Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Langmuir ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571026

RESUMO

The investigation of solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal for understanding processes like wetting, corrosion, and mineral dissolution and growth. The graphite-water interface constitutes a prime example for studying the water structure at a seemingly hydrophobic surface. Surprisingly, in a large number of atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, well-ordered stripes have been observed at the graphite-water interface. Although many groups have reported on the observation of stripes at this interface, fundamental properties and, in particular, the origin of the stripes are still under debate. Proposed origins include contamination, interplanar stacking of graphene layers, formation of methanol-water nanostructures, and adsorption of nitrogen molecules. Especially, the latter interpretation has received considerable attention because of its potential impact on explaining the long-range nature of the hydrophobic interaction. In this study, we demonstrate that these stripes readily form when using standard plastic syringes to insert the water into the AFM instrument. In contrast, when clean glass syringes are used instead, no such stripes form even though nitrogen was present. We, therefore, conclude that contaminations from the plastic syringe rather than nitrogen constitute the origin of the stripes we observe. We provide high-resolution AFM data that reveal detailed structural insights into the arrangement of the stripes. The rich variability of our data suggests that the stripes might be composed of several different chemical species. Still, we cannot rule out that the stripes observed in the literature might originate from other sources; our study offers a rather straightforward explanation for the origin of the stripes. In the view of these results, we propose to carefully reconsider former assignments.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(11): 6109-6114, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031553

RESUMO

On-surface synthesis provides a very promising strategy for creating stable functional structures on surfaces. In the past, classical reactions known from solution synthesis have been successfully transferred onto a surface. Due to the presence of the surface, on-surface synthesis provides the potential of directing the reaction pathway in a manner that might not be accessible in classical solution synthesis. In this work, we present evidence for an acetylene polymerization from a terminal alkyne monomer deposited onto calcite (10.4). Strikingly, although the dimer forms on the surface as well, we find no indication for diacetylene polymerization. This is in sharp contrast to what is observed when directly depositing the dimers on the surface. The different pathways are linked to the specific arrangement of the dimers on the surface. When forming stripes along the [-4-21] direction, the diacetylene polymerization is prohibited, while when arranged in stripes aligned along the [010] direction, the dimers can undergo diacetylene polymerization. Our work thus constitutes a demonstration for controlling the specific reaction pathway in on-surface synthesis by the presence of the surface.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(11): 116101, 2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601750

RESUMO

It seems natural to assume that defects at mineral surfaces critically influence interfacial processes such as the dissolution and growth of minerals in water. The experimental verification of this claim, however, is challenging and requires real-space methods with utmost spatial resolution, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). While defects at mineral-water interfaces have been resolved in 2D AFM images before, the perturbation of the surrounding hydration structure has not yet been analyzed experimentally. In this Letter, we demonstrate that point defects on the most stable and naturally abundant calcite (10.4) surface can be resolved using high-resolution 3D AFM-even within the fifth hydration layer. Our analysis of the hydration structure surrounding the point defect shows a perturbation of the hydration with a lateral extent of approximately one unit cell. These experimental results are corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations.

4.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(13): 133001, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460853

RESUMO

On-surface synthesis has rapidly emerged as a most promising approach to prepare functional molecular structures directly on a support surface. Compared to solution synthesis, performing chemical reactions on a surface offers several exciting new options: due to the absence of a solvent, reactions can be envisioned that are otherwise not feasible due to the insolubility of the reaction product. Perhaps even more important, the confinement to a two-dimensional surface might enable reaction pathways that are not accessible otherwise. Consequently, on-surface synthesis has attracted great attention in the last decade, with an impressive number of classical reactions transferred to a surface as well as new reactions demonstrated that have no classical analogue. So far, the majority of the work has been carried out on conducting surfaces. However, when aiming for electronic decoupling of the resulting structures, e.g. for the use in future molecular electronic devices, non-conducting surfaces are highly desired. Here, we review the current status of on-surface reactions demonstrated on the (10.4) surface of the bulk insulator calcite. Besides thermally induced C-C coupling of halogen-substituted aryls, photochemically induced [2 + 2] cycloaddition has been proven possible on this surface. Moreover, experimental evidence exists for coupling of terminal alkynes as well as diacetylene polymerization. While imaging of the resulting structures with dynamic atomic force microscopy provides a direct means of reaction verification, the detailed reaction pathway often remains unclear. Especially in cases where the presence of metal atoms is known to catalyze the corresponding solution chemistry reaction (e.g. in the case of the Ullmann reaction), disclosing the precise reaction pathway is of importance to understand and generalize on-surface reactivity on a bulk insulator surface. To this end, density-functional theory calculations have proven to provide atomic-scale insights that have greatly contributed to unravelling the details of on-surface synthesis on a bulk insulator surface.

5.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 1821-1828, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316393

RESUMO

Prototypical molecular switches such as azobenzenes exhibit two states, i.e., trans and cis, with different characteristic physical properties. In recent years various derivatives were investigated on metallic surfaces. However, bulk insulators as supporting substrate reveal important advantages since they allow electronic decoupling from the environment, which is key to control the switching properties. Here, we report on the light-induced isomerization of an azobenzene derivative on a bulk insulator surface, in this case calcite (101̅4), studied by atomic force microscopy with submolecular resolution. Surprisingly, cis isomers appear on the surface already directly after preparation, indicating kinetic trapping. The photoisomerization process is reversible, as the use of different light sources results in specific molecular assemblies of each isomer. The process turns out to be very efficient and even comparable to molecules in solution, which we assign to the rather weak molecular interaction with the insulator surface, in contrast to metals.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(27): 274001, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585517

RESUMO

A variety of atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes is employed in the field of surface science. The most prominent AFM modes include the amplitude modulation (AM) and the frequency modulation (FM) mode. Over the years, different ways for analyzing data acquired with different AFM modes have been developed, where each analysis is usually based on mode-specific assumptions and approximations. Checking the validity of the seemingly different approximations employed in the various analysis methods can be a tedious task. Moreover, a straightforward comparison of data analyzed with different methods can, therefore, be challenging. Here, we combine the existing evaluation methods which have been separately developed for the different AFM modes and present a unifying set of three equations. These three AFM equations allow for a straightforward analysis of AFM data within the harmonic approximation, regardless of the AFM mode. The three AFM equations provide the three and only pieces of information about the tip-sample force available within the harmonic approximation. We demonstrate the generality of our approach by quantitatively analyzing three-dimensional AFM data obtained in both the AM and FM mode.

7.
Langmuir ; 33(1): 125-129, 2017 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960056

RESUMO

Solid-liquid interfaces are decisive for a wide range of natural and technological processes, including fields as diverse as geochemistry and environmental science as well as catalysis and corrosion protection. Dynamic atomic force microscopy nowadays provides unparalleled structural insights into solid-liquid interfaces, including the solvation structure above the surface. In contrast, chemical identification of individual interfacial atoms still remains a considerable challenge. So far, an identification of chemically alike atoms in a surface alloy has only been demonstrated under well-controlled ultrahigh vacuum conditions. In liquids, the recent advent of three-dimensional force mapping has opened the potential to discriminate between anionic and cationic surface species. However, a full chemical identification will also include the far more challenging situation of alike interfacial atoms (i.e., with the same net charge). Here we demonstrate the chemical identification capabilities of dynamic atomic force microscopy at solid-liquid interfaces by identifying Ca and Mg cations at the dolomite-water interface. Analyzing site-specific vertical positions of hydration layers and comparing them with molecular dynamics simulations unambiguously unravels the minute but decisive difference in ion hydration and provides a clear means for telling calcium and magnesium ions apart. Our work, thus, demonstrates the chemical identification capabilities of dynamic AFM at the solid-liquid interface.

8.
Langmuir ; 32(39): 9975-9981, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603323

RESUMO

Organic additives are known to alter the mineral-water interface in various ways. On the one hand, organic molecules can self-assemble into ordered structures wetting the surface. On the other hand, their presence can affect the interfacial morphology, referred to as surface restructuring. Here, we investigate the impact of a class of calcium-complexing azo dyes on the dissolution of calcite (10.4) using high-resolution atomic force microscopy operated in aqueous solution, with a focus on the two constitutional isomers Eriochrome Black T and Eriochrome Black A. A very pronounced surface restructuring is observed in the presence of the dye solution, irrespective of the specific dye used and independent of the pH. This surface restructuring is obtained by the stabilization of both the nonpolar acute and the polar [010] step edges, resulting in a greatly altered, characteristic interface morphology. In sharp contrast to the prevalence of the surface restructuring, an ordered molecular structure on the crystal terraces is observed only under very specific conditions. This formation of an ordered stripe-like molecular structure is obtained from Eriochrome Black A only and limited to a very narrow pH window at a pH value of around 3.6. Our results indicate that such molecular self-assembly requires a rather precise adjustment of the molecular properties including control of the conformation and deprotonation state. This is in sharp contrast to the additive-induced surface restructuring, which appears to be far more robust against both pH changes and variations in the molecular conformation.

9.
Langmuir ; 31(26): 7283-7, 2015 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053526

RESUMO

In this work, we present the stabilization of polar step edges along the [010] direction of calcite (10.4) by the presence of a water-soluble organic molecule, namely Congo Red. While characteristic etch pits are observed on the surface in the absence of the additive, no etch pits can be found in the presence of the additive. Using atomic force microscopy, we can directly follow the restructuring of the surface. Upon addition of Congo Red, the charge-neutral step edges confining the characteristic etch pits vanish, while polar step edges along the [010] direction appear on the surface, which are entirely decorated by well-ordered molecular islands of the additive. After the restructuring has taken place, the surface exclusively exhibits these polar step edges. Our results give direct evidence of the fact that these polar step edges become thermodynamically favored when Congo Red is present.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(39): 21289-99, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25175427

RESUMO

By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) the nucleation, growth and sintering of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NP's) was studied on vicinal and flat rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) surfaces. Utilising physical vapour deposition, the nucleation of Pt NP's on TiO2 surfaces at room temperature (RT) was found to be random and invariant towards different surface morphologies and reduction states. Thus, the nucleation of Pt on TiO2 at RT is rather insensitive to the surface structure and surface defects. Vacuum-annealing at 600 K, 700 K and 800 K, respectively, led to lower densities of Pt NP's as a result of sintering. Sintering occurred at different rates at the TiO2 surfaces studied, indicating that the surface morphology and the amount of Ti(3+) excess charge do have an influence on the particle stability. Observed changes in the NP distribution as a result of sintering can be explained inferring facile diffusion of Pt NP's along the [001] direction.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 25(33): 335703, 2014 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25074402

RESUMO

Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic - yet decisive - question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid-liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface.

12.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4193, 2014 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24979078

RESUMO

The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moiré-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the bare film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moiré structure.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(29): 15437-43, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24947801

RESUMO

Molecular self-assembly provides a versatile tool for creating functional molecular structures at surfaces. A rational design of molecular structure formation requires not only an in-depth understanding of the subtle balance between intermolecular and molecule-surface interactions, but might also involve considering chemical changes of the molecules, such as deprotonation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of a comparatively simple class of molecules, namely dihydroxybenzoic acid, which, nevertheless, enables creating a rich variety of structures when deposited onto calcite (10.4) held at room temperature. Based on non-contact atomic force microscopy measurements in ultra-high vacuum, our study demonstrates the decisive impact of the positions of the hydroxyl groups on the structure formation. Six isomers of dihydroxybenzoic acid exist which form six different molecular structures on the calcite surface. Surprisingly, only two isomers arrange into stable, ordered structures at sub-monolayer coverage: 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid forms a commensurate (1 × 5) structure, composed of deprotonated molecules. A double-row structure consisting of protonated molecules is observed for 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The positions of the functional groups steer the molecular self-assembly of dihydroxybenzoic acids in three distinct ways, namely by (a) affecting the deprotonation tendency of the acid group, (b) influencing the intermolecular interaction as already indicated by greatly different bulk structures and (c) altering the molecule-substrate matching. Our results, thus, shed light on the impact of rather small changes in the molecular structure on the structural variety in molecular self-assembly on surfaces.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(30): 7952-5, 2014 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24692299

RESUMO

A substrate-guided photochemical reaction of C60 fullerenes on calcite, a bulk insulator, investigated by non-contact atomic force microscopy is presented. The success of the covalent linkage is evident from a shortening of the intermolecular distances, which is clearly expressed by the disappearance of the moiré pattern. Furthermore, UV/Vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry measurements carried out on thick films demonstrate the ability of our setup for initiating the photoinduced reaction. The irradiation of C60 results in well-oriented covalently linked domains. The orientation of these domains is dictated by the lattice dimensions of the underlying calcite substrate. Using the lattice mismatch to deliberately steer the direction of the chemical reaction is expected to constitute a general design principle for on-surface synthesis. This work thus provides a strategy for controlled fabrication of oriented, covalent networks on bulk insulators.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Fulerenos/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Análise Espectral/métodos , Processos Fotoquímicos
15.
ACS Nano ; 8(4): 3490-7, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24606179

RESUMO

Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution may provide one of the solutions to the shift to a sustainable energy society, but the quantum efficiency of the process still needs to be improved. Precise control of the composition and structure of the metal nanoparticle cocatalysts is essential, and we show that fine-tuning the Au-Pd nanoparticle structure modifies the electronic properties of the cocatalyst significantly. Specifically, Pd(shell)-Au(core) nanoparticles immobilized on TiO2 exhibit extremely high quantum efficiencies for H2 production using a wide range of alcohols, implying that chemical byproducts from the biorefinery industry can be used as feedstocks. In addition, the excellent recyclability of our photocatalyst material indicates a high potential in industrial applications. We demonstrate that this particular elemental segregation provides optimal positioning of the unoccupied d-orbital states, which results in an enhanced utilization of the photoexcited electrons in redox reactions. We consider that the enhanced activity observed on TiO2 is generic in nature and can be transferred to other narrow band gap semiconductor supports for visible light photocatalysis.

16.
ACS Nano ; 7(6): 5491-8, 2013 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23659365

RESUMO

Molecular self-assembly on surfaces is dictated by the delicate balance between intermolecular and molecule-surface interactions. For many insulating surfaces, however, the molecule-surface interactions are weak and rather unspecific. Enhancing these interactions, on the other hand, often puts a severe limit on the achievable structural variety. To grasp the full potential of molecular self-assembly on these application-relevant substrates, therefore, requires strategies for anchoring the molecular building blocks toward the surface in a way that maintains flexibility in terms of intermolecular interaction and relative molecule orientation. Here, we report the design of a site-specific anchor functionality that provides strong anchoring toward the surface, resulting in a well-defined adsorption position. At the same time, the anchor does not significantly interfere with the intermolecular interaction, ensuring structural flexibility. We demonstrate the success of this approach with three molecules from the class of shape-persistent oligo(p-benzamide)s adsorbed onto the calcite(10.4) surface. These molecules have the same aromatic backbone with iodine substituents, providing the same basic adsorption mechanism to the surface calcium cations. The backbone is equipped with different functional groups. These have a negligible influence on the molecular adsorption on the surface but significantly change the intermolecular interaction. We show that distinctly different molecular structures are obtained that wet the surface due to the strong linker while maintaining variability in the relative molecular orientation. With this study, we thus provide a versatile strategy for increasing the structural richness in molecular self-assembly on insulating substrates.

17.
ACS Nano ; 6(7): 6284-92, 2012 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22663086

RESUMO

Noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pd, Au-Pd alloys) with a narrow size distribution supported on nanocrystalline TiO(2) (M/TiO(2)) have been synthesized via a sol-immobilization route. The effect of metal identity and size on the photocatalytic performance of M/TiO(2) has been systematically investigated using phenol as a probe molecule. A different phenol degradation pathway was observed when using M/TiO(2) catalysts as compared to pristine TiO(2). We propose a mechanism to illustrate how the noble metal nanoparticles enhance the efficiency of phenol decomposition based on photoreduction of p-benzoquinone under anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that the metal nanoparticles not only play a role in capturing photogenerated electrons, but are strongly involved in the photocatalytic reaction mechanism. The analysis of the reaction intermediates allows us to conclude that on M/TiO(2) undesired redox reactions that consume photogenerated radicals are effectively suppressed. The analysis of the final products shows that the reusability performance of the catalyst is largely dependent on the pretreatment of the catalyst and the identity of the metal nanoparticle. Interestingly, the as-prepared Pd and Au-Pd decorated TiO(2) materials exhibit excellent long-term photoactivity, in which ~90% of the phenol can be fully decomposed to CO(2) in each cycle.

18.
Science ; 336(6083): 889-93, 2012 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22605771

RESUMO

The diffusion of hydrogen atoms across solid oxide surfaces is often assumed to be accelerated by the presence of water molecules. Here we present a high-resolution, high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of the diffusion of H atoms on an FeO thin film. STM movies directly reveal a water-mediated hydrogen diffusion mechanism on the oxide surface at temperatures between 100 and 300 kelvin. Density functional theory calculations and isotope-exchange experiments confirm the STM observations, and a proton-transfer mechanism that proceeds via an H(3)O(+)-like transition state is revealed. This mechanism differs from that observed previously for rutile TiO(2)(110), where water dissociation is a key step in proton diffusion.

19.
ACS Nano ; 5(7): 5987-94, 2011 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21671628

RESUMO

ZnO is a wide band gap metal oxide with a very interesting combination of semiconducting, transparent optical and catalytic properties. Recently, an amplified interest in ZnO has appeared due to the impressive progress made in nanofabrication of tailored ZnO nanostructures and functional surfaces. However, the fundamental principles governing the structure of even the clean low-index ZnO surfaces have not been adequately explained. From an interplay of high-resolution scanning probe microscopy (SPM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy experiments, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we identify here a group of hitherto unresolved surface structures which stabilize the clean polar O-terminated ZnO(0001) surface. The found honeycomb structures are truly remarkable since their existence deviates from expectations using a conventional electrostatic model which applies to the opposite Zn-terminated (0001) surface. As a common principle, the differences for the clean polar ZnO surfaces are explained by a higher bonding flexibility of the exposed 3-fold coordinated surface Zn atoms as compared to O atoms.

20.
Nanotechnology ; 22(24): 245701, 2011 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21508456

RESUMO

We report upon controlled switching of a single 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide derivative molecule on a rutile TiO(2)(110) surface using a non-contact atomic force microscope at room temperature. After submonolayer deposition, the molecules adsorb tilted on the bridging oxygen row. Individual molecules can be manipulated by the atomic force microscope tip in a well-controlled manner. The molecules are switched from one side of the row to the other using a simple approach, taking benefit of the sample tilt and the topography of the titania substrate. From density functional theory investigations we obtain the adsorption energies of different positions of the molecule. These adsorption energies are in very good agreement with our experimental observations.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA