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1.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2103000, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397123

RESUMO

The competing and non-equilibrium phase transitions, involving dynamic tunability of cooperative electronic and magnetic states in strongly correlated materials, show great promise in quantum sensing and information technology. To date, the stabilization of transient states is still in the preliminary stage, particularly with respect to molecular electronic solids. Here, a dynamic and cooperative phase in potassium-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (K-TCNQ) with the control of pulsed electromagnetic excitation is demonstrated. Simultaneous dynamic and coherent lattice perturbation with 8 ns pulsed laser (532 nm, 15 MW cm-2 , 10 Hz) in such a molecular electronic crystal initiates a stable long-lived (over 400 days) conducting paramagnetic state (≈42 Ωcm), showing the charge-spin bistability over a broad temperature range from 2 to 360 K. Comprehensive noise spectroscopy, in situ high-pressure measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), theoretical model, and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) studies provide further evidence that such a transition is cooperative, requiring a dedicated charge-spin-lattice decoupling to activate and subsequently stabilize nonequilibrium phase. The cooperativity triggered by ultrahigh-strain-rate (above 106 s- 1 ) pulsed excitation offers a collective control toward the generation and stabilization of strongly correlated electronic and magnetic orders in molecular electronic solids and offers unique electro-magnetic phases with technological promises.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2649, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976184

RESUMO

Infrared nano-spectroscopy based on scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is commonly employed to probe the vibrational fingerprints of materials at the nanometer length scale. However, due to the elongated and axisymmetric tip shank, s-SNOM is less sensitive to the in-plane sample anisotropy in general. In this article, we report an easy-to-implement method to probe the in-plane dielectric responses of materials with the assistance of a metallic disk micro-antenna. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we investigate here the in-plane phonon responses of two prototypical samples, i.e. in (100) sapphire and x-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3). In particular, the sapphire in-plane vibrations between 350 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 that correspond to LO phonon modes along the crystal b- and c-axis are determined with a spatial resolution of < λ/10, without needing any fitting parameters. In LiNbO3, we identify the in-plane orientation of its optical axis via the phonon modes, demonstrating that our method can be applied without prior knowledge of the crystal orientation. Our method can be elegantly adapted to retrieve the in-plane anisotropic response of a broad range of materials, i.e. subwavelength microcrystals, van-der-Waals materials, or topological insulators.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1995, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790286

RESUMO

Hyperbolic phonon polaritons have recently attracted considerable attention in nanophotonics mostly due to their intrinsic strong electromagnetic field confinement, ultraslow polariton group velocities, and long lifetimes. Here we introduce tin oxide (SnO2) nanobelts as a photonic platform for the transport of surface and volume phonon polaritons in the mid- to far-infrared frequency range. This report brings a comprehensive description of the polaritonic properties of SnO2 as a nanometer-sized dielectric and also as an engineered material in the form of a waveguide. By combining accelerator-based IR-THz sources (synchrotron and free-electron laser) with s-SNOM, we employed nanoscale far-infrared hyper-spectral-imaging to uncover a Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism in SnO2 nanobelts via direct detection of phonon-polariton standing waves. Our experimental findings are accurately supported by notable convergence between theory and numerical simulations. Thus, the SnO2 is confirmed as a natural hyperbolic material with unique photonic properties essential for future applications involving subdiffractional light traffic and detection in the far-infrared range.

4.
Small ; 17(14): e2100079, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710768

RESUMO

Current graphene-based plasmonic devices are restricted to 2D patterns defined on planar substrates; thus, they suffer from spatially limited 2D plasmon fields. Here, 3D graphene forming freestanding nanocylinders realized by a plasma-triggered self-assembly process are introduced. The graphene-based nanocylinders induce hybridized edge (in-plane) and radial (out-of-plane) coupled 3D plasmon modes stemming from their curvature, resulting in a four orders of magnitude stronger field at the openings of the cylinders than in rectangular 2D graphene ribbons. For the characterization of the 3D plasmon modes, synchrotron nanospectroscopy measurements are performed, which provides the evidence of preservation of the hybridized 3D graphene plasmons in the high precision curved nanocylinders. The distinct 3D modes introduced in this paper, provide an insight into geometry-dependent 3D coupled plasmon modes and their ability to achieve non-surface-limited (volumetric) field enhancements.

5.
Sci Adv ; 7(2)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523990

RESUMO

Black phosphorus (BP) offers considerable promise for infrared and visible photonics. Efficient tuning of the bandgap and higher subbands in BP by modulation of the Fermi level or application of vertical electric fields has been previously demonstrated, allowing electrical control of its above-bandgap optical properties. Here, we report modulation of the optical conductivity below the bandgap (5 to 15 µm) by tuning the charge density in a two-dimensional electron gas induced in BP, thereby modifying its free carrier-dominated intraband response. With a moderate doping density of 7 × 1012 cm-2, we were able to observe a polarization-dependent epsilon-near-zero behavior in the dielectric permittivity of BP. The intraband polarization sensitivity is intimately linked to the difference in effective fermionic masses along the two crystallographic directions, as confirmed by our measurements. Our results suggest the potential of multilayer BP to allow new optical functions for emerging photonics applications.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5792, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235196

RESUMO

Although calcareous anatomical structures have evolved in diverse animal groups, such structures have been unknown in insects. Here, we report the discovery of high-magnesium calcite [CaMg(CO3)2] armor overlaying the exoskeletons of major workers of the leaf-cutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior. Live-rearing and in vitro synthesis experiments indicate that the biomineral layer accumulates rapidly as ant workers mature, that the layer is continuously distributed, covering nearly the entire integument, and that the ant epicuticle catalyzes biomineral nucleation and growth. In situ nanoindentation demonstrates that the biomineral layer significantly hardens the exoskeleton. Increased survival of ant workers with biomineralized exoskeletons during aggressive encounters with other ants and reduced infection by entomopathogenic fungi demonstrate the protective role of the biomineral layer. The discovery of biogenic high-magnesium calcite in the relatively well-studied leaf-cutting ants suggests that calcareous biominerals enriched in magnesium may be more common in metazoans than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio , Magnésio
7.
Opt Express ; 28(21): 30889-30907, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115080

RESUMO

The tunability of the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of metallic nanoarcs is demonstrated with key relationships identified between geometric parameters of the arcs and their resonances in the infrared. The wavelength of the LSPRs is tuned by the mid-arc length of the nanoarc. The ratio between the attenuation of the fundamental and second order LSPRs is governed by the nanoarc central angle. Beneficial for plasmonic enhancement of harmonic generation, these two resonances can be tuned independently to obtain octave intervals through the design of a non-uniform arc-width profile. Because the character of the fundamental LSPR mode in nanoarcs combines an electric and a magnetic dipole, plasmonic nanoarcs with tunable resonances can serve as versatile building blocks for chiroptical and nonlinear optical devices.

8.
Nano Lett ; 20(9): 6364-6371, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786946

RESUMO

Free-standing ultrathin (∼2 nm) films of several oxides (Al2O3,TiO2, and others) have been developed, which are mechanically robust and transparent to electrons with Ekin ≥ 200 eV and to photons. We demonstrate their applicability in environmental X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy for molecular level studies of solid-gas (≥1 bar) and solid-liquid interfaces. These films act as membranes closing a reaction cell and as substrates and electrodes for electrochemical reactions. The remarkable properties of such ultrathin oxides membranes enable atomic/molecular level studies of interfacial phenomena, such as corrosion, catalysis, electrochemical reactions, energy storage, geochemistry, and biology, in a broad range of environmental conditions.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7030-7037, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170023

RESUMO

Much of the electronic transport, photophysical, or biological functions of molecular materials emerge from intermolecular interactions and associated nanoscale structure and morphology. However, competing phases, defects, and disorder give rise to confinement and many-body localization of the associated wavefunction, disturbing the performance of the material. Here, we employ vibrational excitons as a sensitive local probe of intermolecular coupling in hyperspectral infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with complementary small-angle X-ray scattering to map multiscale structure from molecular coupling to long-range order. In the model organic electronic material octaethyl porphyrin ruthenium(II) carbonyl (RuOEP), we observe the evolution of competing ordered and disordered phases, in nucleation, growth, and ripening of porphyrin nanocrystals. From measurement of vibrational exciton delocalization, we identify coexistence of ordered and disordered phases in RuOEP that extend down to the molecular scale. Even when reaching a high degree of macroscopic crystallinity, identify significant local disorder with correlation lengths of only a few nanometers. This minimally invasive approach of vibrational exciton nanospectroscopy and -imaging is generally applicable to provide the molecular-level insight into photoresponse and energy transport in organic photovoltaics, electronics, or proteins.

10.
Nano Lett ; 19(8): 5388-5393, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306028

RESUMO

We present a new methodology that enables studies of the molecular structure of graphene-liquid interfaces with nanoscale spatial resolution. It is based on Fourier transform infrared nanospectroscopy (nano-FTIR), where the infrared (IR) field is plasmonically enhanced near the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The graphene seals a liquid electrolyte reservoir while acting also as a working electrode. The photon transparency of graphene enables IR spectroscopy studies of its interface with liquids, including water, propylene carbonate, and aqueous ammonium sulfate electrolyte solutions. We illustrate the method by comparing IR spectra obtained by nano-FTIR and attenuated total reflection (which has a detection depth of a few microns) demonstrating that the nano-FTIR method makes it possible to determine changes in speciation and ion concentration in the electric double and diffuse layers as a function of bias.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1615, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944301

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in Eq. (1). This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

12.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1982-1989, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779587

RESUMO

Strain plays an important role in condensed matter physics and materials science because it can strongly modify the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of a material and even induce a structural phase transition. Strain effects are especially interesting in atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, where unusually large strain can be achieved without breaking them. Measuring the strain distribution in 2D materials at the nanometer scale is therefore greatly important but is extremely challenging experimentally. Here, we use near-field infrared nanoscopy to demonstrate phonon polariton-assisted mapping and quantitative analysis of strain in atomically thin polar crystals of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) at the nanoscale. A local strain as low as 0.01% can be detected using this method with ∼20 nm spatial resolution. Such ultrasensitive nanoscale strain imaging and analysis technique opens up opportunities for exploring unique local strain structures and strain-related physics in 2D materials. In addition, experimental evidence for local strain-induced phonon polariton reflection is also provided, which offers a new approach to manipulate light at deep subwavelength scales for nanophotonic devices.

13.
Analyst ; 144(3): 928-934, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412213

RESUMO

With lethal opportunistic fungal infections on the rise, it is imperative to explore new methods to examine virulence mechanisms. The fungal cell wall is crucial for both the virulence and viability of Aspergillus nidulans. One wall component, Galf, has been shown to contribute to important fungal processes, integrity of the cell wall and pathogenesis. Here, we explore gene deletion strains lacking the penultimate enzyme in Galf biosynthesis (ugmAΔ) and the protein that transports Galf for incorporation into the cell wall (ugtAΔ). In applying gene deletion technology to the problem of cell wall integrity, we have employed multiple micro- and nano-scale imaging tools, including confocal fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, X-Ray fluorescence and atomic force microscopy. Atomic force microscopy allows quantification of ultrastructural cell wall architecture while near-field infrared spectroscopy provides spatially resolved chemical signatures, both at the nanoscale. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate correlative data collection with these two emerging modalities for the multiplexed in situ study of the nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of fungal cell walls.


Assuntos
Aspergillus nidulans/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Síncrotrons , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2860, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018291

RESUMO

The original version of this article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements:'P.B. was funded by the ELI Extreme Light Infrastructure Phase 2 (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15008/0000162) from the European Regional Development Fund and the EUCALL project funded from the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654220,' which replaces the previous 'P.B. was funded by the ELI Extreme Light Infrastructure Phase 2 (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15008/0000162) from the European Regional Development Fund.'This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the article.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(26): 6608-6613, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891720

RESUMO

The solar system formed from interstellar dust and gas in a molecular cloud. Astronomical observations show that typical interstellar dust consists of amorphous (a-) silicate and organic carbon. Bona fide physical samples for laboratory studies would yield unprecedented insight about solar system formation, but they were largely destroyed. The most likely repositories of surviving presolar dust are the least altered extraterrestrial materials, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with probable cometary origins. Cometary IDPs contain abundant submicron a-silicate grains called GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), believed to be carbon-free. Some have detectable isotopically anomalous a-silicate components from other stars, proving they are preserved dust inherited from the interstellar medium. However, it is debated whether the majority of GEMS predate the solar system or formed in the solar nebula by condensation of high-temperature (>1,300 K) gas. Here, we map IDP compositions with single nanometer-scale resolution and find that GEMS contain organic carbon. Mapping reveals two generations of grain aggregation, the key process in growth from dust grains to planetesimals, mediated by carbon. GEMS grains, some with a-silicate subgrains mantled by organic carbon, comprise the earliest generation of aggregates. These aggregates (and other grains) are encapsulated in lower-density organic carbon matrix, indicating a second generation of aggregation. Since this organic carbon thermally decomposes above ∼450 K, GEMS cannot have accreted in the hot solar nebula, and formed, instead, in the cold presolar molecular cloud and/or outer protoplanetary disk. We suggest that GEMS are consistent with surviving interstellar dust, condensed in situ, and cycled through multiple molecular clouds.

16.
Nano Lett ; 18(7): 4506-4515, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856638

RESUMO

As the lightest and cheapest transition metal dichalcogenide, TiS2 possesses great potential as an electrode material for lithium batteries due to the advantages of high energy density storage capability, fast ion diffusion rate, and low volume expansion. Despite the extensive investigation of its electrochemical properties, the fundamental discharge-charge reaction mechanism of the TiS2 electrode is still elusive. Here, by a combination of ex situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations, we have clearly elucidated the evolution of the structural and chemical properties of TiS2 during the discharge-charge processes. The lithium intercalation reaction is highly reversible and both Ti and sulfur are involved in the redox reaction during the discharge and charge processes. In contrast, the conversion reaction of TiS2 is partially reversible in the first cycle. However, Ti-O related compounds are developed during electrochemical cycling over extended cycles, which results in the decrease of the conversion reaction reversibility and the rapid capacity fading. In addition, the solid electrolyte interphase formed on the electrode surface is found to be highly dynamic in the initial cycles and then gradually becomes more stable upon further cycling. Such understanding is important for the future design and optimization of TiS2 based electrodes for lithium batteries.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1353, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636445

RESUMO

The physics and chemistry of liquid solutions play a central role in science, and our understanding of life on Earth. Unfortunately, key tools for interrogating aqueous systems, such as infrared and soft X-ray spectroscopy, cannot readily be applied because of strong absorption in water. Here we use gas-dynamic forces to generate free-flowing, sub-micron, liquid sheets which are two orders of magnitude thinner than anything previously reported. Optical, infrared, and X-ray spectroscopies are used to characterize the sheets, which are found to be tunable in thickness from over 1 µm  down to less than 20 nm, which corresponds to fewer than 100 water molecules thick. At this thickness, aqueous sheets can readily transmit photons across the spectrum, leading to potentially transformative applications in infrared, X-ray, electron spectroscopies and beyond. The ultrathin sheets are stable for days in vacuum, and we demonstrate their use at free-electron laser and synchrotron light sources.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1637-1643, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400972

RESUMO

Along with the rapid development of hybrid electronic-photonic systems, multifunctional devices with dynamic responses have been widely investigated for improving many optoelectronic applications. For years, microelectro-opto-mechanical systems (MEOMS), one of the major approaches to realizing multifunctionality, have demonstrated profound reconfigurability and great reliability. However, modern MEOMS still suffer from limitations in modulation depth, actuation voltage, or miniaturization. Here, we demonstrate a new MEOMS multifunctional platform with greater than 50% optical modulation depth over a broad wavelength range. This platform is realized by a specially designed cantilever array, with each cantilever consisting of vanadium dioxide, chromium, and gold nanolayers. The abrupt structural phase transition of the embedded vanadium dioxide enables the reconfigurability of the platform. Diverse stimuli, such as temperature variation or electric current, can be utilized to control the platform, promising CMOS-compatible operating voltage. Multiple functionalities, including an active enhanced absorber and a reprogrammable electro-optic logic gate, are experimentally demonstrated to address the versatile applications of the MEOMS platform in fields such as communication, energy harvesting, and optical computing.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2552, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416052

RESUMO

The organic and mineralogical heterogeneity in shale at micrometer and nanometer spatial scales contributes to the quality of gas reserves, gas flow mechanisms and gas production. Here, we demonstrate two molecular imaging approaches based on infrared spectroscopy to obtain mineral and kerogen information at these mesoscale spatial resolutions in large-sized shale rock samples. The first method is a modified microscopic attenuated total reflectance measurement that utilizes a large germanium hemisphere combined with a focal plane array detector to rapidly capture chemical images of shale rock surfaces spanning hundreds of micrometers with micrometer spatial resolution. The second method, synchrotron infrared nano-spectroscopy, utilizes a metallic atomic force microscope tip to obtain chemical images of micrometer dimensions but with nanometer spatial resolution. This chemically "deconvoluted" imaging at the nano-pore scale is then used to build a machine learning model to generate a molecular distribution map across scales with a spatial span of 1000 times, which enables high-throughput geochemical characterization in greater details across the nano-pore and micro-grain scales and allows us to identify co-localization of mineral phases with chemically distinct organics and even with gas phase sorbents. This characterization is fundamental to understand mineral and organic compositions affecting the behavior of shales.

20.
Nano Lett ; 18(2): 1466-1475, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327926

RESUMO

As a typical transition metal dichalcogenide, MoS2 offers numerous advantages for nanoelectronics and electrochemical energy storage due to its unique layered structure and tunable electronic properties. When used as the anode in lithium-ion cells, MoS2 undergoes intercalation and conversion reactions in sequence upon lithiation, and the reversibility of the conversion reaction is an important but still controversial topic. Here, we clarify unambiguously that the conversion reaction of MoS2 is not reversible, and the formed Li2S is converted to sulfur in the first charge process. Li2S/sulfur becomes the main redox couple in the subsequent cycles and the main contributor to the reversible capacity. In addition, due to the insulating nature of both Li2S and sulfur, a strong relaxation effect is observed during the cycling process. This study clearly reveals the electrochemical lithiation-delithiation mechanism of MoS2, which can facilitate further developments of high-performance MoS2-based electrodes.

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