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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5980, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239672

RESUMO

Miscarriage is a common, complex trait affecting ~15% of clinically confirmed pregnancies. Here we present the results of large-scale genetic association analyses with 69,054 cases from five different ancestries for sporadic miscarriage, 750 cases of European ancestry for multiple (≥3) consecutive miscarriage, and up to 359,469 female controls. We identify one genome-wide significant association (rs146350366, minor allele frequency (MAF) 1.2%, P = 3.2 × 10-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.4) for sporadic miscarriage in our European ancestry meta-analysis and three genome-wide significant associations for multiple consecutive miscarriage (rs7859844, MAF = 6.4%, P = 1.3 × 10-8, OR = 1.7; rs143445068, MAF = 0.8%, P = 5.2 × 10-9, OR = 3.4; rs183453668, MAF = 0.5%, P = 2.8 × 10-8, OR = 3.8). We further investigate the genetic architecture of miscarriage with biobank-scale Mendelian randomization, heritability, and genetic correlation analyses. Our results show that miscarriage etiopathogenesis is partly driven by genetic variation potentially related to placental biology, and illustrate the utility of large-scale biobank data for understanding this pregnancy complication.

2.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an often chronic, inflammatory gynaecologic condition affecting 190 million women worldwide. Studies have reported an elevated cancer risk among patients with endometriosis. However, prior research has included methodologic issues that impede valid and robust interpretation. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between endometriosis and cancer risk and analysed the results by methodologic characteristics. We discuss the implications of cancer screening in patients and management challenges faced by clinicians. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies from inception through 24 October 2019. We included cohort and case-control studies examining the association between endometriosis and cancer risk; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. Publications had to present risk/rate/odds estimates with 95% CI. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRR) and CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies were assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. OUTCOMES: Forty-nine population-based case-control and cohort studies were included. Twenty-six studies were scored as having a 'serious'/'critical' risk of bias, and the remaining 23 'low'/'moderate'. Cancer-specific analyses showed a positive association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk (SRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.68-2.22; n = 24 studies) that was strongest for clear cell (SRR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.82-4.42; n = 5 studies) and endometrioid (SRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.82-2.98; n = 5 studies) histotypes (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), although with significant evidence of both heterogeneity across studies and publication bias (Egger's and Begg's P-values < 0.01). A robust association was observed between endometriosis and thyroid cancer (SRR = 1.39, 95% CI =1.24-1.57; n = 5 studies), a very small association with breast cancer (SRR = 1.04, 95% CI =1.00-1.09; n = 20 studies) and no association with colorectal cancer (SRR = 1.00, 95% CI =0.87-1.16; n = 5 studies). The association with endometrial cancer was not statistically significant (SRR = 1.23, 95% CI =0.97-1.57; n = 17 studies) overall and wholly null when restricted to prospective cohort studies (SRR = 0.99, 95% CI =0.72-1.37; n = 5 studies). The association with cutaneous melanoma was also non-significant (SRR = 1.17, 95% CI =0.97-1.41; n = 7 studies) but increased in magnitude and was statistically significant when restricted to studies with low/moderate risk of bias (SRR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24-2.36, n = 2 studies). The most robust finding both in terms of statistical significance and magnitude of effect was an inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.56-0.82; n = 4 studies); however, this result has a high potential to reflect heightened access to detection of dysplasia for women who reached an endometriosis diagnosis and is thus likely not causal. Several additional cancer types were explored based on <4 studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Endometriosis was associated with a higher risk of ovarian and thyroid, and minimally (only 4% greater risk) with breast cancer, and with a lower risk of cervical cancer. However, this meta-analysis confirms that: a majority of studies had severe/critical risk of bias; there is impactful heterogeneity across studies-and for ovarian cancer, publication bias; and causal inference requires temporality, which in many studies was not considered. We discuss the implications of these potential associations from the perspectives of patients with endometriosis, clinicians involved in their care, and scientists investigating their long-term health risks.

3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008044, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797044

RESUMO

Genetic studies have recently highlighted the importance of fat distribution, as well as overall adiposity, in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases. Using a large study (n = 1,288) from 4 independent cohorts, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mean adipocyte area and obesity-related traits, and identify genetic factors associated with adipocyte cell size. To perform the first large-scale study of automatic adipocyte phenotyping using both histological and genetic data, we developed a deep learning-based method, the Adipocyte U-Net, to rapidly derive mean adipocyte area estimates from histology images. We validate our method using three state-of-the-art approaches; CellProfiler, Adiposoft and floating adipocytes fractions, all run blindly on two external cohorts. We observe high concordance between our method and the state-of-the-art approaches (Adipocyte U-net vs. CellProfiler: R2visceral = 0.94, P < 2.2 × 10-16, R2subcutaneous = 0.91, P < 2.2 × 10-16), and faster run times (10,000 images: 6mins vs 3.5hrs). We applied the Adipocyte U-Net to 4 cohorts with histology, genetic, and phenotypic data (total N = 820). After meta-analysis, we found that mean adipocyte area positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (Psubq = 8.13 × 10-69, ßsubq = 0.45; Pvisc = 2.5 × 10-55, ßvisc = 0.49; average R2 across cohorts = 0.49) and that adipocytes in subcutaneous depots are larger than their visceral counterparts (Pmeta = 9.8 × 10-7). Lastly, we performed the largest GWAS and subsequent meta-analysis of mean adipocyte area and intra-individual adipocyte variation (N = 820). Despite having twice the number of samples than any similar study, we found no genome-wide significant associations, suggesting that larger sample sizes and a homogenous collection of adipose tissue are likely needed to identify robust genetic associations.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Obesidade , Adipócitos/classificação , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Celular , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 194, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640140
7.
Hum Reprod Open ; 2020(1): hoaa002, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064361

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: How should surgery for endometriosis be performed? SUMMARY ANSWER: This document provides recommendations covering technical aspects of different methods of surgery for deep endometriosis in women of reproductive age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriosis is highly prevalent and often associated with severe symptoms. Yet compared to equally prevalent conditions, it is poorly understood and a challenge to manage. Previously published guidelines have provided recommendations for (surgical) treatment of deep endometriosis, based on the best available evidence, but without technical information and details on how to best perform such treatment in order to be effective and safe. STUDY DESIGN SIZE DURATION: A working group of the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE), ESHRE and the World Endometriosis Society (WES) collaborated on writing recommendations on the practical aspects of surgery for treatment of deep endometriosis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: This document focused on surgery for deep endometriosis and is complementary to a previous document in this series focusing on endometrioma surgery. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The document presents general recommendations for surgery for deep endometriosis, starting from preoperative assessments and first steps of surgery. Different approaches for surgical treatment are discussed and are respective of location and extent of disease; uterosacral ligaments and rectovaginal septum with or without involvement of the rectum, urinary tract or extrapelvic endometriosis. In addition, recommendations are provided on the treatment of frozen pelvis and on hysterectomy as a treatment for deep endometriosis. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: Owing to the limited evidence available, recommendations are mostly based on clinical expertise. Where available, references of relevant studies were added. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These recommendations complement previous guidelines on management of endometriosis and the recommendations for surgical treatment of ovarian endometrioma. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The meetings of the working group were funded by ESGE, ESHRE and WES. Dr Roman reports personal fees from ETHICON, PLASMASURGICAL, OLYMPUS and NORDIC PHARMA, outside the submitted work; Dr Becker reports grants from Bayer AG, Volition Rx, MDNA Life Sciences and Roche Diagnostics Inc. and other relationships or activities from AbbVie Inc., and Myriad Inc, during the conduct of the study; Dr Tomassetti reports non-financial support from ESHRE, during the conduct of the study; and non-financial support and other were from Lumenis, Gedeon-Richter, Ferring Pharmaceuticals and Merck SA, outside the submitted work. The other authors had nothing to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: na.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1495, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001775

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease of women in reproductive age, and is thought to arise from retrograde menstruation and implantation of endometrial tissue, mostly into the peritoneal cavity. The condition is characterized by a chronic, unresolved inflammatory process thereby contributing to pain as cardinal symptom in endometriosis. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress have been postulated as factors in endometriosis pathogenesis. We here set out for a systematic study to identify novel mechanisms and pathways relating to oxidative stress in ectopic peritoneal lesions. Using combined proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified novel targets including upregulated pro-oxidative enzymes, such as amine oxidase 3/vascular adhesion protein 1 (AOC3/VAP1) as well as downregulated protective factors, in particular alkenal reductase PTGR1 and methionine sulfoxide reductase. Consistent with an altered ROS landscape, we observed hemoglobin / iron overload, ROS production and lipid peroxidation in ectopic lesions. ROS-derived 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal induced interleukin IL-8 release from monocytes. Notably, AOC3 inhibitors provoked analgesic effects in inflammatory pain models in vivo, suggesting potential translational applicability.


Assuntos
Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Endometriose/metabolismo , Doenças Peritoneais/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/antagonistas & inibidores , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endometriose/genética , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Mieloides/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças Peritoneais/genética , Doenças Peritoneais/patologia , Fagocitose , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
9.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 364-373.e2, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of studying exosomes directly from peritoneal fluid, we isolated exosomes from endometriosis patient samples and from controls, and characterized their cargo. DESIGN: Case-control experimental study. SETTING: Academic clinical center. PATIENT (S): Women with and without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic surgery (n = 28 in total). INTERVENTION (S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE (S): Concentration of exosomes within peritoneal fluid and protein content of the isolated exosomes. RESULT (S): Peritoneal fluid samples were pooled according to the cycle phase and disease stage to form six experimental groups, from which the exosomes were isolated. Exosomes were successfully isolated from peritoneal fluid in all the study groups. The concentration varied with cycle phase and disease stage. Proteomic analysis showed specific proteins in the exosomes derived from endometriosis patients that were absent in the controls. Five proteins were found exclusively in the endometriosis groups: PRDX1, H2A type 2-C, ANXA2, ITIH4, and the tubulin α-chain. CONCLUSION (S): Exosomes are present in peritoneal fluid. The characterization of endometriosis-specific exosomes opens up new avenues for the diagnosis and investigation of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/química , Endometriose/metabolismo , Exossomos/química , Proteínas/análise , Adulto , Anexina A2/análise , Líquido Ascítico/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endometriose/patologia , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Histonas/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peroxirredoxinas/análise , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/análise , Proteômica , Tubulina (Proteína)/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 3, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition characterised by immune cell infiltration and distinct inflammatory signatures found in the peritoneal cavity. In this study, we aim to characterise the immune microenvironment in samples isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with endometriosis. METHODS: We applied mass cytometry (CyTOF), a recently developed multiparameter single-cell technique, in order to characterise and quantify the immune cells found in peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood from endometriosis and control patients. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate the presence of more than 40 different distinct immune cell types within the peritoneal cavity. This suggests that there is a complex and highly heterogeneous inflammatory microenvironment underpinning the pathology of endometriosis. Stratification by clinical disease stages reveals a dynamic spectrum of cell signatures suggesting that adaptations in the inflammatory system occur due to the severity of the disease. Notably, among the inflammatory microenvironment in peritoneal fluid (PF), the presence of CD69+ T cell subsets is increased in endometriosis when compared to control patient samples. On these CD69+ cells, the expression of markers associated with T cell function are reduced in PF samples compared to blood. Comparisons between CD69+ and CD69- populations reveal distinct phenotypes across peritoneal T cell lineages. Taken together, our results suggest that both the innate and the adaptive immune system play roles in endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a systematic characterisation of the specific immune environment in the peritoneal cavity and identifies cell immune signatures associated with endometriosis. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the specific cell phenotypes governing inflammation in patients with endometriosis. This prospective study offers a useful resource for understanding disease pathology and opportunities for identifying therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/imunologia , Endometriose/imunologia , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Líquido Ascítico/patologia , Endometriose/metabolismo , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T
11.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 42(7): 881-888.e11, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among women treated surgically for endometriosis-associated pain, comprehensive data are lacking on the proportions of patients who experience little or no symptom relief, develop recurrent symptoms, or require further surgical treatment for endometriosis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of surgical procedures used to treat endometriosis-associated pain. METHODS: Medline and Embase were searched on October 13, 2016. Articles referring to women undergoing surgery for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pain were screened by two independent investigators. For each included treatment arm, data were extracted for the proportion of patients reporting partial or no improvement after surgery for endometriosis-associated pain, pain recurrence, or requirement for further surgery. RESULTS: A total of 38 studies were included. Most studies did not report relevant outcomes to evaluate pain (71.1%) and recurrent surgery (68.4%). Of the women who underwent lesion excision, 11.8% reported no improvement in pain, and 22.6% underwent further surgery. Postoperative pain, recurrent pain, and adverse events were reported by 34.3%, 28.7%, and 14.8%, respectively, of patients who underwent excision or ablation of endometriosis combined with pelvic denervation and in 25.0%, 15.8%, and 8.1% of women who underwent lesion excision alone. Of the patients who were treated surgically for deep endometriosis affecting the bowel and/or bladder, 7.0% experienced recurrent symptoms, and 4.1% underwent further surgery. CONCLUSION: This review supports the findings of previous studies and highlights the need for standardized reporting and more detailed follow-up after surgery for endometriosis-associated pain.

12.
Hum Reprod Update ; 25(4): 486-503, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological disorder that affects 2-10% of women of reproductive age. The aetiology of endometriosis is largely under-explored, yet abnormalities in the immune system have been suggested to explain the origin of ectopic endometrial tissues, and an association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases has been proposed. Evaluation of current evidence investigating the association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases from population-based studies will facilitate our understanding of the causes and consequences of endometriosis and provide a reference for better healthcare practices population-wide. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on population-based studies investigating an association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases and to conduct a meta-analysis of combinable results to investigate the extent and robustness of evidence. SEARCH METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL) from each database inception date until 7 April 2018. Search terms included a combination of database-specific controlled vocabulary terms and free-text terms relating to 'endometriosis' and 'autoimmune diseases'. Study inclusion criteria focused on peer-reviewed published articles that reported an association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, excluding case reports/series, review papers, meta-analyses, organizational guidelines, editorial letters, expert opinions, and conference abstracts. Quality assessment of included studies was performed based on GRADE criteria. Key information of eligible studies was abstracted into a standard form. Meta-analysis was performed for autoimmune diseases with combinable study results from at least three studies investigating an association with endometriosis. For cross-sectional studies and case-control studies, raw data from each study were documented to calculate a Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% CIs. For cohort studies, an inverse variance probability weighted model was used to pool study results to calculate a rate ratio (a hazard ratio or a standardized incidence rate) with 95% CIs. OUTCOMES: A total of 26 published population-based cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies that investigated the association between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases met all eligible criteria and were included in the review. The studies quantified an association between endometriosis and several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), autoimmune thyroid disorder, coeliac disease (CLD), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Addison's disease. However, the quality of the evidence was generally poor due to the high risk of bias in the majority of the chosen study designs and statistical analyses. Only 5 of the 26 studies could provide high-quality evidence, and among these, 4 supported a statistically significant association between endometriosis and at least 1 autoimmune disease: SLE, SS, RA, CLD, MS, or IBD. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The observed associations between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases suggest that clinicians need to be aware of the potential coexistence of endometriosis and autoimmune diseases when either is diagnosed. Scientists interested in research studies on endometriosis or autoimmune diseases should consider the likelihood of comorbidity when studying these two types of health conditions. Well-designed large prospective cohort studies with confounding control and mediation quantification, as well as genetic and biological studies, are needed to generate further insights into whether endometriosis is a risk factor for, or a consequence of, autoimmune diseases, and whether these two types of disorders share pathophysiological mechanisms even if they arise independently. Such insights may offer opportunities for the development of novel non-hormonal medications such as immuno-modulators or repurposing of existing immunomodulatory therapies for endometriosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endometriose/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Endometriose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia
13.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(2): 237-244, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discordance between gonadal type and gender identity has often led to an assumption of infertility in patients with differences in sex development (DSD). However, there is now greater recognition of fertility being an important issue for this group of patients. Currently, gonadal tissue that may have fertility potential is not being stored for individuals with DSD and, where gonadectomy forms part of management, is often discarded. The area of fertility preservation has been predominantly driven by oncofertility which is a field dedicated to preserving the fertility of patients undergoing gonadotoxic cancer treatment. The use of fertility preservation techniques could be expanded to include individuals with DSD where functioning gonads are present. METHODS: This is a systematic literature review evaluating original research articles and relevant reviews between 1974 and 2018 addressing DSD and fertility, in vitro maturation of sperm, and histological/ultrastructural assessment of gonadal tissue in complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 and 5α-reductase deficiency. CONCLUSION: Successful clinical outcomes of ovarian tissue cryopreservation are paving the way for similar research being conducted using testicular tissue and sperm. There have been promising results from both animal and human studies leading to cryopreservation of testicular tissue now being offered to boys prior to cancer treatment. Although data are limited, there is evidence to suggest the presence of reproductive potential in the gonads of some individuals with DSD. Larger, more detailed studies are required, but if these continue to be encouraging, individuals with DSD should be given the same information, opportunities and access to fertility preservation as other patient groups.


Assuntos
3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/deficiência , Criopreservação/métodos , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Hipospadia/fisiopatologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/fisiopatologia , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipospadia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/diagnóstico
14.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4(1): 9, 2018 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026507

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of tissue outside the uterus that resembles endometrium, mainly on pelvic organs and tissues. It affects ~5-10% of women in their reproductive years - translating to 176 million women worldwide - and is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Diagnosis is reliably established only through surgical visualization with histological verification, although ovarian endometrioma and deep nodular forms of disease can be detected through ultrasonography and MRI. Retrograde menstruation is regarded as an important origin of the endometrial deposits, but other factors are involved, including a favourable endocrine and metabolic environment, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and altered immunity and inflammatory responses in genetically susceptible women. Current treatments are dictated by the primary indication (infertility or pelvic pain) and are limited to surgery and hormonal treatments and analgesics with many adverse effects that rarely provide long-term relief. Endometriosis substantially affects the quality of life of women and their families and imposes costs on society similar to those of other chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Future research must focus on understanding the pathogenesis, identifying disease subtypes, developing non-invasive diagnostic methods and targeting non-hormonal treatments that are acceptable to women who wish to conceive.


Assuntos
Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
15.
Hum Reprod Open ; 2018(4): hoy016, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895257

RESUMO

Study question: What is the effect of endometriosis compared to unexplained subfertility on live birth rate in women undergoing IVF and embryo transfer (ET)? Summary answer: Endometriosis decreases live birth rate in women undergoing IVF-ET treatment, particularly with increasing severity of the disease. What is known already: Endometriosis affects up to 50% of women seeking fertility treatment and is known to reduce fecundity. There remains a debate as to effects of endometriosis on the outcomes of IVF treatment, with live birth being a secondary outcome or not reported in most studies. Study design size duration: A retrospective cohort study analyzing data of IVF treatment cycles from January 2000 to December 2014 was carried out. Participants/materials setting methods: Women with endometriosis (n = 531) and women with unexplained subfertility (n = 737) undergoing a first cycle of IVF-ET in a tertiary fertility treatment center were included in the study. The primary outcome was live birth. Other outcome measures were response to ovarian stimulation, embryo development and implantation rate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and differences compared using Chi squared test of Student's t-test as appropriate. Main results and the role of chance: Women with endometriosis had 24% less likelihood of a live birth when compared to those with unexplained subfertility [odds ratio (OR) 0.76 (95% CI, 0.59-0.98) P = 0.035]. This effect became more apparent with increasing severity of endometriosis. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the trend for lower live birth rate remained but did not reach statistical significance [adjusted OR 0.76 (95% CI 0.56-1.03), P = 0.078]. Women with endometriosis were as likely as those with unexplained subfertility to have a singleton live birth when two embryos were transferred as opposed to a single ET [OR 1.38 (95% CI 0.73-2.62), P = 0.32 and OR 3.22 (95% CI 1.7-6.05), P = 0.0003, respectively]. Compared to women with unexplained subfertility, those with endometriosis had fewer oocytes retrieved [(10.54 (95% CI 10.13-0.95) and 9.15 (95% CI 8.69-9.6), respectively], lower blastocyst transfer [OR 0.24 (95% CI 0.12-0.5), P = 0.0001] and a significantly reduced implantation rate [OR 0.73 (0.58-0.92), P = 0.007]. Limitations reasons for caution: The study is limited by a retrospective design. By limiting the study to a single ET cycle, it was not possible to assess the cumulative outcome including use of all frozen embryos. Wider implications of the findings: Endometriosis has similar phenotypes among women in different populations and would be expected to have a similar effect on fertility. These results are therefore generalizable to other populations of women. Study funding/competing interests: None. Trial registration number: Not applicable.

16.
Gynecol Surg ; 14(1): 27, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285022

RESUMO

Study question: What does this document on the surgical treatment of endometriosis jointly prepared by the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE), ESHRE, and the World Endometriosis Society (WES) provide? Summary answer: This document provides recommendations covering technical aspects of different methods of surgery for endometriomas in women of reproductive age. What is already known: Endometriomas (ovarian endometriotic cysts) are a commonly diagnosed form of endometriosis, owing to the relative ease and accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis. They frequently present a clinical dilemma as to whether and how to treat them when found during imaging or incidentally during surgery. Previously published guidelines have provided recommendations based on the best available evidence, but without technical details on the management of endometriosis. Study design size and duration: A working group of ESGE, ESHRE and WES collaborated on writing recommendations on the practical aspects of endometrioma surgery. Participants/materials setting and methods: This document focused on endometrioma surgery. Further documents in this series will provide recommendations for surgery of deep and peritoneal endometriosis. Main results and the role of chance: The document presents general recommendations for surgery of endometrioma and specific recommendations for cystectomy, ablation by laser or by plasma energy, electrocoagulation and a combination of these techniques applied together or with an interval between them. Limitations and reasons for caution: Owing to the limited evidence available, recommendations are mostly based on clinical expertise. Wider implications of the findings: These recommendations complement previous guidelines on the management of endometriosis. Study funding/competing interests: The meetings of the working group were funded by ESGE, ESHRE and WES. CB declares to be a member of the independent data monitoring committee for a clinical study by ObsEva and receiving research grants from Bayer, Roche Diagnostics, MDNA Life Sciences and Volition. ES received honoraria for provision of training to healthcare professionals from Ethicon, Olympus and Gedeon Richter. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

17.
Epigenetics ; 12(10): 897-908, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099281

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies in the fields of reproductive medicine and endocrinology are yielding robust genetic variants associated with disease. Integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic molecular profiling studies are common methodologies used to understand the biologic pathways perturbed by these variants. However, molecular profiling resources do not include the tissue most relevant to many female reproductive traits, the endometrium, while the parameters influencing variability of results from its molecular profiling are unclear. We investigated the sources of DNA methylation and RNA expression profile variability in endometrium (n = 135), endometriotic disease tissue (endometriosis), and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples from 24 women, quantifying between-individual, within-tissue (cellular heterogeneity), and technical variation. DNA samples (n = 96) were analyzed using Illumina HumanMethlylation450 BeadChip arrays; RNA samples (n = 39) were analyzed using H12-expression arrays. Variance-component analyses showed that, for the top 10-50% variable DNA methylation/RNA expression sites, between-individual variation far exceeded within-tissue and technical variation. Menstrual-phase accounted for most variability in methylation/expression patterns in endometrium (Pm = 7.8 × 10-3, Pe = 8.4 × 10-5) but not in fat and endometriotic tissue; age was significantly associated with DNA methylation profile of endometrium (Pm = 9 × 10-5) and endometriotic disease tissue (Pm = 2.4 × 10-5); and smoking was significantly associated with DNA methylation in adipose tissue (Pm = 1.8 × 10-3). Hierarchical cluster analysis showed significantly different methylation signatures between endometrium and endometriotic tissue enriched for WNT signaling, angiogenesis, cadherin signaling, and gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor pathways. Differential DNA methylation/expression analyses suggested detection of a limited number of sites with large fold changes (FC > 4), but power calculations accounting for different sources of variability showed that for robust detection >500 tissue samples are required. These results enable appropriate study design for large-scale expression and methylation tissue-based profiling relevant to many reproductive and endocrine traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/genética , Endometriose/genética , Reprodução/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/patologia , Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
Fertil Steril ; 108(1): 125-136, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess patient response rates to medical therapies used to treat endometriosis-associated pain. DESIGN: A systematic review with the use of Medline and Embase. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women receiving medical therapy to treat endometriosis. INTERVENTIONS(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The proportions of patients who: experienced no reduction in endometriosis-associated pain symptoms; had pain symptoms remaining at the end of the treatment period; had pain recurrence after treatment cessation; experienced an increase or no change in disease score during the study; were satisfied with treatment; and discontinued therapy owing to adverse events or lack of efficacy. The change in pain symptom severity experienced during and after treatment, as measured on the visual analog scale, was also assessed. RESULT(S): In total, 58 articles describing 125 treatment arms met the inclusion criteria. Data for the response of endometriosis-associated pain symptoms to treatment were presented in only 29 articles. The median proportions of women with no reduction in pain were 11%-19%; at the end of treatment, 5%-59% had pain remaining; and after follow-up, 17%-34% had experienced recurrence of pain symptoms after treatment cessation. After median study durations of 2-24 months, the median discontinuation rates due to adverse events or lack of efficacy were 5%-16%. CONCLUSION(S): Few studies of medical therapies for endometriosis report outcomes that are relevant to patients, and many women gain only limited or intermittent benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endometriose/terapia , Dor Pélvica/epidemiologia , Dor Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pélvica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15539, 2017 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537267

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a heritable hormone-dependent gynecological disorder, associated with severe pelvic pain and reduced fertility; however, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we perform a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association case-control data sets, totalling 17,045 endometriosis cases and 191,596 controls. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identify five novel loci significantly associated with endometriosis risk (P<5 × 10-8), implicating genes involved in sex steroid hormone pathways (FN1, CCDC170, ESR1, SYNE1 and FSHB). Conditional analysis identified five secondary association signals, including two at the ESR1 locus, resulting in 19 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with endometriosis, which together explain up to 5.19% of variance in endometriosis. These results highlight novel variants in or near specific genes with important roles in sex steroid hormone signalling and function, and offer unique opportunities for more targeted functional research efforts.


Assuntos
Endometriose/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Endometriose/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Reprod Sci ; 24(2): 202-226, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27368878

RESUMO

The 3rd International Consensus Workshop on Research Priorities in Endometriosis was held in São Paulo on May 4, 2014, following the 12th World Congress on Endometriosis. The workshop was attended by 60 participants from 19 countries and was divided into 5 main sessions covering pathogenesis/pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis/classification/prognosis, disease/symptom management, and research policy. This research priorities consensus statement builds on earlier efforts to develop research directions for endometriosis. Of the 56 research recommendations from the 2011 meeting in Montpellier, a total of 41 remained unchanged, 13 were updated, and 2 were deemed to be completed. Fifty-three new research recommendations were made at the 2014 meeting in Sao Paulo, which in addition to the 13 updated recommendations resulted in a total of 66 new recommendations for research. The research recommendations published herein, as well as those from the 2 previous papers from international consensus workshops, are an attempt to promote high-quality research in endometriosis by identifying and agreeing on key issues that require investigation. New areas included in the 2014 recommendations include infertility, patient stratification, and research in emerging nations, in addition to an increased focus on translational research. A revised and updated set of research priorities that builds on this document will be developed at the 13th World Congress on Endometriosis to be held on May 17-20, 2017, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.


Assuntos
Consenso , Educação , Endometriose , Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos
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