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1.
ChemMedChem ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700391

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) can be used to shuttle peptide drug conjugates into cells. But, for efficient therapy, high concentration of cargo needs to be delivered. To explore this, we studied the pharma-cologically interesting neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1R) in recombinant and three oncogenic cell systems that endogenously express the receptor. We demonstrate that recycled receptors behave identically to newly synthesized receptors with respect to ligand binding and internalization pathways. Depending on the cell system, biosynthesis, recycling efficiency and peptide uptake differ partially, but shuttling was efficient in all systems. However, by comparing continuous application of the ligand for four hours to four cycles of internalization and recycling in between, a significantly higher amount of peptide uptake was achieved in the pulsed application (150-250% to 300-400%). Accordingly, in this well-suited drug shuttle system pulsed application is superior under all investigated conditions and should be considered for innovative, targeted drug delivery in general.

2.
J Med Chem ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602722

RESUMO

Animal venoms are rich in hundreds of toxins with extraordinary biological activities. Their exploitation is difficult due to their complexity and the small quantities of venom available from most venomous species. We developed a Venomics approach combining transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 191 species and identified 20,206 venom toxin sequences. Two complementary production strategies based on solid-phase synthesis and recombinant expression in Escherichia coli generated a physical bank of 3597 toxins. Screened on hMC4R, this bank gave an incredible hit rate of 8%. Here, we focus on two novel toxins: N-TRTX-Preg1a, exhibiting an inhibitory cystine knot (ICK) motif, and N-BUTX-Ptr1a, a short scorpion-CSαß structure. Neither N-TRTX-Preg1a nor N-BUTX-Ptr1a affects ion channels, the known targets of their toxin scaffolds, but binds to four melanocortin receptors with low micromolar affinities and activates the hMC1R/Gs pathway. Phylogenetically, these two toxins form new groups within their respective families and represent novel hMC1R agonists, structurally unrelated to the natural agonists.

4.
Peptides ; 131: 170347, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569606

RESUMO

The peptide hormone adrenomedullin (ADM) consists of 52 amino acids and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes, particularly those of the cardiovascular and lymphatic system. Like calcitonin (CT), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), intermedin (IMD) and amylin (AMY), it belongs to the CT/CGRP family of peptide hormones, which despite their low little sequence identity share certain characteristic structural features as well as a complex multicomponent receptor system. ADM, IMD and CGRP exert their biological effects by activation of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) as a complex with one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP), which alter the ligand affinity. Selectivity within the receptor system is largely mediated by the amidated C-terminus of the peptide hormones, which bind to the extracellular domains of the receptors. This enables their N-terminus consisting of a disulfide-bonded ring structure and a helical segment to bind within the transmembrane region and to induce an active receptor confirmation. ADM is expressed in a variety of tissues in the human body and is fundamentally involved in multitude biological processes. Thus, it is of interest as a diagnostic marker and a promising candidate for therapeutic interventions. In order to fully exploit the potential of ADM, it is necessary to improve its pharmacological profile by increasing the metabolic stability and, ideally, creating receptor subtype-selective analogs. While several successful attempts to prolong the half-life of ADM were recently reported, improving or even retaining receptor selectivity remains challenging.

5.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 49, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sensitive balance between receptor activation and desensitization is crucial for cellular homeostasis. Like many other GPCR, the human neuropeptide Y2 receptor (hY2R) undergoes ligand dependent activation and internalization into intracellular compartments, followed by recycling to the plasma membrane. This receptor is involved in the pathophysiology of distinct diseases e.g. epilepsy and cancer progression and conveys anorexigenic signals which makes it an interesting and promising anti-obesity target. However, Y2R desensitization was observed after daily treatment with a selective PYY13-36 analog in vivo by a yet unknown mechanism. MATERIALS: We studied the desensitization and activatability of recycled Y2R in transiently transfected HEK293 cells as well as in endogenously Y2R expressing SH-SY5Y and SMS-KAN cells. Results were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post test. RESULTS: We observed strong desensitization of the Y2R in a second round of stimulation despite its reappearance at the membrane. Already the first activation of the Y2R leads to depletion of the functional cellular Gαi/o protein pool and consequently desensitizes the linked signal transduction pathways, independent of receptor internalization. This desensitization also extends to other Gαi/o-coupled GPCR and can be detected in transfected HEK293 as well as in SH-SY5Y and SMS-KAN cell lines, both expressing the Y2R endogenously. By overexpression of chimeric Gαqi proteins in a model system, activation has been rescued, which identifies a critical role of the G protein status for cellular signaling. Furthermore, Y2R displays strong allosteric coupling to inhibitory G proteins in radioligand binding assays, and loses 10-fold affinity in the G protein-depleted state observed after activation, which can be largely abrogated by overexpression of the Gαi-subunit. CONCLUSION: The unusually persistent Gαi-signaling of the Y2R leads to a state of cellular desensitization of the inhibitory Gαi-pathway. The strong allosteric effects of the Y2R-Gαi-interaction might be a mechanism that contributes to the burst of Gαi-signaling, but also serves as a mechanism to limit the Y2-mediated signaling after recycling. Thus, the cell is left in a refractory state, preventing further Gαi-signaling of the Y2R itself but also other Gαi/o-coupled receptors by simply controlling the repertoire of downstream effectors. Video abstract.

6.
Lab Chip ; 20(8): 1449-1460, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219236

RESUMO

In bioelectrocatalysis, immobilised redox enzymes are activated in a bioelectronic interface without redox equivalents such as NADPH, thus enabling heterogeneous flow chemistry. The functional contact between enzyme and electrode requires a high degree of optimisation regarding choice of electrode material, electrode pre-treatment, enzyme immobilisation and reaction conditions. So far, however, there are no systems that can easily enable an optimisation procedure at a higher throughput. Here, we present an advanced platform with a vertical divided cell architecture in conjunction with a developed 96-multipotentiostat to be able to drive redox enzymes in 96 well microtiter plate based multielectrode arrays. This platform controls 96 independent three-electrode setups with arbitrary working electrode materials. We demonstrate its applicability in a mutation study of cytochrome P450 BM3 using indium tin oxide as electrode material and the 7-ethoxycoumarin product quantification assay. We show that the bioelectrocatalytic activity of P450 BM3 can be amplified when the cofactor FAD is erased from the enzyme by a single point mutation, so that FMN becomes the first electron entry point. Bioelectrocatalysis thus offers an approach to enzyme simplification as a remedy for the inherent instability of self-sufficient cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition, we examined native and artificial enzyme activation with respect to ionic strength and buffer composition. The optimal conditions of the activation types differ substantially from each other and exhibit a new molecular facet in enzyme characteristics. In a proof-of-principle we demonstrate that the platform is also compatible with raw cell extracts, thus opening the door for random mutagenesis screenings.

7.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054032

RESUMO

Adipokines and apolipoproteins are key regulators and potential biomarkers in obesity and associated diseases and their quantitative assessment is crucial for functional analyses to understand disease mechanisms. Compared to routinely used ELISAs, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based mass spectrometry allows multiplexing and detection of proteins for which antibodies are not available. Thus, we established an MRM method to quantify 9 adipokines and 10 apolipoproteins in human serum. We optimized sample preparation by depleting the two most abundant serum proteins for improved detectability of low abundant proteins. Intra-day and inter-day imprecision were below 16.5%, demonstrating a high accuracy. In 50 serum samples from participants with either normal weight or obesity, we quantified 8 adipokines and 10 apolipoproteins. Significantly different abundances were observed for five adipokines (adipsin, adiponectin, chemerin, leptin, vaspin) and four apolipoproteins (apo-B100/-C2/-C4/-D) between the body mass index (BMI) groups. Additionally, we applied our MRM assay to serum samples from normal weight children and human adipocyte cell culture supernatants to proof the feasibility for large cohort studies and distinct biological matrices. In summary, this multiplexed assay facilitated the investigation of relationships between adipokines or apolipoproteins and phenotypes or clinical parameters in large cohorts, which may contribute to disease prediction approaches in the future.

8.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919571

RESUMO

Functionally selective ligands to address specific cellular responses downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) open up new possibilities for therapeutics. We designed and characterized novel subtype- and pathway-selective ligands. Substitution of position Q34 of neuropeptide Y to glycine (G34-NPY) results in unprecedented selectivity over all other YR subtypes. Moreover, this ligand displays a significant bias towards activation of the Gi/o pathway over recruitment of arrestin-3. Notably, no bias is observed for an established Y1R versus Y2R selective ligand carrying a proline at position 34 (F7,P34-NPY). Next, we investigated the spatio-temporal signaling at the Y1R and demonstrated that G protein-biased ligands promote a prolonged localization at the cell membrane, which leads to enhanced G protein signaling, while endosomal receptors do not contribute to cAMP signaling. Thus, spatial components are critical for the signaling of the Y1R that can be modulated by tailored ligands and represent a novel mode for biased pathways.

9.
Biomater Sci ; 8(6): 1734-1747, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998886

RESUMO

Insufficient endothelialization of cardiovascular devices is a high-risk factor for implant failure. Presentation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived coatings is a well-known strategy to improve implant integration. However, the complexity of the system is challenging and strategies for applying multifunctionality are required. Here, we engineered mussel-derived surface-binding peptides equipped with integrin (c[RGDfK]) and proteoglycan binding sites (FHRRIKA) for enhanced endothelialization. Surface-binding properties of the platform containing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues were confirmed for hydrophilized polycaprolactone-co-lactide scaffolds as well as for glass and polystyrene. Further, heparin and the heparin-binding angiogenic factors VEGF, FGF-2 and CXCL12 were immobilized onto the peptide in a modular assembly. Presentation of bioactive peptides greatly enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion and survival under static and fluidic conditions. In subsequent investigations, peptide-heparin-complexes loaded with CXCL12 or VEGF had an additional increasing effect on cell viability, differentiation and migration. Finally, hemocompatibility of the coatings was ensured. This study demonstrates that coatings combining adhesion peptides, glycosaminoglycans and modulators are a versatile tool to convey ECM-inspired multifunctionality to biomaterials and efficiently promote their integration.

10.
Mol Metab ; 31: 163-180, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PPARα/γ dual agonists have been in clinical development for the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, severe adverse side effects led to complications in clinical trials. As most of the beneficial effects rely on the compound activity in adipocytes, the selective targeting of this cell type is a cutting-edge strategy to develop safe anti-diabetic drugs. The goal of this study was to strengthen the adipocyte-specific uptake of the PPARα/γ agonist tesaglitazar via NPY1R-mediated internalization. METHODS: NPY1R-preferring peptide tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY (tesa-NPY) was synthesized by a combination of automated SPPS and manual couplings. Following molecular and functional analyses for proof of concept, cell culture experiments were conducted to monitor the effects on adipogenesis. Mice treated with peptide drug conjugates or vehicle either by gavage or intraperitoneal injection were characterized phenotypically and metabolically. Histological analysis and transcriptional profiling of the adipose tissue were performed. RESULTS: In vitro studies revealed that the tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY conjugate selectively activates PPARγ in NPY1R-expressing cells and enhances adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression in adipocyte precursor cells. In vivo studies using db/db mice demonstrated that the anti-diabetic activity of the peptide conjugate is as efficient as that of systemically administered tesaglitazar. Additionally, tesa-NPY induces adipocyte differentiation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY conjugate is a promising strategy to apply the beneficial PPARα/γ effects in adipocytes while potentially omitting adverse effects in other tissues.

11.
J Med Chem ; 63(5): 2358-2371, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589041

RESUMO

G-protein-coupled receptors like the human Y1 receptor (hY1R) are promising targets in cancer therapy due to their high overexpression on cancer cells and their ability to internalize together with the bound ligand. This mechanism was exploited to shuttle boron atoms into cancer cells for the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a noninvasive approach to eliminate cancer cells. A maximized number of carboranes was introduced to the hY1R-preferring ligand [F7,P34]-NPY by solid phase peptide synthesis. Branched conjugates loaded with up to 80 boron atoms per peptide molecule exhibited a maintained receptor activation profile, and the selective uptake into hY1R-expressing cells was demonstrated by internalization studies. In order to ensure appropriate solubility in aqueous solution, we proved the need for eight hydroxyl groups per carborane. Thus, we suggest the utilization of bis-deoxygalactosyl-carborane building blocks in solid phase peptide synthesis to produce selective boron delivery agents for BNCT.

12.
J Org Chem ; 85(3): 1446-1457, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813224

RESUMO

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) allows the selective elimination of malignant tumor cells without affecting healthy tissue. Although this binary radiotherapy approach has been known for decades, BNCT failed to reach the daily clinics to date. One of the reasons is the lack of selective boron delivery agents. Using boron loaded peptide conjugates, which address G protein-coupled receptors overexpressed on tumor cells allow the intracellular accumulation of boron. The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is a well-known target in cancer diagnosis and can potentially be used for BNCT. Here, we present the successful introduction of multiple bis-deoxygalactosyl-carborane building blocks to the GRPR-selective ligand [d-Phe6, ß-Ala11, Ala13, Nle14]Bn(6-14) (sBB2L) generating peptide conjugates with up to 80 boron atoms per molecule. Receptor activation was retained, metabolic stability was increased, and uptake into PC3 cells was proven without showing any intrinsic cytotoxicity. Furthermore, undesired uptake into liver cells was suppressed by using l-deoxygalactosyl modified carborane building blocks. Due to its high boron loading and excellent GRPR selectivity, this conjugate can be considered as a promising boron delivery agent for BNCT.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 49(1): 57-69, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808482

RESUMO

Introduction of a bis(isopropylidene)-protected galactopyranosyl moiety in s-triazine-based boron-rich carboxylic acids and amines results in soluble and suitable coupling partners for tumour-selective biomolecules with applications as selective agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Bearing either a carboxylic acid or primary amine as a functional group, these compounds are highly versatile and thus largely extend the possible coupling strategies with suitable biomolecules. Modification of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) selective agonist [d-Phe6, ß-Ala11, Ala13, Nle14]Bn(6-14) with the carboxylic acid derivative yielded a bioconjugate with an optimal receptor activation and internalisation profile. This demonstrates the great potential of this approach for the development of novel boron delivery agents.

14.
J Pept Sci ; 25(12): e3224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743956

RESUMO

The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is part of the bombesin receptor family and a well-known target in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In the last decade, promising results have been achieved by using peptide-drug conjugates, which allow selective targeting of GRPR expressing tumor cells. Most ligands, however, have been antagonists even though agonists can lead to higher tumor uptake owing to their internalization. So far, only a few studies focused on the identification of small GRPR-selective agonists that are metabolically stable. Here, we developed novel bombesin analogs with high selectivity for the GRPR and improved blood plasma stability. The most promising analog [d-Phe6 , ß-Ala11 , NMe-Ala13 , Nle14 ]Bn(6-14) displays an activity of 0.3nM at the GRPR, a more than 4000-fold selectivity over the other two bombesin receptors and more than 75% stability in human blood plasma after 24 hours. This analog is proposed as a promising drug shuttle for the intracellular delivery of different payloads in targeted tumor therapy approaches.


Assuntos
Bombesina/farmacologia , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Receptores da Bombesina/agonistas , Bombesina/análogos & derivados , Bombesina/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/sangue , Neurotransmissores/química
15.
Biol Chem ; 401(1): 97-116, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539345

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are of great pharmaceutical interest and about 35% of the commercial drugs target these proteins. Still there is huge potential left in finding molecules that target new GPCRs or that modulate GPCRs differentially. For a rational drug design, it is important to understand the structure, binding and activation of the protein of interest. Structural investigations of GPCRs remain challenging, although huge progress has been made in the last 20 years, especially in the generation of crystal structures of GPCRs. This is mostly caused by issues with the expression yield, purity or labeling. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an efficient alternative for recombinant expression systems that can potentially address many of these problems. In this article the use of CFPS for structural investigations of GPCRs is reviewed. We compare different CFPS systems, including the cellular basis and reaction configurations, and strategies for an efficient solubilization. Next, we highlight recent advances in the structural investigation of cell-free expressed GPCRs, with special emphasis on the role of photo-crosslinking approaches to investigate ligand binding sites on GPCRs.

16.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(10): 2664-2674, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532989

RESUMO

Common interventional therapies for cardiovascular occlusive diseases, such as the implantation of stents, are at risk of complications like thrombosis or restenosis. Drug-eluting stents have improved patency but simultaneously worsen the endothelialization of the implant. Here, we present a novel peptide coating derived from three proteins of the extracellular matrix named fibronectin, laminin, and elastin. Their active sequences RGD, SIKVAV, and VGVAPG were immobilized onto titanium surfaces by a carrier peptide containing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Simultaneous functionalization of the carrier peptide with cyclic c[RGDfK] and SIKVAV had the most potent influence on adhesion, proliferation, viability, and angiogenesis of endothelial cells. By presentation of two adhesion peptides in one molecule, a synergistic enhancement of cell-surface interactions was achieved. Overall, this work clearly demonstrates the advantages of spatially defined peptide coatings for the endothelialization of titanium and thus describes a promising approach for the coating of stents.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12363, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451776

RESUMO

Thermoresponsive bio-only gels that yield sufficiently large strokes reversibly and without large hysteresis at a well-defined temperature in the physiological range, promise to be of value in biomedical application. Within the present work we demonstrate that electron beam modification of a blend of natural collagen and elastin gels is a route to achieve this goal, viz. to synthesize a bioresorbable gel with largely reversible volume contractions as large as 90% upon traversing a transition temperature that can be preadjusted between 36 °C and 43 °C by the applied electron dose. Employing circular dichroism and temperature depending confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements, we furthermore unravel the mechanisms underlying this macroscopic behavior on a molecular and network level, respectively and suggest a stringent picture to account for the experimental observations.

18.
Mol Pharm ; 16(8): 3665-3677, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310716

RESUMO

Peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) is an endogenous ligand of the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R), on which it acts to reduce food intake. Chemically modified PYY3-36 analogues with extended half-lives are potential therapeutics for the treatment of obesity. Here we show that the common half-life extending strategies PEGylation and lipidation not only control PYY3-36's pharmacokinetics but also affect central aspects of its pharmacodynamics. PEGylation of PYY3-36 inhibited endocytosis by increasing receptor dissociation rates (koff), which reduced arrestin-3 (Arr3) activity. This is the first link between Arr3 recruitment and Y2R residence time. C16-lipidation of PYY3-36 had a negligible impact on Y2R signaling, binding, and endocytosis. In contrast, C18acid-lipidation minimized endocytosis, which indicated a decreased internalization through non-arrestin-related mechanisms. We propose a temporal model that connects the properties and position of the half-life extender with receptor Gi versus Arr3 signaling bias. We believe that this will be important for future design of peptide therapeutics.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 48(29): 10834-10844, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246208

RESUMO

Based on a modular combination of s-triazine, the well-known 9-mercapto-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane(12) and commercially available carboxylic acids, namely thioglycolic acid, glycine, and Nα-Boc-l-lysine, several carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesised and fully characterised. The thioglycolic acid derivative was introduced into a peptide hormone by solid phase peptide synthesis. High activity and selective internalisation into peptide receptor-expressing cells was observed. With a very high boron content of twenty boron atoms, these derivatives are interesting as selective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) agents.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881304

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a large family of different proteins, which are involved in physiological processes throughout the entire body. Furthermore, they represent important drug targets. For rational drug design, it is important to get further insights into the binding mode of endogenous ligands as well as of therapeutic agents at the respective target receptors. However, structural investigations usually require homogenous, solubilized and functional receptors, which is still challenging. Cell-free expression methods have emerged in the last years and many different proteins are successfully expressed, including hydrophobic membrane proteins like GPCRs. In this work, an Escherichia coli based cell-free expression system was used to express the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R) for structural investigations. This GPCR was expressed in two different variants, a C-terminal enhanced green fluorescent fusion protein and a cysteine deficient variant. In order to obtain soluble receptors, the expression was performed in the presence of mild detergents, either Brij-35 or Brij-58, which led to high amounts of soluble receptor. Furthermore, the influence of temperature, pH value and additives on protein expression and solubilization was tested. For functional and structural investigations, the receptors were expressed at 37°C, pH 7.4 in the presence of 1 mM oxidized and 5 mM reduced glutathione. The expressed receptors were purified by ligand affinity chromatography and functionality of Y2R_cysteine_deficient was verified by a homogenous binding assay. Finally, photo-crosslinking studies were performed between cell-free expressed Y2R_cysteine_deficient and a neuropeptide Y (NPY) analog bearing the photoactive, unnatural amino acid p-benzoyl-phenylalanine at position 27 and biotin at position 22 for purification. After enzymatic digestion, fragments of crosslinked receptor were identified by mass spectrometry. Our findings demonstrate that, in contrast to Y1R, NPY position 27 remains flexible when bound to Y2R. These results are in agreement with the suggested binding mode of NPY at Y2R.

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