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1.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40-70% of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) is oligorecurrent after prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) staging. Metastasis-directed radiotherapy (MDT) of PSMA-positive oligorecurrence is now frequently used, but the role of concurrent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of concurrent ADT with PSMA PET-directed MDT on biochemical progression-free survival (bRFS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective multicenter study of 305 patients with biochemical recurrence and PSMA PET-positive oligorecurrence following initial curative treatment between April 2013 and January 2018. INTERVENTION: MDT with fractionated or stereotactic body radiotherapy for all PSMA-positive metastatic sites; 37.8% received concurrent ADT. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was bRFS, which was measured using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank testing. Secondary outcomes were ADT-free survival, overall survival (OS), and toxicity was analyzed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine independent clinicopathological factors. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median follow-up was 16 mo (interquartile range 9-27). Some 96% of the patients initially had high-risk PCa. A median of one (range 0-19) nodal metastases and one (range 0-5) distant metastases were treated. MDT+ADT significantly improved bRFS and remained an independent factor (hazard ratio 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.51; p<0.0001). bRFS was not significantly different between MDT+≤6 mo of ADT and MDT alone (p=0.121). Patients receiving MDT had 1- and 2-yr ADT-free survival of 93% and 83%, respectively. New therapies, most frequently MDT (23%), were required more frequently after MDT (85% vs 29%; p<0.001). Grade ≥3 acute toxicity was observed in 0.9% of patients and late toxicity in 2.3%. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with oligorecurrent PCa, concurrent ADT with MDT improved bRFS significantly, but a large number of patients treated with MDT were spared from ADT for 2yr, although a greater need for other salvage therapies was observed. PATIENT SUMMARY: The role of concurrent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with radiotherapy for prostate cancer oligorecurrence identified on prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography was studied. We concluded that radiotherapy alone could prolong the time to start of ADT. However, the risk of disease progression and consequently the need for further treatments is higher after local radiotherapy alone without immediate ADT.

2.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(10): 881-887, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Youths are using emergency departments (EDs) for behavioral health services in record numbers, even though EDs are suboptimal settings for service delivery. In this article, the authors evaluated a mobile crisis service intervention implemented in Connecticut with the aim of examining whether the intervention was associated with reduced behavioral health ED use among those in need of services. METHODS: The authors examined two cohorts of youths: 2,532 youths who used mobile crisis services and a comparison sample of 3,961 youths who used behavioral health ED services (but not mobile crisis services) during the same fiscal year. Propensity scores were created to balance the two groups, and outcome analyses were used to examine subsequent ED use (any behavioral health ED admissions and number of behavioral health ED admissions) in an 18-month follow-up period. RESULTS: A pooled odds ratio of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.66-0.84) indicated that youths who received mobile crisis services had a significant reduction in odds of a subsequent behavioral health ED visit compared with youths in the comparison sample. The comparable result for the continuous outcome of number of behavioral health ED visits yielded an incidence risk ratio of 0.78 (95% CI=0.71-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Using comparison groups, the authors provided evidence suggesting that community-based mobile crisis services, such as Mobile Crisis, reduce ED use among youths with behavioral health service needs. Replication in other years and locations is needed. Nevertheless, these results are quite promising in light of current trends in ED use.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973882

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in ageing societies, with no effective therapies available to date. Two preclinical models are widely used to validate novel OA interventions (MCL-MM and DMM). Our aim is to discern disease dynamics in these models to provide a clear timeline in which various pathological changes occur. OA was surgically induced in mice by destabilisation of the medial meniscus. Analysis of OA progression revealed that the intensity and duration of chondrocyte loss and cartilage lesion formation were significantly different in MCL-MM vs DMM. Firstly, apoptosis was seen prior to week two and was narrowly restricted to the weight bearing area. Four weeks post injury the magnitude of apoptosis led to a 40-60% reduction of chondrocytes in the non-calcified zone. Secondly, the progression of cell loss preceded the structural changes of the cartilage spatio-temporally. Lastly, while proteoglycan loss was similar in both models, collagen type II degradation only occurred more prominently in MCL-MM. Dynamics of chondrocyte loss and lesion formation in preclinical models has important implications for validating new therapeutic strategies. Our work could be helpful in assessing the feasibility and expected response of the DMM- and the MCL-MM models to chondrocyte mediated therapies.

4.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(11): 2227-2235.e1, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiology studies of circulating concentrations of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have produced conflicting results. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to determine the associations between circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D and risks of EAC and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using a 2-sample (summary data) approach. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3755967, rs10741657, rs12785878, rs10745742, rs8018720, and rs17216707) associated with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D were used as instrumental variables. We collected data from 6167 patients with BE, 4112 patients with EAC, and 17,159 individuals without BE or EAC (controls) participating in the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, as well as studies from Bonn, Germany, and Cambridge and Oxford, United Kingdom. Analyses were performed separately for BE and EAC. RESULTS: Overall, we found no evidence for an association between genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentration and risk of BE or EAC. The odds ratio per 20 nmol/L increase in genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentration for BE risk estimated by combining the individual SNP association using inverse variance weighting was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.77-1.92; P = .41). The odds ratio for EAC risk, estimated by combining the individual SNP association using inverse variance weighting, was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.39-1.19; P = .18). CONCLUSIONS: In a Mendelian randomization study, we found that low genetically estimated 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with risk of BE or EAC.

5.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(4): 834-844, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787173

RESUMO

Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is an aggressive soft-tissue tumor characterized by a specific reciprocal t(12;16) translocation resulting in expression of the chimeric FUS-DDIT3 fusion protein, an oncogenic transcription factor. Similar to other translocation-associated sarcomas, MLS is characterized by a low frequency of somatic mutations, albeit a subset of MLS has previously been shown to be associated with activating PIK3CA mutations. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of PI3K/Akt signaling alterations in MLS and the potential of PI3K-directed therapeutic concepts. In a large cohort of MLS, key components of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade were evaluated by next generation seqeuncing (NGS), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In three MLS cell lines, PI3K activity was inhibited by RNAi and the small-molecule PI3K inhibitor BKM120 (buparlisib) in vitro An MLS cell line-based avian chorioallantoic membrane model was applied for in vivo confirmation. In total, 26.8% of MLS cases displayed activating alterations in PI3K/Akt signaling components, with PIK3CA gain-of-function mutations representing the most prevalent finding (14.2%). IHC suggested PI3K/Akt activation in a far larger subgroup of MLS, implying alternative mechanisms of pathway activation. PI3K-directed therapeutic interference showed that MLS cell proliferation and viability significantly depended on PI3K-mediated signals in vitro and in vivo Our preclinical study underlines the elementary role of PI3K/Akt signals in MLS tumorigenesis and provides a molecularly based rationale for a PI3K-targeted therapeutic approach which may be particularly effective in the subgroup of tumors carrying activating genetic alterations in PI3K/Akt signaling components.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 77, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741946

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is one of the most prevalent learning disorders, with high impact on school and psychosocial development and high comorbidity with conditions like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety. DD is characterized by deficits in different cognitive skills, including word reading, spelling, rapid naming, and phonology. To investigate the genetic basis of DD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of these skills within one of the largest studies available, including nine cohorts of reading-impaired and typically developing children of European ancestry (N = 2562-3468). We observed a genome-wide significant effect (p < 1 × 10-8) on rapid automatized naming of letters (RANlet) for variants on 18q12.2, within MIR924HG (micro-RNA 924 host gene; rs17663182 p = 4.73 × 10-9), and a suggestive association on 8q12.3 within NKAIN3 (encoding a cation transporter; rs16928927, p = 2.25 × 10-8). rs17663182 (18q12.2) also showed genome-wide significant multivariate associations with RAN measures (p = 1.15 × 10-8) and with all the cognitive traits tested (p = 3.07 × 10-8), suggesting (relational) pleiotropic effects of this variant. A polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis revealed significant genetic overlaps of some of the DD-related traits with educational attainment (EDUyears) and ADHD. Reading and spelling abilities were positively associated with EDUyears (p ~ [10-5-10-7]) and negatively associated with ADHD PRS (p ~ [10-8-10-17]). This corroborates a long-standing hypothesis on the partly shared genetic etiology of DD and ADHD, at the genome-wide level. Our findings suggest new candidate DD susceptibility genes and provide new insights into the genetics of dyslexia and its comorbities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dislexia/genética , Dislexia/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
8.
Trials ; 19(1): 581, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mandatory trial registration, and later results reporting, were proposed to mitigate selective clinical trial publication and outcome reporting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act (FDAAA) was enacted by Congress on September 27, 2007, requiring the registration of all non-phase I clinical trials involving FDA-regulated medical interventions and results reporting for approved drugs. The association between FDAAA enactment and the registration, results reporting, and publication bias of neuropsychiatric trials has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all efficacy trials supporting FDA new drug approvals between 2005 to 2014 for neuropsychiatric indications. Trials were categorized as pre- or post-FDAAA based on initiation and/or completion dates. The main outcomes were the proportions of trials registered and reporting results in ClinicalTrials.gov, and the degree of publication bias, estimated using the relative risks pre- and post-FDAAA of both the publication of positive vs non-positive trials, as well as of publication of positive vs non-positive trials without misleading interpretations. Registration and results reporting proportions were compared pre- and post-FDAAA using the two-tailed Fisher exact test, and the degrees of publication bias were compared by calculating the ratio of relative risks (RRR) for each period. RESULTS: The FDA approved 37 new drugs for neuropsychiatric indications between 2005 and 2014 on the basis of 142 efficacy trials, of which 101 were pre-FDAAA and 41 post-FDAAA. Post-FDAAA trials were significantly more likely to be registered (100% vs 64%; p < 0.001) and report results (100% vs 10%; p < 0.001) than pre-FDAAA trials. Pre-FDAAA, positive trials were more likely to be published (relative risk [RR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17-1.99; p = 0.002) and published without misleading interpretations (RR = 2.47; CI = 1.57-3.73; p < 0.001) than those with non-positive results. In contrast, post-FDAAA positive trials were equally likely to have been published (RR = 1; CI = 1-1, p = NA) and published without misleading interpretations (RR = 1.20; CI = 0.84-1.72; p = 0.30). The likelihood of publication bias pre-FDAAA vs post-FDAAA was greater for positive vs non-positive trials (RRR = 1.52; CI = 1.16-1.99; p = 0.002) and for publication without misleading interpretations (RRR = 2.06, CI = 1.17-3.61, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The enactment of FDAAA was followed by significantly higher proportions of trials that were registered and reporting results on ClinicalTrials.gov and significantly lower degrees of publication bias among trials supporting recent FDA approval of drugs for neuropsychiatric indications.

9.
Cancer Med ; 7(10): 5057-5065, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191681

RESUMO

Genetic associations between variants on chromosome 5p13 and 8q24 and gastric cancer (GC) have been previously reported in the Asian population. We aimed to replicate these findings and to characterize the associations at the genome and transcriptome level. We performed a fine-mapping association study in 1926 GC patients and 2012 controls of European descent using high dense SNP marker sets on both chromosomal regions. Next, we performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using gastric transcriptome data from 143 individuals focusing on the GC associated variants. On chromosome 5p13 the strongest association was observed at rs6872282 (P = 2.53 × 10-04 ) and on chromosome 8q24 at rs2585176 (P = 1.09 × 10-09 ). On chromosome 5p13 we found cis-eQTL effects with an upregulation of PTGER4 expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 9.27 × 10-11 ). On chromosome 8q24 we observed cis-eQTL effects with an upregulation of PSCA expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 2.17 × 10-47 ). In addition, we found trans-eQTL effects for the same variants on 8q24 with a downregulation of MBOAT7 expression in GC risk allele carrier (P = 3.11 × 10-09 ). In summary, we confirmed and refined the previously reported GC associations at both chromosomal regions. Our data point to shared etiological factors between Asians and Europeans. Furthermore, our data imply an upregulated expression of PTGER4 and PSCA as well as a downregulated expression of MBOAT7 in gastric tissue as risk-conferring GC pathomechanisms.

10.
Glycobiology ; 28(11): 841-848, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084948

RESUMO

Mucin-type O-glycosylation is an evolutionarily conserved and essential post-translational protein modification that is initiated in the Golgi apparatus by a family of enzymes known as the UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts). GalNAc-Ts are type II membrane proteins which contain short N-terminal tails located in the cytoplasm, a transmembrane domain that crosses the Golgi membrane, to which is connected a stem region that tethers the C-terminal catalytic and lectin domains that reside in the Golgi lumen. Although mucin-type O-glycans have been shown to play critical roles in numerous biological processes, little is known about how the GalNAc-Ts are targeted to their site of action within the Golgi complex. Here, we investigate the essential protein domains required for Golgi localization of four representative members of the GalNAc-T family of enzymes. We find that GalNAc-T1 and -T2 require their cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains for proper Golgi localization, while GalNAc-T10 requires its transmembrane and luminal stem domains. GalNAc-T7 can use either its cytoplasmic tail or its luminal stem, in combination with its transmembrane domain, to localize to the Golgi. We determined that a single glutamic acid in the GalNAc-T10 cytoplasmic tail inhibits its ability to localize to the Golgi via a cytoplasmic tail-dependent mechanism. We therefore demonstrate that despite their similarity, different members of this enzyme family are directed to the Golgi by more than one set of targeting signals.

11.
Addict Behav Rep ; 8: 8-10, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977990

RESUMO

This study investigates prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users whose progress was tracked in a treatment study conducted in the US from 2006 to 2010. Half of the sample misused prescription opioids ("other opiates/analgesics") prior to their onset of heroin misuse (POBs). We found that POBs were demographically younger and more likely to be white than other heroin users (OHUs). There were differences between the two groups with respect to the reporting of at least one year of regular use of substances and age of onset of substance use. POBs were more likely to report regular use, and earlier onset of use of several substances, mostly of the type potentially obtained via prescription. POBs were more persistent in their opioid use and more likely to suffer near-term elevated depressive symptoms compared with OHUs. These findings suggest that heroin addiction treatment may need to be tailored according to opioid misuse history.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0198363, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024873

RESUMO

Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2012 and 2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). The study examined all adult outpatient visits to psychiatric practices for chronic care management with a single listed visit diagnosis in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed. The main outcome measure was off-label prescribing of at least one psychiatric drug, defined as prescription for a condition for which it has not been approved for use by the FDA. Among our sample representative of 1.85 billion outpatient visits, 18.5 million (1.3%) visits were to psychiatrists for chronic care management in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed. Overall, the rate of off-label use was 12.9% (95% CI: 12.2-15.7). The most common off-label uses were for manic-depressive psychosis treated with citalopram and primary insomnia treated with trazodone. Several patient and clinician characteristics were positively associated with off-label prescribing, including seeing a psychiatrist (OR: 1.06, 95% CI, 1.01-1.12; p = 0.03) instead of another type of clinician, the office visit taking place in the Western region of the country (OR: 1.09, 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; p = 0.02), and the patient having 3 or more chronic conditions (OR: 1.12, 95% CI, 1.02-1.14; p = 0.003). In contrast, having Medicare coverage (OR: 0.93, 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; p = 0.04) and receiving payment assistance from a medical charity (OR: 0.91, 95% CI, 0.88-0.96; p = 0.03) instead of private insurance were negatively associated with off-label prescribing. These results suggest that certain classes of psychiatric medications are being commonly prescribed to treat conditions for which they have not been determined by the FDA to be clinically efficacious and/or safe.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 116, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922638

RESUMO

Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare defect of the diaphragm commonly associated with high morbidity and mortality due to lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Although in 70% of patients the etiology of a CDH remains unknown, a multitude of causative chromosomal aberrations has been identified. Case presentation: We describe the first case of isolated 11p15 duplication with CDH. The 18.6 Mb large duplication affected 285 RefSeq genes and included the Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS)-associated imprinting control region 2 (ICR2, KCNQ1OT1 TSS DMR), whereas the ICR1 (H19 TSS DMR) was not affected. We were able to demonstrate de novo occurrence of the duplication. The paternal origin of the chromosomal material was detected by methylation testing the ICR2. Corresponding to other patients with duplications of the paternal ICR2 copy, a BWS phenotype is not present. Conclusions: The patient presented here together with the review of four other cases from the literature indicate an association between duplications of the chromosomal region 11p15 and developmental defects of the diaphragm. Thus, we suggest duplications of 11p15 as a rare cause of CDH. This association may or may not appear in the context of BWS depending on the extent of the duplication and the imprinting status. Hence, a genetic workup should be performed in patients with CDH, particularly when other abnormalities are noted.

14.
Hum Genet ; 137(5): 401-411, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796876

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 1.5-2%. In most affected individuals, its genetic basis remains unclear. Whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a multitude of novel causative gene defects and have shown that a large proportion of sporadic ID cases results from de novo mutations. Here, we present two unrelated individuals with similar clinical features and deleterious de novo variants in FBXO11 detected by WES. Individual 1, a 14-year-old boy, has mild ID as well as mild microcephaly, corrected cleft lip and alveolus, hyperkinetic disorder, mild brain atrophy and minor facial dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo 1 bp insertion in the splice donor site of exon 3. Individual 2, a 3-year-old boy, showed ID and pre- and postnatal growth retardation, postnatal mild microcephaly, hyperkinetic and restless behaviour, as well as mild dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation. While ten individuals with ID and de novo variants in FBXO11 have been reported as part of larger studies, only one of the reports has some additional clinical data. Interestingly, the latter individual carries the identical mutation as our individual 2 and also displays ID, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, behavioural anomalies, and dysmorphisms. Thus, we confirm deleterious de novo mutations in FBXO11 as a cause of ID and start the delineation of the associated clinical picture which may also comprise postnatal microcephaly or borderline small head size and behavioural anomalies.

15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 266, 2017 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814792

RESUMO

The immune system plays a major role in human health and disease, and understanding genetic causes of interindividual variability of immune responses is vital. Here, we isolate monocytes from 134 genotyped individuals, stimulate these cells with three defined microbe-associated molecular patterns (LPS, MDP, and 5'-ppp-dsRNA), and profile the transcriptomes at three time points. Mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), we identify 417 response eQTLs (reQTLs) with varying effects between conditions. We characterize the dynamics of genetic regulation on early and late immune response and observe an enrichment of reQTLs in distal cis-regulatory elements. In addition, reQTLs are enriched for recent positive selection with an evolutionary trend towards enhanced immune response. Finally, we uncover reQTL effects in multiple GWAS loci and show a stronger enrichment for response than constant eQTLs in GWAS signals of several autoimmune diseases. This demonstrates the importance of infectious stimuli in modifying genetic predisposition to disease.Insight into the genetic influence on the immune response is important for the understanding of interindividual variability in human pathologies. Here, the authors generate transcriptome data from human blood monocytes stimulated with various immune stimuli and provide a time-resolved response eQTL map.


Assuntos
Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Lipídeos , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychiatr Genet ; 27(3): 96-102, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and heritable psychiatric disorder. However, genetic studies in SAD are rare and only a few candidate genes have been implicated so far. In the present study, we investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with other psychiatric disorders also contribute toward the development of SAD and followed up variants associated with SAD on the phenotypic level. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped a total of 24 SNPs in a German sample of 321 SAD patients and 804 controls. We carried out single-marker analyses as well as quantitative association analyses of SAD severity and harm avoidance. RESULTS: None of the variants investigated showed an association with SAD in our case-control sample after Bonferroni correction. Two SNPs reached nominal significance (rs818702, P=0.032; rs140701, P=0.048). Of these, only rs140701 showed an association in the same allelic direction as reported previously. This SNP is located within the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, which is the primary target of selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors used for the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. The quantitative association analysis of all cases with available data on symptom severity showed four SNPs with a nominal significant association. Among these SNPs, rs10994359 showed the strongest association (P=0.001) and was located near the ANK3 gene. In addition, rs10994359 was nominally associated with harm avoidance scores (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results provide further evidence for an involvement of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 in the etiology of anxiety-related traits. Furthermore, our study implicates that genetic variation at the genome-wide associated bipolar disorder locus ANK3 might influence anxiety-related personality traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Alemanha , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo
17.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 11(7-8)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112871

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proteomic analysis of blood proteins in dried blood spots (DBS) is gaining attention as a possible replacement for measurements in plasma/serum collected by venipuncture. We aimed to develop and provisionally validate a nanoflow LC-PRM-MS method for clinical use. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used Skyline to develop a nanoflow LC-PRM-MS method to quantify glycated hemoglobin-ß, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in DBS. Precision, linearity, interferences, and stability were determined and the method was used to analyze samples from 36 human volunteers. The method was compared with clinically validated measurements in paired blood collected via venipuncture. RESULTS: The method was relatively precise for these proteins (10-11% CV) and linear across the normal concentration ranges of these proteins. Interference from high total serum protein concentration (>8 g/dL) was noted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B. Proteins in DBS were stable for 14 days at temperatures below 25°C and trypsinized samples were stable for 48 h at 7°C. There was moderate correlation with clinical methods (r = 0.783-0.858) and significant bias in individual samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although the method had adequate precision and linearity for a biomarker, the accuracy compared with clinically validated assays raises concerns regarding the use of DBS compared with venipuncture for clinical use.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Calibragem , Humanos , Proteômica
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(2): 435-443, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862890

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations and deletions of the SOX2 gene are known to cause uni- and bilateral anophthalmia and microphthalmia as well as related disorders such as anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome. Thus, anophthalmia/microphthalmia is the primary indication for targeted, "phenotype first" analyses of SOX2. However, SOX2 mutations are also associated with a wide range of non-ocular abnormalities, such as postnatal growth retardation, structural brain anomalies, hypogenitalism, and developmental delay. The present report describes three patients without anophthalmia/microphthalmia and loss-of-function mutations or microdeletions of SOX2 who had been investigated in a "genotype first" manner due to intellectual disability/developmental delay using whole exome sequencing or chromosomal microarray analyses. This result prompted us to perform SOX2 Sanger sequencing in 192 developmental delay/intellectual disability patients without anophthalmia or microphthalmia. No additional SOX2 loss-of-function mutations were detected in this cohort, showing that SOX2 is clearly not a major cause of intellectual disability without anophthalmia/microphthalmia. In our three patients and four further, reported "genotype first" SOX2 microdeletion patients, anophthalmia/microphthalmia was present in less than half of the patients. Thus, SOX2 is another example of a gene whose clinical spectrum is broadened by the generation of "genotype first" findings using hypothesis-free, genome-wide methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Exoma , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(10): 1363-1373, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma represents one of the fastest rising cancers in high-income countries. Barrett's oesophagus is the premalignant precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. However, only a few patients with Barrett's oesophagus develop adenocarcinoma, which complicates clinical management in the absence of valid predictors. Within an international consortium investigating the genetics of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, we aimed to identify novel genetic risk variants for the development of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of all genome-wide association studies of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma available in PubMed up to Feb 29, 2016; all patients were of European ancestry and disease was confirmed histopathologically. All participants were from four separate studies within Europe, North America, and Australia and were genotyped on high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Meta-analysis was done with a fixed-effects inverse variance-weighting approach and with a standard genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10-8). We also did an association analysis after reweighting of loci with an approach that investigates annotation enrichment among genome-wide significant loci. Furthermore, the entire dataset was analysed with bioinformatics approaches-including functional annotation databases and gene-based and pathway-based methods-to identify pathophysiologically relevant cellular mechanisms. FINDINGS: Our sample comprised 6167 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and 4112 individuals with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, in addition to 17 159 representative controls from four genome-wide association studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. We identified eight new risk loci associated with either Barrett's oesophagus or oesophageal adenocarcinoma, within or near the genes CFTR (rs17451754; p=4·8 × 10-10), MSRA (rs17749155; p=5·2 × 10-10), LINC00208 and BLK (rs10108511; p=2·1 × 10-9), KHDRBS2 (rs62423175; p=3·0 × 10-9), TPPP and CEP72 (rs9918259; p=3·2 × 10-9), TMOD1 (rs7852462; p=1·5 × 10-8), SATB2 (rs139606545; p=2·0 × 10-8), and HTR3C and ABCC5 (rs9823696; p=1·6 × 10-8). The locus identified near HTR3C and ABCC5 (rs9823696) was associated specifically with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (p=1·6 × 10-8) and was independent of Barrett's oesophagus development (p=0·45). A ninth novel risk locus was identified within the gene LPA (rs12207195; posterior probability 0·925) after reweighting with significantly enriched annotations. The strongest disease pathways identified (p<10-6) belonged to muscle cell differentiation and to mesenchyme development and differentiation. INTERPRETATION: Our meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies doubled the number of known risk loci for Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma and revealed new insights into causes of these diseases. Furthermore, the specific association between oesophageal adenocarcinoma and the locus near HTR3C and ABCC5 might constitute a novel genetic marker for prediction of the transition from Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Fine-mapping and functional studies of new risk loci could lead to identification of key molecules in the development of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which might encourage development of advanced prevention and intervention strategies. FUNDING: US National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, Swedish Cancer Society, Medical Research Council UK, Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Else Kröner Fresenius Stiftung, Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK, AstraZeneca UK, University Hospitals of Leicester, University of Oxford, Australian Research Council.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Esôfago de Barrett/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
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