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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.

2.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(5): 1417-1430, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942856

RESUMO

The metabolic conversion of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 18 carbon (18C) to long chain (>20 carbon) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) is vital for human life. The rate-limiting steps of this process are catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and 2. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary history of the FADS genes is essential to our understanding of hominin evolution. The FADS genes have two haplogroups, ancestral and derived, with the derived haplogroup being associated with more efficient LC-PUFA biosynthesis than the ancestral haplogroup. In addition, there is a complex global distribution of these haplogroups that is suggestive of Neanderthal introgression. We confirm that Native American ancestry is nearly fixed for the ancestral haplogroup, and replicate a positive selection signal in Native Americans. This positive selection potentially continued after the founding of the Americas, although simulations suggest that the timing is dependent on the allele frequency of the ancestral Beringian population. We also find that the Neanderthal FADS haplotype is more closely related to the derived haplogroup and the Denisovan clusters closer to the ancestral haplogroup. Furthermore, the derived haplogroup has a time to the most recent common ancestor of 688,474 years before present. These results support an ancient polymorphism, as opposed to Neanderthal introgression, forming in the FADS region during the Pleistocene with possibly differential selection pressures on both haplogroups. The near fixation of the ancestral haplogroup in Native American ancestry calls for future studies to explore the potential health risk of associated low LC-PUFA levels in these populations.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Hominidae/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Hominidae/metabolismo , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Seleção Genética , Sibéria
3.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3945, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258056

RESUMO

The volume of the lateral ventricles (LV) increases with age and their abnormal enlargement is a key feature of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although lateral ventricular volume is heritable, a comprehensive investigation of its genetic determinants is lacking. In this meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 23,533 healthy middle-aged to elderly individuals from 26 population-based cohorts, we identify 7 genetic loci associated with LV volume. These loci map to chromosomes 3q28, 7p22.3, 10p12.31, 11q23.1, 12q23.3, 16q24.2, and 22q13.1 and implicate pathways related to tau pathology, S1P signaling, and cytoskeleton organization. We also report a significant genetic overlap between the thalamus and LV volumes (ρgenetic = -0.59, p-value = 3.14 × 10-6), suggesting that these brain structures may share a common biology. These genetic associations of LV volume provide insights into brain morphology.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(12): 4599-4608, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265320

RESUMO

Context: Previous studies have suggested less cardioprotective benefit of aspirin in adults with diabetes, raising concerns about "aspirin resistance" and potentially reduced effectiveness for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To examine differences in platelet response to aspirin by diabetes status. Design, Setting, Participants: We examined platelet response before and after aspirin (81 mg/day for 14 days) in 2113 adults (175 with diabetes, 1,938 without diabetes), in the Genetic Study of Aspirin Responsiveness cohort, who had family history of early-onset CVD. Main Outcome Measures: In vivo platelet activation (urinary thromboxane B2), in vitro platelet aggregation to agonists (arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, collagen), and platelet function analyzer-100 closure time. Results: Although adults with diabetes had higher in vivo platelet activation before aspirin, the reduction in in vivo platelet activation after aspirin was similar in those with vs without diabetes. Likewise, the reduction in multiple in vitro platelet measures was similar after aspirin by diabetes status. In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, smoking, platelet counts, and fibrinogen levels, in vivo platelet activation remained higher in adults with vs without diabetes after aspirin (P = 0.04), but this difference was attenuated after additional adjustment for preaspirin levels (P = 0.10). No differences by diabetes status were noted for any of the in vitro platelet measures after aspirin in fully adjusted models that also accounted for preaspirin levels. Conclusions: In vitro platelet response to aspirin does not differ by diabetes status, suggesting no intrinsic differences in platelet response to aspirin. Instead, factors extrinsic to platelet function should be investigated to give further insights into aspirin use for primary prevention in diabetes.

6.
Diabetes Metab ; 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875064

RESUMO

AIM: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a first-degree relative is a risk factor for incident diabetes. Americans of African ancestry (AA) have higher rates of T2DM than Americans of European ancestry (EA). Thus, we aimed to determine whether the presence, number and kinship of affected relatives are associated with race-specific T2DM incidence in a prospective study of participants from the Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk (GeneSTAR), who underwent baseline screening including a detailed family history. METHODS: Nondiabetic healthy siblings (n=1405) of patients with early-onset coronary artery disease (18-59 years) were enrolled (861 EA and 544 AA) and followed for incident T2DM (mean 14±6 years). RESULTS: Baseline age was 46.2±7.3 years and 56% were female. T2DM occurred in 12.3% of EA and 19.1% of AA. Among EA, 32.6% had ≥1 affected first-degree relatives versus 53.1% in AA, P<0.0001. In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazard analyses, any family history was related to incident T2DM in EA (HR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.58-4.06) but not in AA (HR=1.01, 0.67-1.53). The number of affected relatives conferred incremental risk of T2DM in EA with HR=1.82 (1.08-3.06), 4.83 (2.15-10.85) and 8.46 (3.09-23.91) for 1, 2, and ≥3 affected, respectively. In AA only ≥3 affected increased risk (HR=2.45, 1.44-4.19). Specific kinship patterns were associated with incident T2DM in EA but not in AA. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of any first-degree relative with T2DM does not discriminate risk in AA given the high race-specific prevalence of diabetes. Accounting for the number of affected relatives may more appropriately estimate risk for incident diabetes in both races.

7.
Platelets ; : 1-7, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553866

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation. In this study, we used targeted deep sequencing to fine-map the prior GWAS peak and identify additional rare variants of PEAR1 that account for missing heritability in platelet aggregation within the GeneSTAR families. In this study, 1709 subjects (1043 European Americans, EA and 666 African Americans, AA) from families in the GeneSTAR study were included. In vitro platelet aggregation in response to collagen, ADP and epinephrine was measured at baseline and 14 days after aspirin therapy (81 mg/day). Targeted deep sequencing of PEAR1 in addition to 2kb of upstream and downstream of the gene was performed. Under an additive genetic model, the association of single variants of PEAR1 with platelet aggregation phenotypes were examined. Additionally, we examined the association between the burden of PEAR1 rare non-synonymous variants and platelet aggregation phenotypes. Of 532 variants identified through sequencing, the intron 1 variant, rs12041331, was significantly associated with all platelet aggregation phenotypes at baseline and after platelet inhibition with aspirin therapy. rs12566888, which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs12041331, was associated with platelet aggregation phenotypes but to a lesser extent. In the EA families, the burden of PEAR1 missense variants was associated with platelet aggregation after aspirin therapy when the platelets were stimulated with epinephrine (p = 0.0009) and collagen (p = 0.03). In AAs, the burden of PEAR1 missense variants was associated, to a lesser degree, with platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine (p = 0.02) and ADP (p = 0.04). Our study confirmed that the GWAS-identified variant, rs12041331, is the strongest variant associated with platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin therapy in our GeneSTAR families in both races. We identified additional association of rare missense variants in PEAR1 with platelet aggregation following aspirin therapy. However, we observed a racial difference in the contribution of these rare variants to the platelet aggregation, most likely due to higher residual missing heritability of platelet aggregation after accounting for rs12041331 in the EAs compared to AAs.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(4): 448-457, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520984

RESUMO

Introduction: Genetic variants associated with nicotine dependence have previously been identified, primarily in European-ancestry populations. No genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been reported for smoking behaviors in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States and Latin America, who are of mixed ancestry with European, African, and American Indigenous components. Methods: We examined genetic associations with smoking behaviors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (N = 12 741 with smoking data, 5119 ever-smokers), using ~2.3 million genotyped variants imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project phase 3. Mixed logistic regression models accounted for population structure, sampling, relatedness, sex, and age. Results: The known region of CHRNA5, which encodes the α5 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit, was associated with heavy smoking at genome-wide significance (p ≤ 5 × 10-8) in a comparison of 1929 ever-smokers reporting cigarettes per day (CPD) > 10 versus 3156 reporting CPD ≤ 10. The functional variant rs16969968 in CHRNA5 had a p value of 2.20 × 10-7 and odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 for the minor allele (A); its minor allele frequency was 0.22 overall and similar across Hispanic/Latino background groups (Central American = 0.17; South American = 0.19; Mexican = 0.18; Puerto Rican = 0.22; Cuban = 0.29; Dominican = 0.19). CHRNA4 on chromosome 20 attained p < 10-4, supporting prior findings in non-Hispanics. For nondaily smoking, which is prevalent in Hispanic/Latino smokers, compared to daily smoking, loci on chromosomes 2 and 4 achieved genome-wide significance; replication attempts were limited by small Hispanic/Latino sample sizes. Conclusions: Associations of nicotinic receptor gene variants with smoking, first reported in non-Hispanic European-ancestry populations, generalized to Hispanics/Latinos despite different patterns of smoking behavior. Implications: We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of smoking behavior in a US Hispanic/Latino cohort, and the first GWAS of daily/nondaily smoking in any population. Results show that the region of the nicotinic receptor subunit gene CHRNA5, which in non-Hispanic European-ancestry smokers has been associated with heavy smoking as well as cessation and treatment efficacy, is also significantly associated with heavy smoking in this Hispanic/Latino cohort. The results are an important addition to understanding the impact of genetic variants in understudied Hispanic/Latino smokers.

9.
Platelets ; : 1-10, 2017 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185836

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several variants associated with platelet function phenotypes; however, the proportion of variance explained by the identified variants is mostly small. Rare coding variants, particularly those with high potential for impact on protein structure/function, may have substantial impact on phenotype but are difficult to detect by GWAS. The main purpose of this study was to identify low frequency or rare variants associated with platelet function using genotype data from the Illumina HumanExome Bead Chip. Three family-based cohorts of European ancestry, including ~4,000 total subjects, comprised the discovery cohort and two independent cohorts, one of European and one of African American ancestry, were used for replication. Optical aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma was performed in all the discovery cohorts in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, and collagen. Meta-analyses were performed using both gene-based and single nucleotide variant association methods. The gene-based meta-analysis identified a significant association (P = 7.13 × 10-7) between rare genetic variants in ANKRD26 and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. One of the ANKRD26 SNVs - rs191015656, encoding a threonine to isoleucine substitution predicted to alter protein structure/function, was replicated in Europeans. Aggregation increases of ~20-50% were observed in heterozygotes in all cohorts. Novel genetic signals in ABCG1 and HCP5 were also associated with platelet aggregation to ADP in meta-analyses, although only results for HCP5 could be replicated. The SNV in HCP5 intersects epigenetic signatures in CD41+ megakaryocytes suggesting a new functional role in platelet biology for HCP5. This is the first study to use gene-based association methods from SNV array genotypes to identify rare variants related to platelet function. The molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological relevance for the identified genetic associations requires further study.

11.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(6): 1083-1092, 2017 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300864

RESUMO

Inhibition of platelet reactivity is a common therapeutic strategy in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors influence inter-individual variation in platelet reactivity. Identifying genes that contribute to platelet reactivity can reveal new biological mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets. Here, we examined rare coding variation to identify genes associated with platelet reactivity in a population-based cohort. To do so, we performed whole exome sequencing in the Framingham Heart Study and conducted single variant and gene-based association tests against platelet reactivity to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and epinephrine agonists in up to 1,211 individuals. Single variant tests revealed no significant associations (p<1.44×10-7), though we observed a suggestive association with previously implicated MRVI1 (rs11042902, p = 1.95×10-7). Using gene-based association tests of rare and low-frequency variants, we found significant associations of HYAL2 with increased ADP-induced aggregation (p = 1.07×10-7) and GSTZ1 with increased epinephrine-induced aggregation (p = 1.62×10-6). HYAL2 also showed suggestive associations with epinephrine-induced aggregation (p = 2.64×10-5). The rare variants in the HYAL2 gene-based association included a missense variant (N357S) at a known N-glycosylation site and a nonsense variant (Q406*) that removes a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor from the resulting protein. These variants suggest that improper membrane trafficking of HYAL2 influences platelet reactivity. We also observed suggestive associations of AR (p = 7.39×10-6) and MAPRE1 (p = 7.26×10-6) with ADP-induced reactivity. Our study demonstrates that gene-based tests and other grouping strategies of rare variants are powerful approaches to detect associations in population-based analyses of complex traits not detected by single variant tests and possible new genetic influences on platelet reactivity.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Exoma/genética , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/genética , Mutação/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/genética , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Alelos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Grupos Populacionais , Transporte Proteico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167794, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107356

RESUMO

Previously, we have described our feeder-free, xeno-free approach to generate megakaryocytes (MKs) in culture from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we focus specifically on the integrity of these MKs using: (1) genotype discordance between parent cell DNA to iPSC cell DNA and onward to the differentiated MK DNA; (2) genomic structural integrity using copy number variation (CNV); and (3) transcriptomic signatures of the derived MK lines compared to the iPSC lines. We detected a very low rate of genotype discordance; estimates were 0.0001%-0.01%, well below the genotyping error rate for our assay (0.37%). No CNVs were generated in the iPSCs that were subsequently passed on to the MKs. Finally, we observed highly biologically relevant gene sets as being upregulated in MKs relative to the iPSCs: platelet activation, blood coagulation, megakaryocyte development, platelet formation, platelet degranulation, and platelet aggregation. These data strongly support the integrity of the derived MK lines.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Megacariócitos/citologia , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/metabolismo
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 122: 154-161, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855341

RESUMO

AIMS: Exercise training (ET) has been variably associated with body composition changes among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The degree to which these changes are related to hyperglycemia remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of baseline fasting glucose (FG) to the magnitude of muscle gains and fat loss after ET in individuals with T2DM. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the SHAPE-2 trial, a six month supervised aerobic and resistance training intervention (three days/week), at Johns Hopkins. This was a post hoc single arm intervention study of participants who completed the exercise intervention (n=50). Participants were aged 40-65years and had T2DM that was not treated with insulin. Body composition was assessed by DEXA. RESULTS: After 6months of ET, total fat mass decreased (-2.1±3.1kg) and total lean body mass (LBM) increased (0.5±2.0kg) overall, but there was variability among individual participants. There was an increase in % total LBM (1.4±1.9%) and decrease in % total body fat mass (-1.5±2.0%) after ET. Interestingly, each standard deviation (SD) increase in baseline FG (mean=135.5mg/dl; SD=39.0mg/dl) was related to a significant increase in % total LBM (0.54±0.26%, p=0.048) and decrease in % total body fat (-0.57±0.27%, p=0.04) after ET among individual participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that muscle gains and fat loss after ET are positively related to baseline hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize differences in metabolic response following ET among persons with diabetes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/reabilitação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 9(5): 408-418, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1), encoded by the gene SCARB1, is a lipoprotein receptor that binds both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein. We reported that SR-B1 is also a receptor for lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), mediating cellular uptake of Lp(a) in vitro and promoting clearance of Lp(a) in vivo. Although genetic variants in SCARB1 are associated with variations in HDL level, no SCARB1 variants affecting Lp(a) have been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an index subject with high levels of HDL cholesterol and Lp(a), SCARB1 was sequenced and demonstrated a missense mutation resulting in an S129L substitution in exon 3. To follow up, 2 cohorts (GeneSTAR, the family-based Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk [n=543], and CCHS, the population-based Copenhagen City Heart Study [n=5835]) were screened for combined HDL cholesterol and Lp(a) elevations. Subjects with the extreme phenotype (HDL >80 mg/dL and Lp(a) >100 nmol/L in GeneSTAR, n=8, and >100 mg/dL in CCHS, n=9) underwent sequencing of SCARB1 exons; 15 of 18 from the combined population demonstrated genetic variants, including rare or uncommon missense or splice site mutations in 9 and homozygous synonymous variants in 6. Functional studies with 4 of the SCARB1 variants (c.386C>T, c.631-14T>G, c.4G>A, and c.631-53mC>T & c.726+55mCG>CA) showed decreased receptor function in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Human SCARB1 gene variants are associated with a new lipid phenotype, characterized by high levels of both HDL cholesterol and Lp(a). SCARB1 exonic variants often result in diminished function of translated SR-B1 via reduced binding/intracellular transport of Lp(a).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/genética , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Éxons , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Transfecção , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 118(5): 656-61, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27530333

RESUMO

Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor in persons of European ancestry. Levels are twofold to threefold higher in African-Americans (AAs), but reported associations with CAD have been inconsistent. The relation of Lp(a) with the extent and severity of subclinical coronary plaque has not been described in AAs. We screened 269 apparently healthy AAs for risk factors and coronary plaque using advanced coronary computed tomographic angiography. Total coronary plaque (TCP), noncalcified coronary plaque, and calcified coronary plaque volumes (mm(3)) were quantified using a validated automated method. Lp(a) was measured by ELISA. Multivariable modeling was performed with adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors and intrafamilial correlations. Mean age was 51 ± 11 years and 64% were female. Plaque was present in 41%. Lp(a) was independently associated with TCP volume [log(TCP + 1)] (p = 0.04), 3-vessel and/or left main involvement (p = 0.04), and at least 1 stenosis >50% (p = 0.006). Best-fit regression analyses showed that subjects with Lp(a) >40 mg/dl were threefold more likely to have 3-vessel and/or left main disease (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.8, p = 0.005) and fourfold more likely to have stenosis >50% (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 15.0, p = 0.02). In subjects with plaque (n = 110), multivariable models showed the Lp(a) level was significantly and independently associated with TCP (p = 0.009), noncalcified coronary plaque (p = 0.01), and calcified coronary plaque (p = 0.003) and affected vessel length (p = 0.01). In conclusion, high Lp(a) is strongly associated with coronary plaque volumes, extent, and severity in apparently healthy AAs. High levels of Lp(a) may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CAD in AAs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Estenose Coronária/etnologia , Estenose Coronária/genética , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Fam Community Health ; 39(4): 251-62, 2016 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536930

RESUMO

African Americans have a high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, but few interventions have been successful in the long term. We describe a 1-year intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce cardiometabolic risk. Interventions incorporated the premise that self-selection into flexible venues and varying exercise modalities would result in improvement in fitness and risk factors. Results of this single-group pretest/posttest observational study show 1-year overall group reductions in body weight and body mass index and cardiometabolic factors including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and increases in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived absolute and percent lean mass and lean-fat ratio, and decreased fat mass.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 8-21, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346685

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) traits are important heritable clinical biomarkers and modifiers of disease severity. To identify coding genetic variants associated with these traits, we conducted meta-analyses of seven RBC phenotypes in 130,273 multi-ethnic individuals from studies genotyped on an exome array. After conditional analyses and replication in 27,480 independent individuals, we identified 16 new RBC variants. We found low-frequency missense variants in MAP1A (rs55707100, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 3.3%, p = 2 × 10(-10) for hemoglobin [HGB]) and HNF4A (rs1800961, MAF = 2.4%, p < 3 × 10(-8) for hematocrit [HCT] and HGB). In African Americans, we identified a nonsense variant in CD36 associated with higher RBC distribution width (rs3211938, MAF = 8.7%, p = 7 × 10(-11)) and showed that it is associated with lower CD36 expression and strong allelic imbalance in ex vivo differentiated human erythroblasts. We also identified a rare missense variant in ALAS2 (rs201062903, MAF = 0.2%) associated with lower mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 8 × 10(-9)). Mendelian mutations in ALAS2 are a cause of sideroblastic anemia and erythropoietic protoporphyria. Gene-based testing highlighted three rare missense variants in PKLR, a gene mutated in Mendelian non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, associated with HGB and HCT (SKAT p < 8 × 10(-7)). These rare, low-frequency, and common RBC variants showed pleiotropy, being also associated with platelet, white blood cell, and lipid traits. Our association results and functional annotation suggest the involvement of new genes in human erythropoiesis. We also confirm that rare and low-frequency variants play a role in the architecture of complex human traits, although their phenotypic effect is generally smaller than originally anticipated.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritropoese/genética , Exoma/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Afro-Americanos/genética , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Índices de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 40-55, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346686

RESUMO

Platelet production, maintenance, and clearance are tightly controlled processes indicative of platelets' important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets are common targets for primary and secondary prevention of several conditions. They are monitored clinically by complete blood counts, specifically with measurements of platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV). Identifying genetic effects on PLT and MPV can provide mechanistic insights into platelet biology and their role in disease. Therefore, we formed the Blood Cell Consortium (BCX) to perform a large-scale meta-analysis of Exomechip association results for PLT and MPV in 157,293 and 57,617 individuals, respectively. Using the low-frequency/rare coding variant-enriched Exomechip genotyping array, we sought to identify genetic variants associated with PLT and MPV. In addition to confirming 47 known PLT and 20 known MPV associations, we identified 32 PLT and 18 MPV associations not previously observed in the literature across the allele frequency spectrum, including rare large effect (FCER1A), low-frequency (IQGAP2, MAP1A, LY75), and common (ZMIZ2, SMG6, PEAR1, ARFGAP3/PACSIN2) variants. Several variants associated with PLT/MPV (PEAR1, MRVI1, PTGES3) were also associated with platelet reactivity. In concurrent BCX analyses, there was overlap of platelet-associated variants with red (MAP1A, TMPRSS6, ZMIZ2) and white (PEAR1, ZMIZ2, LY75) blood cell traits, suggesting common regulatory pathways with shared genetic architecture among these hematopoietic lineages. Our large-scale Exomechip analyses identified previously undocumented associations with platelet traits and further indicate that several complex quantitative hematological, lipid, and cardiovascular traits share genetic factors.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Contagem de Plaquetas
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 56-75, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27321945

RESUMO

Knowledge of the genetic basis of the type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related quantitative traits fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) in African ancestry (AA) individuals has been limited. In non-diabetic subjects of AA (n = 20,209) and European ancestry (EA; n = 57,292), we performed trans-ethnic (AA+EA) fine-mapping of 54 established EA FG or FI loci with detailed functional annotation, assessed their relevance in AA individuals, and sought previously undescribed loci through trans-ethnic (AA+EA) meta-analysis. We narrowed credible sets of variants driving association signals for 22/54 EA-associated loci; 18/22 credible sets overlapped with active islet-specific enhancers or transcription factor (TF) binding sites, and 21/22 contained at least one TF motif. Of the 54 EA-associated loci, 23 were shared between EA and AA. Replication with an additional 10,096 AA individuals identified two previously undescribed FI loci, chrX FAM133A (rs213676) and chr5 PELO (rs6450057). Trans-ethnic analyses with regulatory annotation illuminate the genetic architecture of glycemic traits and suggest gene regulation as a target to advance precision medicine for T2D. Our approach to utilize state-of-the-art functional annotation and implement trans-ethnic association analysis for discovery and fine-mapping offers a framework for further follow-up and characterization of GWAS signals of complex trait loci.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Jejum/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Íntrons/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Blood ; 126(11): e19-29, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26105150

RESUMO

Fibrinogen, coagulation factor VII (FVII), and factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier von Willebrand factor (vWF) play key roles in hemostasis. Previously identified common variants explain only a small fraction of the trait heritabilities, and additional variations may be explained by associations with rarer variants with larger effects. The aim of this study was to identify low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≥0.01 and <0.05) and rare (MAF <0.01) variants that influence plasma concentrations of these 4 hemostatic factors by meta-analyzing exome chip data from up to 76,000 participants of 4 ancestries. We identified 12 novel associations of low-frequency (n = 2) and rare (n = 10) variants across the fibrinogen, FVII, FVIII, and vWF traits that were independent of previously identified associations. Novel loci were found within previously reported genes and had effect sizes much larger than and independent of previously identified common variants. In addition, associations at KCNT1, HID1, and KATNB1 identified new candidate genes related to hemostasis for follow-up replication and functional genomic analysis. Newly identified low-frequency and rare-variant associations accounted for modest amounts of trait variance and therefore are unlikely to increase predicted trait heritability but provide new information for understanding individual variation in hemostasis pathways.


Assuntos
Fator VIII/genética , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Fator VII/genética , Fator VII/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/genética , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fator de von Willebrand/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Canais de Potássio/genética
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