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1.
Breast ; 55: 98-104, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential benefit of additional breast cancer screening examinations in moderate risk patients (patients with a history of breast cancer in one or two family members) remains unclear. METHODS: A large population-based case-control study on breast cancer in postmenopausal women in Germany recruited 2002-2005 (3813 cases and 7341 age-matched controls) was used to assess the association of family history with breast cancer risk. Analysis of family history, participation in screening procedures, and tumor size regarding prognosis in patients was based on follow-up data until 2015. RESULTS: A first degree family history of breast cancer was associated with higher breast cancer risk (OR 1.39, p < 0.001). Patients with a first degree family history of breast cancer were more likely to have had >10 mammograms (MG) (42.7% vs. 24.9%, p < 0.001) and showed a higher rate of imaging-detected tumors (MG or ultrasound) (45.8% vs. 31.9%, p < 0.001). A smaller tumor size at initial diagnosis (below 2 cm) was more likely in patients with a positive family history (OR 1.45, p < 0.001) and a higher number of MG (≥10 MG: OR 2.29). After accounting for tumor characteristics, mammogram regularity (HR 0.72, p < 0.001) and imaging-assisted tumor detection (HR 0.66, p < 0.001) were associated with better overall survival but not with a positive family history. DISCUSSION: Patients with a positive family history had a higher rate of imaging detected tumors with smaller size at initial diagnosis compared to patients without affected family members. Screening was associated with improved survival after a breast cancer diagnosis, irrespective of a positive family history.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 18-27, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621760

RESUMO

More women are surviving after breast cancer due to early detection and modern treatment strategies. Body weight also influences survival. We aimed to characterize associations between postdiagnosis weight change and prognosis in postmenopausal long-term breast cancer survivors. We used data from a prospective population-based patient cohort study (MARIE) conducted in two geographical regions of Germany. Breast cancer patients diagnosed 50 to 74 years of age with an incident invasive breast cancer or in situ tumor were recruited from 2002 to 2005 and followed up until June 2015. Baseline weight was ascertained at an in-person interview at recruitment and follow-up weight was ascertained by telephone interview in 2009. Delayed entry Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations between relative weight change and all-cause mortality, breast cancer mortality, and recurrence-free survival. In total, 2216 patients were included. Compared to weight maintenance (within 5%), weight loss >10% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.61, 3.88), breast cancer mortality (HR 3.07, 95% CI 1.69, 5.60) and less so of recurrence-free survival (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.87, 2.36). Large weight gain of >10% also increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02, 2.62) and breast cancer mortality (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25, 4.04). Weight maintenance for up to 5 years in long-term breast cancer survivors may help improve survival and prognosis. Postdiagnosis fluctuations in body weight of greater than 10% may lead to increased mortality. Survivors should be recommended to avoid large deviations in body weight from diagnosis onwards to maintain health and prolong life.

5.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of elderly cancer survivors is growing because of increasing survival rates. A high comorbidity burden in the elderly can affect their quality of life and survival. The aim of this study was to examine whether breast cancer survivors and population-based controls have a different comorbidity burden after long-term follow-up. METHODS: This study used data from a German breast cancer case-control study, which initially comprised 3813 breast cancer cases aged 50 to 74 years who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2005 and 7341 population-based controls. Participants were followed up in 2014/2016. A modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI) was calculated to quantify severe comorbidities. Negative binomial regression was performed to estimate rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between case-control status and mCCI (dependent variable) for the baseline population and for those who participated at follow-up, with adjustments made for relevant lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In total, 1925 cases and 3674 controls participated in the follow-up 12 years after recruitment. In the baseline population 35% had at least 1 comorbid condition.In long-term survivors this proportion was 52%. No difference was found in the mCCI between breast cancer cases and controls at baseline (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11) or between long-term survivors of the 2 groups at baseline (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.18) or at follow-up (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: The comorbidity burden of long-term breast cancer survivors and controls increased over time; however, it remained similar in both groups after 12 years of follow-up.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the incidence of gastric cancer (GC), and particularly intestinal GC, is higher among resettlers from the former Soviet Union (FSU) than in the general German population. Our aim was to investigate if the higher risk remains over time. METHODS: GC cases between 1994 and 2013, in a cohort of 32,972 resettlers, were identified by the respective federal cancer registry. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were analyzed in comparison to the general population for GC subtypes according to the Laurén classification. Additionally, the cohort was pooled with data from a second resettler cohort from Saarland to investigate time trends using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The incidence of intestinal GC was elevated among resettlers in comparison to the general population (SIR (men) 1.64, 95% CI: 1.09-2.37; SIR (women) 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15-2.98). The analysis with the pooled data confirmed an elevated SIR, which was stable over time. CONCLUSION: Resettlers' higher risk of developing intestinal GC does not attenuate towards the incidence in the general German population. Dietary and lifestyle patterns might amplify the risk of GC, and we believe that further investigation of risk behaviors is needed to better understand the development of disease pattern among migrants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , U.R.S.S.
7.
Biom J ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150987

RESUMO

National mortality statistics commonly provide disease-specific absolute and relative frequencies of death by sex and age, but not by exposure status. However, it is often of interest to know how many of the diseased individuals, that is the cases, were exposed or not exposed to a specific risk factor. We present two methods to estimate the proportion and the number of exposed and nonexposed cases, both of which require an estimate of the exposure prevalence in the nondiseased population. Method I additionally requires an estimate of the relative effect of exposure, that is a relative risk function if the exposure has a continuous distribution, or a relative risk estimate for each category if the exposure is categorical. Method II additionally requires an estimate of the disease rate among the nonexposed. We provide theoretical justifications, discuss practical limitations, and provide an R script to calculate the probability for nonexposure among the diseased, and compare the approaches. Both methods are subsequently applied to the estimation of the number of never smokers among lung cancer deaths. The two suggested methods rely on the availability of specific data sources and might therefore be applicable in different research settings. Both methods yield unbiased estimates of the number of nonexposed cases, given that the respective underlying assumptions are fulfilled.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 568287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134239

RESUMO

In an effort to contain the spread of COVID-19, Germany has gradually implemented mobility restrictions culminating in a partial lockdown and contact restrictions on 22 March. The easing of the restrictions began 1 month later, on 20 April. Analysis of the consequences of these measures for mobility and infection incidence is of public health interest. A dynamic cohort of about 2,000 individuals in Germany aged 16-89 years provided individual information on demographic variables, and their continuous geolocation via a smartphone app. Using interrupted time series analysis, we investigated mobility by age, sex, and previous mobility habits from 13 January until 17 May 2020, measured as median daily distance traveled before and after restrictions were introduced. Furthermore, we have investigated the association of mobility with the number of new cases and the reproduction number. Median daily distance traveled decreased substantially in total and homogeneously across all subgroups considered. The decrease was strongest in the last week of March followed by a slight increase. Relative reduction of mobility developed parallel with number of new cases and the daily estimated reproduction number in the weeks after contact restrictions were implemented. The increase in mobility from mid-April onwards, however, did not result in increased case numbers but in further decrease. Other behavioral changes, e.g., wearing masks, individual distancing, or general awareness of the COVID-19 hazards may have contributed to the observed further reduction in case numbers and constant reproduction numbers below one until mid-July.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 70: 101852, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether a breast cancer diagnosis affects health behaviour changes that occur with ageing. We aimed to compare long-term changes of alcohol consumption, body weight, and physical activity in women with breast cancer and in age-matched unaffected women. METHODS: We used data from 1,925 women with breast cancer and 3,473 unaffected women aged 50-74 years enrolled in the population-based case-control study MARIE (Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation) in 2002-2005, who also completed the follow-up in 2014-2016. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between breast cancer status and categories of change in alcohol consumption, weight and physical activity. RESULTS: After 11.6 years of follow-up, breast cancer survivors had significantly lower odds than unaffected women of increasing alcohol consumption from ≤10 to >10 g/day (adjusted OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.35-0.65), but were more likely to experience a major weight change of ≥10 % compared to having stable weight (±<5 %) (OR for increase and decrease 1.32, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70 and 1.36, 95 % CI 1.05-1.77, resp.) and to decrease transport physical activity to below 2.5 h/week compared to maintaining the activity level (OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.26-2.04). No significant group difference was found for changes in recreational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that some long-term health behaviour changes can be attributed to a breast cancer diagnosis rather than ageing, suggesting that long-term medical care of breast cancer survivors could pay greater attention to weight control and sufficient physical activity.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 136-143, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the pulmonary disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, which has challenged health care facilities worldwide. The sustainability of health care systems is largely reliant on the health status of their health care workers (HCW). This study aimed to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus and specific antibodies among HCWs in a German hospital as a model system for the potential spread of the pandemic. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, we used a combination of RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among HCWs in a German hospital based on repetitive oropharyngeal swabs (OPSs) and blood samples. RESULTS: In total, 871/1081 employees participated in this prospective longitudinal study. During the study period of 9 weeks, 5329 OPSs and 2136 blood samples were analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in three participants (0.34%). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected in 38 (4.36%) participants. CONCLUSION: Our study determined a low prevalence of COVID-19 in HCW, which may reflect the effectiveness of hygiene protocols. However, it could also indicate a low prevalence of SARS CoV-2 in hospital employees. Our study protocol may serve as an instructive example for future pandemic containment protocols in hospitals.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878214

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) behavior is increasingly described as trajectories taking changes over a longer period into account. Little is known, however, about predictors of those trajectories among migrant populations. Therefore, the aim of the present cohort study was to describe changes of PA over six years and to explore migration-related and other predictors for different PA trajectories in adults of Turkish descent living in Berlin. At baseline (2011/2012) and after six years, sociodemographics, health behavior, and medical information were assessed. Four PA trajectories were defined using data of weekly PA from baseline and follow-up: "inactive", "decreasing", "increasing", and "stable active". Multivariable regression analyses were performed in order to determine predictors for the "stable active" trajectory, and results were presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). In this analysis, 197 people (60.9% women, mean age ± standard deviation 49.9 ± 12.8 years) were included. A total of 77.7% were first-generation migrants, and 50.5% had Turkish citizenship. The four PA trajectories differed regarding citizenship, preferred questionnaire language, and marital status. "Stable active" trajectory membership was predicted by educational level (high vs. low: aOR 4.20, 95%CI [1.10; 16.00]), citizenship (German or dual vs. Turkish only: 3.60 [1.20; 10.86]), preferred questionnaire language (German vs. Turkish: 3.35 [1.05; 10.66]), and BMI (overweight vs. normal weight: 0.28 [0.08; 0.99]). In our study, migration-related factors only partially predicted trajectory membership, however, persons with citizenship of their country of origin and/or with poor language skills should be particularly considered when planning PA prevention programs.

13.
Digestion ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids (TS) have become standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). However, a variety of drug formulations have been used for which results of histological and clinical responses may be different. We aimed at determining the short-term histologic efficacy of TS for EoE based on randomized placebo-controlled trials and to review clinical response. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on TS versus placebo for active EoE published until June 2019. Treatment effects were calculated as risk ratios (RRs) comparing histologic remission between groups. RESULTS: Nine RCTs (6 budesonide and 3 fluticasone) involving a total of 483 participants were included. A substantial overall effect of TS on acute histologic remission (RR 12.5, 95% confidence interval 6.0-25.9) was found despite varying definitions of histologic response. Indirect comparisons between drug and formulation types showed a trend for a better histologic efficacy of budesonide (RR 13.5 vs. 10.4 fluticasone) and for the orodispersible tablet (RR 46.2 vs. 11.5 suspension, and 10.4 nebulized formula/spray), but only based on small patient numbers. Scores used for clinical response assessment were different between studies, and short-term clinical results were less impressive: significant differences favoring TS were found in 4/9 RCTs (4/6 budesonide, 0/3 fluticasone). CONCLUSIONS: TS are effective for short-term induction of histological remission in EoE with less impressive clinical response rates. The mode of drug delivery to the esophagus may be a relevant factor for the degree of histologic remission. Further trials should use uniform assessment criteria and long-term patient-centered outcomes.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 817, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk diseases and risk factors for stroke include atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and elevated LDL-cholesterol. Due to modern treatment options, the impact of these risk diseases on subsequent cardiovascular events or death after a first stroke is less clear and needs to be elucidated. We therefore aimed to get insights into the persistence of adverse prognostic effects of these risk diseases and risk factors on subsequent stroke or death events 1 year after the first stroke by using the new weighted all-cause hazard ratio. METHODS: This study evaluates the 1 year follow-up of 470 first ever stroke cases identified in the area of Ludwigshafen, Germany, with 23 deaths and 34 subsequent stroke events. For this purpose, the recently introduced "weighted all-cause hazard ratio" was used, which allows a weighting of the competing endpoints within a composite endpoint. Moreover, we extended this approach to allow an adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: None of these risk factors and risk diseases, most probably being treated after the first stroke, remained to be associated with a subsequent death or stroke [weighted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, high cholesterol, hypertension, and smoking are 0.4 (0.2-0.9), 0.8 (0.4-2.2), 1.3 (0.5-2.5), 1.2 (0.3-2.7), 1.6 (0.8-3.6), respectively]. However, when analyzed separately in terms of death and stroke, the risk factors and risk diseases under investigation affect the subsequent event rate to a variable degree. CONCLUSIONS: Using the new weighted hazard ratio, established risk factors and risk diseases for the occurrence of a first stroke do not remain to be significant predictors for subsequent events like death or recurrent stroke. It has been demonstrated that the new weighted hazard ratio can be used for a more adequate analysis of cardiovascular risk and disease progress. The results have to be confirmed within a larger study with more events.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Análise de Causa Fundamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

16.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 417, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European studies showed that women with a migration background are less likely to participate in mammography screenings than autochthonous women. However, the participation in the German mammography screening programme (MSP) among ethnic German migrants from countries of the former Soviet Union (called resettlers) is unclear so far. The aim of this study was to identify possible differences regarding MSP participation between resettlers from the FSU and the general German population. METHODS: Data from two independent, complementary studies from North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (a retrospective cohort study 1994-2013; a cross-sectional study 2013/14) were used for comparisons between resettlers and the general population: Odds Ratios (ORs) for MSP participation utilizing the cross-sectional data and time trends of breast cancer incidence rates as well as Chi-Square tests for breast cancer stages utilizing the cohort data. RESULTS: Resettlers showed higher Odds to participate in the MSP than the general population (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.08-5.42). Among resettlers, a large increase in incidence rates was observed during the MSP implementation (2005-2009), resulting in stable and comparable incidence rates after the implementation. Furthermore, pre-MSP implementation, the proportion of advanced breast cancer stages was higher among resettlers than in the German population, post-MSP implementation the proportion was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: MSP participating seems surprisingly high among resettlers. An explanation for the increased willingness to participate might be the structured invitation procedure of the MSP. However, the exact reasons remain unclear and future research is needed to confirm this hypothesis and rule out the possibility of selection bias in the cross-sectional study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , U.R.S.S./etnologia
19.
Diagn Progn Res ; 4: 3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266321

RESUMO

Background: How to select variables and identify functional forms for continuous variables is a key concern when creating a multivariable model. Ad hoc 'traditional' approaches to variable selection have been in use for at least 50 years. Similarly, methods for determining functional forms for continuous variables were first suggested many years ago. More recently, many alternative approaches to address these two challenges have been proposed, but knowledge of their properties and meaningful comparisons between them are scarce. To define a state of the art and to provide evidence-supported guidance to researchers who have only a basic level of statistical knowledge, many outstanding issues in multivariable modelling remain. Our main aims are to identify and illustrate such gaps in the literature and present them at a moderate technical level to the wide community of practitioners, researchers and students of statistics. Methods: We briefly discuss general issues in building descriptive regression models, strategies for variable selection, different ways of choosing functional forms for continuous variables and methods for combining the selection of variables and functions. We discuss two examples, taken from the medical literature, to illustrate problems in the practice of modelling. Results: Our overview revealed that there is not yet enough evidence on which to base recommendations for the selection of variables and functional forms in multivariable analysis. Such evidence may come from comparisons between alternative methods. In particular, we highlight seven important topics that require further investigation and make suggestions for the direction of further research. Conclusions: Selection of variables and of functional forms are important topics in multivariable analysis. To define a state of the art and to provide evidence-supported guidance to researchers who have only a basic level of statistical knowledge, further comparative research is required.

20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are available for the first 100,000 participants of the population-based German National Cohort (GNC, NAKO Gesundheitsstudie). OBJECTIVES: To describe assessment methods and the frequency of self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the German National Cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a computer-based, standardized personal interview, 101,806 participants (20-75 years, 46% men) from 18 nationwide study centres were asked to use a predefined list to report medical conditions ever diagnosed by a physician, including cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. For the latter, we calculated sex-stratified relative frequencies and compared these with reference data. RESULTS: With regard to cardiovascular diseases, 3.5% of men and 0.8% of women reported to have ever been diagnosed with a myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 1.5% with angina pectoris, 3.5% and 2.5% with heart failure, 10.1% and 10.4% with cardiac arrhythmia, 2.7% and 1.8% with claudicatio intermittens, and 34.6% and 27.0% with arterial hypertension. The frequencies of self-reported diagnosed metabolic diseases were 8.1% and 5.8% for diabetes mellitus, 28.6% and 24.5% for hyperlipidaemia, 7.9% and 2.4% for gout, and 10.1% and 34.3% for thyroid diseases. Observed disease frequencies were lower than reference data for Germany. CONCLUSIONS: In the German National Cohort, self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases diagnosed by a physician are assessed from all participants, therefore representing a data source for future cardio-metabolic research in this cohort.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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