men and 8.9 events (6.8 to 11.3) for women, with a cumulative incidence for recurrent VTE of 41% (28% to 56%) and 29% (20% to 38%), respectively, at 10 years. Compared to patients with isolated pulmonary embolism, the rate of recurrent VTE was higher in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis (rate ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.7) and in patients with pulmonary embolism plus deep vein thrombosis (1.5, 1.1 to 1.9). In patients with distal deep vein thrombosis, the pooled rate of recurrent VTE per 100 person years was 1.9 events (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 4.3) in the first year after anticoagulation had stopped. The case fatality rate for recurrent VTE was 4% (95% confidence interval 2% to 6%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a first episode of unprovoked VTE who completed at least three months of anticoagulant treatment, the risk of recurrent VTE was 10% in the first year after treatment, 16% at two years, 25% at five years, and 36% at 10 years, with 4% of recurrent VTE events resulting in death. These estimates should inform clinical practice guidelines, enhance confidence in counselling patients of their prognosis, and help guide decision making about long term management of unprovoked VTE. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017056309.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa , Suspensão de Tratamento , Humanos , Recidiva , Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
13.
Eur Stroke J ; 4(1): 55-64, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165095

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between different patterns of atrial fibrillation and early recurrence after an acute ischaemic stroke is unclear. Purpose: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the rates of early ischaemic recurrence after an acute ischaemic stroke in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or sustained atrial fibrillation which included persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation. Methods: In patients with acute ischaemic stroke, atrial fibrillation was categorised as paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or sustained atrial fibrillation. Ischaemic recurrences were the composite of ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack and symptomatic systemic embolism occurring within 90 days from acute index stroke. Results: A total of 2150 patients (1155 females, 53.7%) were enrolled: 930 (43.3%) had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 1220 (56.7%) sustained atrial fibrillation. During the 90-day follow-up, 111 ischaemic recurrences were observed in 107 patients: 31 in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (3.3%) and 76 with sustained atrial fibrillation (6.2%) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.86 (95% CI 1.24-2.81)). Patients with sustained atrial fibrillation were on average older, more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of stroke/ transient ischaemic attack, congestive heart failure, atrial enlargement, high baseline NIHSS-score and implanted pacemaker. After adjustment by Cox proportional hazard model, sustained atrial fibrillation was not associated with early ischaemic recurrences (adjusted HR 1.23 (95% CI 0.74-2.04)). Conclusions: After acute ischaemic stroke, patients with sustained atrial fibrillation had a higher rate of early ischaemic recurrence than patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. After adjustment for relevant risk factors, sustained atrial fibrillation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of recurrence, thus suggesting that the risk profile associated with atrial fibrillation, rather than its pattern, is determinant for recurrence.

14.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171643

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials evaluated the role of anticoagulants in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This meta-analysis is aimed at providing an updated evaluation of the efficacy and safety of anticoagulant prophylaxis in this clinical setting. Medline and Scopus were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials on the prevention of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients. Two groups of trials were identified with venous thromboembolism or death as primary outcome, respectively. Venous thromboembolism was the primary outcome of this analysis. Anticoagulant prophylaxis reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism in studies with venous thromboembolism (14 studies, 8226 patients, OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.36-0.56) or death as primary outcome (8 studies, 3727 patients, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.81). When these studies were pooled together, venous thromboembolism was reduced by 49% (95% CI 0.43-0.61) with no significant increase in major bleeding (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.73). The risk of major bleeding was increased in studies with venous thromboembolism as primary outcome (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.04). Similar reductions of venous thromboembolism were observed in studies with parenteral (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.33-0.56) or oral anticoagulants (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Venous thromboembolism reduction was confirmed in patients with lung (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26-0.67) or pancreatic cancer (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.14-0.48), in estimated high-risk patients, in high-quality studies and with respect to symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Prophylaxis with oral or parenteral anticoagulants reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory cancer patients with acceptable increase in major bleeding.

16.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2093-2100, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221054

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin reportedly leads to a worse outcome for acute cardioembolic stroke patients because of a higher incidence of intracerebral bleeding. However, this practice is common in clinical settings. This observational study aimed to compare (1) the clinical profiles of patients receiving and not receiving bridging therapy, (2) overall group outcomes, and (3) outcomes according to the type of anticoagulant prescribed. Methods- We analyzed data of patients from the prospective RAF and RAF-NOACs studies. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracerebral bleeding observed at 90 days after the acute stroke. Results- Of 1810 patients who initiated oral anticoagulant therapy, 371 (20%) underwent bridging therapy with full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin. Older age and the presence of leukoaraiosis were inversely correlated with the use of bridging therapy. Forty-two bridged patients (11.3%) reached the combined outcome versus 72 (5.0%) of the nonbridged patients (P=0.0001). At multivariable analysis, bridging therapy was associated with the composite end point (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P<0.0001), as well as ischemic (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=0.005) and hemorrhagic (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; P=0.01) end points separately. Conclusions- Our findings suggest that patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin have a higher risk of early ischemic recurrence and hemorrhagic transformation compared with nonbridged patients.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(8): 1217-1228, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063646

RESUMO

Essentials Debated is the role of residual pulmonary obstruction (RPO) in predicting venous thromboembolism. Whether right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) predicts recurrent venous thromboembolism is unknown. 15 studies on RPO and 4 on RVD and venous thromboembolism were included in this meta-analysis. RPO is a predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism when assessed by perfusion lung scan. RVD after acute pulmonary embolism is not associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism. BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of residual pulmonary obstruction (RPO) or persistent right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) after pulmonary embolism (PE) as a predictor of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to assess whether RPO or persistent RVD after PE is associated with recurrent VTE. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through December 2018. Studies reporting on (a) RPO either on computed tomography (CT) angiography or perfusion lung scan, or RVD on echocardiography or CT angiography, after therapeutic anticoagulation for the acute PE, and (b) recurrent VTE, were included in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: RPO was associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE (16 studies; 3472 patients; odds ratio [OR] 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-3.05; I2  = 26%); the association was statistically significant for lung scan-detected RPO (11 studies; 2916 patients; OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.63-3.01) but not for CT angiography-detected RPO (five studies; 556 patients; OR 2.56; 95% CI 0.82-7.94). No significant association was found between persistent RVD and recurrent VTE (four studies; 852 patients; OR 1.62; 95% CI 0.63-4.17). CONCLUSIONS: RPO is a predictor of recurrent VTE after a first acute PE, mainly when assessed by perfusion lung scan.

18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(3): 439-453, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104194

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For decades, low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) and vitamin K-antagonists have been the gold standard of anticoagulation for VTE. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) that can be administered in fixed doses, without laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment have revolutionized anticoagulation management in VTE. Here, we report on recent evidence regarding the safety of DOACs compared to traditional anticoagulants in surgical and medical prophylaxis as well as in acute and extended treatments of VTE. Additionally, we provide data on special situations such as elderly, cancer and renal impairment patients. Regarding antithrombotic prophylaxis, data are lacking on DOAC use in general surgical patients, while DOACs appear to be more effective than and as safe as LMWHs in VTE prophylaxis for major orthopedic surgical patients. Whether a medically ill patient may benefit from extended VTE prophylaxis remains unclear. In fact, in these patients, DOACs showed an increased risk of bleeding compared to conventional therapy. In the acute treatment of VTE, DOACs were non-inferior and probably safer than conventional anticoagulation therapy while in the extended VTE treatment DOACs were more effective than placebo or aspirin with a comparable risk of major bleeding. These favorable results were also confirmed in elderly, cancer and renal impairment patients. However, further investigations are needed in order to generalize the safe use of DOACs in these specific subgroups of patients.

19.
Thromb Res ; 177: 33-41, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849513

RESUMO

Approximately one-fifth of all cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are related to cancer and anticoagulant treatment in these patients has remained a challenge. Cancer patients with VTE are at increased risk of developing recurrent VTE compared to patients without cancer, but also have a higher risk of major bleeding. In these patients, low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) have been shown to be more effective and as safe as vitamin K-antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of VTE. Therefore, the majority of current clinical guidelines recommend LMWHs as the treatment of choice for cancer-associated VTE. However, several issues should be considered regarding the use of LMWHs as daily subcutaneous injections, the costs or risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. In recent years, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have shown similar efficacy and better safety profile compared to VKAs and have become the standard of care for the treatment of VTE in the general population. Because DOACs offer a simple oral treatment regimen without the need for anticoagulation control, they could be an attractive alternative to LMWH. Before DOACs become an accepted treatment option for cancer associated VTE, they have to be evaluated in a head-to-head comparison with LMWH. Data from two randomized trials comparing DOACs vs. LMWH have recently been published. In the present review, we will provide three clinically relevant questions on the use of DOACs in patients with cancer and VTE and provide an overview on recent evidence on this topic: 1) are DOACs a treatment option for the prevention of VTE in cancer patients?; 2) what is the place for DOACs in patients with cancer-associated VTE?; 3) should I use DOACs for the extended treatment of cancer-related VTE?.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 281: 56-61, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients aged 90 years or older are often excluded from or under-represented in clinical trials and cohort studies. The clinical benefit of anticoagulation in nonagenarians with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains undefined. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulants in AF patients aged 90 years or older. METHODS: Non-valvular AF patients aged 90 years or older receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were included in this observational multicentre study. The primary outcome was the composite of ischaemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and systemic embolism (SE). Major bleeding (MB), anticoagulant discontinuation and all-cause death were also assessed. Results are reported as sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHR) with 95% CI, taking death as competing risk. RESULTS: 546 patients were included (301 VKAs retrospective cohort and 245 DOACs prospective cohort; median follow-up 404 days). The rate of ischaemic stroke/TIA/SE was 2.4% patient-year and that of MB 5.5% patient-year. Previous ischaemic stroke/TIA (SHR 3.47; 95% CI 1.54-7.81) and vascular disease (SHR 2.89; 95% CI 1.27-6.60) were independent predictors of ischaemic stroke/TIA/SE. Previous bleeding (SHR 2.53; 95% CI 1.37-4.64) was an independent predictor of MB. The risk of ischaemic stroke/TIA/SE (SHR 0.78, 95% CI 0.30-2.04) or MB (SHR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77-2.65) was not significantly different with DOACs or VKAs. CONCLUSIONS: In AF nonagenarians receiving anticoagulant treatment, the rate of ischaemic stroke/TIA/SE is relatively low with the drawback of a not negligible rate of MB. DOACs seem a reasonable option for prevention of ischaemic stroke/TIA/SE in this setting.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/fisiopatologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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