Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 54
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
N C Med J ; 81(1): 14-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic that began in 2015 presented a risk for ZIKV infection among persons who traveled to ZIKV-affected countries. Latinas in North Carolina and their sexual partners may be exposed to ZIKV when traveling to these regions.METHODS We administered a cross-sectional survey, measuring ZIKV risk and knowledge, to a convenience sample of 262 reproductive-age Latinas attending a Federally Qualified Health Center in rural North Carolina. We described ZIKV risk and knowledge in the sample, and compared responses between those who were pregnant or recently pregnant, and those who were not pregnant. We further identified factors associated with 1) awareness of ZIKV and 2) high knowledge of ZIKV sequelae and prevention among those who were aware of ZIKV, using log-binomial regression.RESULTS Two-thirds of participants had ever heard of ZIKV, which was positively associated with educational attainment. Most participants aware of ZIKV had moderate/high knowledge of ZIKV transmission (92.5%) and symptoms (73.2%), but knowledge of preventing sexual and congenital transmission was limited. Travel was infrequent among pregnant or recently pregnant participants (5.4%) and their partners (7.1%). Despite low risk for ZIKV infection, participants were willing to practice ZIKV prevention.LIMITATIONS Our study is limited by a lack of generalizability to Latinas in other regions of the country, self-reporting bias, and lack of survey validation as an indicator of English language proficiency.CONCLUSIONS Providers should identify patients likely to become pregnant and travel to high-risk areas, inquire about partner travel history, and offer culturally appropriate ZIKV risk counseling.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Infecção por Zika virus/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , North Carolina , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Rural
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 213-219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802728

RESUMO

Rotavirus is the leading cause of childhood deaths due to diarrhea. Although existing oral rotavirus vaccines are highly efficacious in high-income countries, these vaccines have been demonstrated to have decreased efficacy in low- and middle-income countries. A possible explanation for decreased efficacy is the impact of gut microbiota on the enteric immune system's response to vaccination. We analyzed the gut microbiome of 50 children enrolled in a prospective study evaluating response to oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccination (RV5) to assess associations between relative abundance of bacterial taxa and seroconversion following vaccination. Stool samples were taken before the first RV5 dose, and microbiome composition characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology software. Relative abundance of bacterial taxa between seroconverters following the first RV5 dose, those with ≥ 4-fold increase in rotavirus-specific IgA titers, and nonseroconverters were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. We identified no significant differences in microbiome composition between infants who did and did not respond to vaccination. Infants who responded to vaccination tended to have higher abundance of Proteobacteria and Eggerthella, whereas those who did not respond had higher abundance of Fusobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae; however, these differences were not statistically significant following a multiple comparison correction. This study suggests a limited impact of gut microbial taxa on response to oral rotavirus vaccination among infants; however, additional research is needed to improve our understanding of the impact of gut microbiome on vaccine response, toward a goal of improving vaccine efficacy and rotavirus prevention.

3.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(1): 107-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674255

RESUMO

Objectives: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) cases have followed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, but no causal link has been established.Methods: Using insurance claims, the authors observed unvaccinated 11-year-old girls for CRPS diagnoses. The authors used time-dependent Cox regression to identify health-related CRPS predictors using diagnosis codes. Next, the authors identified HPV vaccinations using procedural codes. HPV vaccination and CRPS predictors were considered time-dependent covariates to estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CRPS, 30, 90, and 180-days post-vaccination.Results: 1,232,572 girls received 563 unique CRPS diagnoses. In a 10% sub-cohort of 123,981 girls accounting for potential confounders and predisposing risk factors (i.e. injury, infection, mental illness, primary care use), CRPS hazard was not significantly elevated 30 days (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.73), 90 days (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.65), or 180-days post-vaccination (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.47).Conclusion: The results support the safety and continued administration of HPV vaccines to adolescents.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
5.
J Gen Virol ; 100(11): 1530-1540, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596195

RESUMO

The role of commensal microbiota in enteric viral infections has been explored extensively, but the interaction between human gut microbiota (HGM) and human norovirus (HuNoV) is poorly understood. In this study, we established an HGM-Transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of HuNoV infection and disease, using an infant stool as HGM transplant and a HuNoV GII.4/2006b strain for virus inoculation. Compared to germ-free Gn pigs, HuNoV inoculation in HGMT Gn pigs resulted in increased HuNoV shedding, characterized by significantly higher shedding titres on post inoculation day (PID) 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9, and significantly longer mean duration of virus shedding. In addition, virus titres were significantly higher in duodenum and distal ileum of HGMT Gn pigs on PID10, while comparable and transient HuNoV viremia was detected in both groups. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that HuNoV infection dramatically altered intestinal microbiota in HGMT Gn pigs at the phylum (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes) and genus (Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Anaerococcus, Bacteroides and Lactobacillus) levels. In summary, enhanced GII.4 HuNoV infection was observed in the presence of HGM, and host microbiota was susceptible to disruption upon HuNoV infection.

6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510821

RESUMO

Background: Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a predictor of neonatal sepsis. In Nicaragua, neonatal sepsis is a major cause of hospitalization, but it can be prevented with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. We undertook this study to estimate the pooled prevalence of rectovaginal GBS colonization among pregnant women 35-40-week gestation in Nicaragua, and sensitivity of GBS isolates to various antibiotics. Methods: We systematically searched electronic databases of peer-reviewed and unpublished literature using prespecified search terms. We included English- and Spanish-language studies of rectovaginal GBS colonization and/or antibiotic sensitivity of GBS isolates that followed internationally-recognized diagnostic standards, from various sites and years. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed risk of study bias. We then meta-analyzed the pooled prevalence of rectovaginal GBS colonization and antibiotic sensitivity of GBS isolates. We performed subgroup analyses by geographic location, urbanicity, and study risk of bias. Main results: Prevalence of rectovaginal GBS colonization from 13 samples in 11 studies was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.21). Effect size heterogeneity was identified between coastal (0.12 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.19]) and central study sites (0.23 [95% CI: 0.18, 0.28]), and between predominantly rural (0.06 [95% CI: 0.02, 0.10]) and urban (0.28 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.37]) samples of pregnant women. GBS sensitivity to penicillin, the first-line antibiotic for intrapartum prophylaxis, was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.00) based on seven studies. Conclusions: Maternal GBS colonization was substantial in some study sites. Most GBS isolates are sensitive to recommended antibiotics, and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis may effectively prevent neonatal sepsis in Nicaragua.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13919, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558739

RESUMO

Rice bran supplementation provides nutrients, prebiotics and phytochemicals that enhance gut immunity, reduce enteric pathogens and diarrhea, and warrants attention for improvement of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) in children. EED is a subclinical condition associated with stunting due to impaired nutrient absorption. This study investigated the effects of rice bran supplementation on weight for age and length for age z-scores (WAZ, LAZ), EED stool biomarkers, as well as microbiota and metabolome signatures in weaning infants from 6 to 12 months old that reside in Nicaragua and Mali. Healthy infants were randomized to a control (no intervention) or a rice bran group that received daily supplementation with increasing doses at each month (1-5 g/day). Stool microbiota were characterized using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Stool metabolomes were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Statistical comparisons were completed at 6, 8, and 12 months of age. Daily consumption of rice bran was safe and feasible to support changes in LAZ from 6-8 and 8-12 months of age in Nicaragua and Mali infants when compared to control. WAZ was significantly improved only for Mali infants at 8 and 12 months. Mali and Nicaraguan infants showed major differences in the overall gut microbiota and metabolome composition and structure at baseline, and thus each country cohort demonstrated distinct microbial and metabolite profile responses to rice bran supplementation when compared to control. Rice bran is a practical dietary intervention strategy that merits development in rice-growing regions that have a high prevalence of growth stunting due to malnutrition and diarrheal diseases. Rice is grown as a staple food, and the bran is used as animal feed or wasted in many low- and middle-income countries where EED and stunting is prevalent.

9.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996133

RESUMO

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas has revealed rare but serious manifestations of infection. ZIKV has emerged in regions endemic for dengue virus (DENV), a closely related mosquito-borne flavivirus. Cross-reactive antibodies confound studies of ZIKV epidemiology and pathogenesis. The immune responses to ZIKV may be different in people, depending on their DENV immune status. Here, we focus on the human B cell and antibody response to ZIKV as a primary flavivirus infection to define the properties of neutralizing and protective antibodies generated in the absence of preexisting immunity to DENV. The plasma antibody and memory B cell response is highly ZIKV type-specific, and ZIKV-neutralizing antibodies mainly target quaternary structure epitopes on the viral envelope. To map viral epitopes targeted by protective antibodies, we isolated 2 type-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a ZIKV case. Both mAbs were strongly neutralizing in vitro and protective in vivo. The mAbs recognize distinct epitopes centered on domains I and II of the envelope protein. We also demonstrate that the epitopes of these mAbs define antigenic regions commonly targeted by plasma antibodies in individuals from endemic and nonendemic regions who have recovered from ZIKV infections.

10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 808-810, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882329

RESUMO

Zika virus, an arthropod-borne flavivirus pathogen in humans, is unusual because it can be sexually transmitted and can be shed for prolonged periods in semen. We report viral shedding in vaginal secretions for up to 6 months, indicating the potential for sexual and vertical transmission by infected women.


Assuntos
RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Nicarágua , Vagina/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
11.
Pneumonia (Nathan) ; 10: 11, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410854

RESUMO

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is capable of causing multiple infectious syndromes and occasionally causes outbreaks. The objective of this review is to update prior outbreak reviews, identify control measures, and comment on transmission. Methods: We conducted a review of published S. pneumoniae outbreaks, defined as at least two linked cases of S. pneumoniae. Results: A total of 98 articles (86 respiratory; 8 conjunctivitis; 2 otitis media; 1 surgical site; 1 multiple), detailing 94 unique outbreaks occurring between 1916 to 2017 were identified. Reported serotypes included 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 12F, 14, 20, and 23F, and serogroups 6, 9, 15, 19, 22. The median attack rate for pneumococcal outbreaks was 7.0% (Interquartile range: 2.4%, 13%). The median case-fatality ratio was 12.9% (interquartile range: 0%, 29.2%). Age groups most affected by outbreaks were older adults (60.3%) and young adults (34.2%). Outbreaks occurred in crowded settings, such as universities/schools/daycares, military barracks, hospital wards, and long-term care facilities. Of outbreaks that assessed vaccination coverage, low initial vaccination or revaccination coverage was common. Most (73.1%) of reported outbreaks reported non-susceptibility to at least one antibiotic, with non-susceptibility to penicillin (56.0%) and erythromycin (52.6%) being common. Evidence suggests transmission in outbreaks can occur through multiple modes, including carriers, infected individuals, or medical devices. Several cases developed disease shortly after exposure (< 72 h). Respiratory outbreaks used infection prevention (55.6%), prophylactic vaccination (63.5%), and prophylactic antibiotics (50.5%) to prevent future cases. PPSV23 covered all reported outbreak serotypes. PCV13 covered 10 of 16 serotypes. For conjunctival outbreaks, only infection prevention strategies were used. Conclusions: To prevent the initial occurrence of respiratory outbreaks, vaccination and revaccination is likely the best preventive measure. Once an outbreak occurs, vaccination and infection-prevention strategies should be utilized. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be considered for high-risk exposed individuals, but development of antibiotic resistance during outbreaks has been reported. The short period between initial exposure and development of disease indicates that pneumococcal colonization is not a prerequisite for pneumococcal respiratory infection.

12.
Pediatr Neurol ; 85: 16-20, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343688

RESUMO

Limited information is available on health outcomes related to Zika virus infection acquired during childhood. Zika virus can cause severe central nervous system malformations in congenitally exposed fetuses and neonates. In vitro studies show the capacity of Zika virus to infect neural progenitor cells, induce central and peripheral neuronal cell deaths, and target different brain cells over the course of brain development. Studies of postnatally infected mice and nonhuman primates have detected degradation of neural cells and morphologic brain cell changes consistent with a broad neuroinflammatory response. In addition, case reports of central nervous system disease in adults and in adolescents secondary to Zika virus infection suggest that Zika virus may have a broader impact on neurological health beyond that observed in congenitally exposed newborns. Long-term neurological complications have been observed with other acquired flaviviral infections, with clinical symptoms manifesting for years after primary infection. The extent to which postnatal Zika virus infection in humans negatively affects the central and peripheral nervous systems and causes long-term neurological damage or cognitive effects is currently unknown. To better understand the potential for neurological sequelae associated with acquired Zika virus infection in children, we reviewed the biological, clinical, and epidemiologic literature and summarized the evidence for this link. First, we review biological mechanisms for neurological manifestations of Zika virus infection in experimental studies. Second, we review observational studies of congenital Zika virus infection and case studies and surveillance reports of neurological sequelae of Zika virus infection in adults and in children. Lastly, we discuss the challenges of conducting Zika virus-neurological sequela studies and future directions for pediatric Zika virus research.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia
13.
Epidemiology ; 29(6): 867-875, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altering rotavirus vaccine schedules may improve vaccine performance in low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed data from clinical trials of the monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines in low- and middle-income countries to understand the association between vaccine dose timing and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis incidence. METHODS: We assessed the association between variations in rotavirus vaccine administration schedules and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis risk. We used the complement of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimator to estimate risk differences for different schedules. To adjust risk differences (RDs) for confounding, we calibrated estimates in the vaccinated arm using estimates from the placebo arm. RESULTS: There were 3,114 and 7,341 children included from the RV1 and RV5 trials, respectively. The 18-month adjusted severe rotavirus gastroenteritis risk was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 7.1) higher for those receiving their first RV5 dose at <6 versus ≥6 weeks. For RV1, there was a 4.0% (95% CI = 0.0, 8.2) increase in 12-month adjusted risk for a 4- versus 6-week interval between doses. Further analysis revealed those receiving their first RV5 dose at 3-4 and 5-7 weeks had 2.9% (95% CI = 0.8, 5.3) and 1.3% (95% CI = -0.3, 3.0), respectively, higher risk compared with those at 9-12 weeks. Those receiving their first dose at 8 weeks had the lowest risk (RD: -2.6% [95% CI = -5.4, -0.1]) compared with those at 9-12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: A modest delay in rotavirus vaccination start and increase in interval between doses may be associated with lower severe rotavirus gastroenteritis risk in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(2): 159-166, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910115

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is recommended that all pregnant women in the U.S. receive tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization to prevent infant pertussis. This study's objective was to examine the clinical effectiveness of prenatal Tdap, and whether effectiveness varies by gestational age at immunization. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study of pregnant women with deliveries in 2010-2014 and their infants was performed. Commercial insurance claims data were analyzed in 2016-2017 to identify Tdap receipt by the pregnant women, and hospitalizations and outpatient visits for pertussis in their infants until the infants reached 18 months of age. Pertussis occurrence was compared between infants of mothers who received prenatal Tdap (overall and stratified by gestational age at administration) and infants of unvaccinated mothers. RESULTS: There were 675,167 mother-infant pairs in the cohort. Among infants whose mothers received prenatal Tdap, the rate of pertussis was 43% lower (hazard ratio=0.57, 95% CI=0.35, 0.92) than infants whose mothers did not receive prenatal or postpartum Tdap; this reduction was consistent across pertussis definitions (hazard ratio for inpatient-only pertussis=0.32, 95% CI=0.11, 0.91). Pertussis rates were also lower for infants whose mothers received Tdap during the third trimester. Infants whose mothers received Tdap at <27 weeks of gestation did not experience reductions in pertussis rates (hazard ratio for pertussis=1.10, 95% CI=0.54, 2.25). CONCLUSIONS: Infants of mothers who received prenatal Tdap experienced half the rate of pertussis as compared with infants of unimmunized mothers. These results do not provide evidence to support changing the currently recommended timing of Tdap administration in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1837-1847, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737272

RESUMO

Limited data exist about U.S. travelers' knowledge, risk perceptions, and behaviors related to the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using an internet research panel, in March 2017, we surveyed 1,202 Americans in the continental United States and Puerto Rico who planned to travel to a ZIKV-affected country, state, or U.S. territory in 2017. We compared levels of knowledge and perceived risk of ZIKV, and intentions to practice ZIKV prevention behaviors across respondents from three regions: Puerto Rico, at-risk states, and other states. More than 80% of respondents correctly understood that a person could acquire ZIKV through a bite from an infected mosquito, and over 64% of respondents knew that a pregnant woman could pass the virus to her fetus. Less than half of the respondents from at-risk states and other states knew that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually, as compared with three-quarters of respondents from Puerto Rico. Compared with respondents from at-risk and other states, respondents from Puerto Rico were the most knowledgeable for almost all types of knowledge assessed. Knowledge about post-travel precautions was low across all three regions. Differences in perceived risk and intentions to practice specific prevention behaviors also varied among regions. Significant gaps exist in U.S. travelers' knowledge about how to prevent ZIKV transmission both during and after travel. Input and collaboration from the travel industry, health care providers, and the media are needed to help educate travelers about how to prevent ZIKV infection and transmission.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Porto Rico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
16.
J Clin Virol ; 104: 65-72, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sapoviruses are responsible for sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Sapovirus typing protocols have a success rate as low as 43% and relatively few complete sapovirus genome sequences are available to improve current typing protocols. OBJECTIVE/STUDY DESIGN: To increase the number of complete sapovirus genomes to better understand the molecular epidemiology of human sapovirus and to improve the success rate of current sapovirus typing methods, we used deep metagenomics shotgun sequencing to obtain the complete genomes of 68 sapovirus samples from four different countries across the Americas (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru and the US). RESULTS: VP1 genotyping showed that all sapovirus sequences could be grouped in the four established genogroups (GI (n = 13), GII (n = 30), GIV (n = 23), GV (n = 2)) that infect humans. They include the near-complete genome of a GI.6 virus and a recently reported novel GII.8 virus. Sequences of the complete RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene could be grouped into three major genetic clusters or polymerase (P) types (GI.P, GII.P and GV.P) with all GIV viruses harboring a GII polymerase. One (GII.P-GII.4) of the new 68 sequences was a recombinant virus with the hotspot between the NS7 and VP1 regions. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of this expanded database of near-complete sapovirus sequences showed several mismatches in the genotyping primers, suggesting opportunities to revisit and update current sapovirus typing methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Variação Genética , Sapovirus/classificação , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Américas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Sapovirus/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1848-1856, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692314

RESUMO

The ongoing Zika pandemic has affected many countries that are common travel destinations. We assessed the willingness to receive a prophylactic Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine, currently under development, among travelers to areas with reported autochthonous ZIKV transmission. We surveyed United States (U.S.) residents aged 18-44 years who had ever heard of ZIKV and planned to travel to Florida and/or Texas (N = 420) or a U.S. territory or foreign country (N = 415) in 2017, using a nationally representative internet panel. Travelers to Florida and/or Texas reported less concern about ZIKV infection than travelers to other destinations (27% versus 36%, P = 0.01). Female sex, Hispanic ethnicity, discussing ZIKV with medical professionals, ZIKV risk perception, and self-efficacy for ZIKV prevention predicted concern about ZIKV infection in both groups. Travelers to Florida and/or Texas (43%) and other destinations (44%) were equally willing to receive a ZIKV vaccine. Hispanic ethnicity, discussing ZIKV with medical professionals, and concern about ZIKV infection predicted vaccine willingness in both groups. Likelihood of using existing ZIKV prevention methods, confidence in the U.S. government to prevent ZIKV spread, self-efficacy for ZIKV prevention, and knowledge about ZIKV symptoms further predicted vaccine willingness in travelers to other destinations. In multivariable analyses, only concern about ZIKV infection was associated with vaccine willingness in both groups (prevalence ratio [95% confidence interval]: Florida and/or Texas: 1.34 [1.06, 1.69]; other: 1.82 [1.44, 2.29]). Targeted communications can educate travelers, particularly travelers who are pregnant or may become pregnant, about ZIKV risk to generate ZIKV vaccine demand.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Texas/epidemiologia , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 55: 305-312, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Investigate clinical and epidemiological factors of pediatric GII.4 norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2015. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed laboratory and epidemiologic data from 1,790 children≤7years with AGE from 6 hospitals in Nicaragua (n=538), and 3 community clinics (n=919) and households (n=333) in León, between 1999 and 2015. Moreover, asymptomatic children from community clinics (n=162) and households (n=105) were enrolled. Norovirus was detected by real-time PCR and genotyped by sequencing the N-terminal and shell region of the capsid gene. RESULTS: Norovirus was found in 19% (n=338) and 12% (n=32) of children with and without AGE, respectively. In total, 20 genotypes including a tentatively new genotype were detected. Among children with AGE, the most common genotypes were GII.4 (53%), GII.14 (7%), GII.3 (6%) and GI.3 (6%). In contrast, only one (1.4%) GII.4 was found in asymptomatic children. The prevalence of GII.4 infections was significantly higher in children between 7 and 12months of age. The prevalence of GII.4 was lowest in households (38%), followed by community clinics (50%) and hospitals (75%). Several different GII.4 variants were detected and their emergence followed the global temporal trend. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our study found the predominance of pediatric GII.4 norovirus infections in Nicaragua mostly occurring in children between 7 and 12months of age, implicating GII.4 as the main norovirus vaccine target.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus , Adolescente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/história , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenterite/história , Genótipo , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Razão de Chances , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
19.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183348, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program. METHODS: Numbers of visits for pneumonia, pneumonia-related deaths, and bacterial meningitis in both children and adults, and infant deaths between 2008 and 2015 were collected from all 107 public health facilities in León Department. Vital statistics data provided additional counts of pneumonia-related deaths that occurred outside health facilities. Adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRa) in the vaccine (2011-2015) and pre-vaccine periods (2008-2010) were estimated retrospectively using official population estimates as exposure time. RESULTS: The IRRa for pneumonia hospitalizations was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 0.75) for infants, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) for one year-olds. The IRRa for post-neonatal infant mortality was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.77). In the population as a whole, ambulatory visits and hospitalizations for pneumonia, as well as pneumonia-related mortality and rates of bacterial meningitis were lower in the vaccine period. CONCLUSIONS: During the first five years of program implementation, reductions were observed in health facility visits for pneumonia in immunized age groups and infant mortality, which would be hard to achieve with any other single public health intervention. Future study is warranted to understand whether the lack of a booster dose (e.g., at 12 months) may be responsible for the small reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations observed in one year-olds as compared to infants.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/mortalidade , Meningites Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle
20.
Vaccine ; 35(33): 4072-4078, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669620

RESUMO

Many countries recommend combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis immunization (Tdap) during pregnancy to stimulate transplacental transmission of pertussis antibodies to newborns. The immune system can be altered during pregnancy, potentially resulting in differing immunization risks in pregnant women. The safety of widespread Tdap immunization during pregnancy needs to be established. Our objective was to assess whether prenatal Tdap immunization was associated with adverse birth outcomes, and to evaluate the effect of timing of Tdap administration on these outcomes. We identified pregnancies at delivery in a large insurance claims database (2010-2014). Tdap immunization was categorized as optimal prenatal (27+weeks), early prenatal (<27weeks), postpartum (≤7days post-delivery), or none. Medical claims were searched to identify maternal adverse immunization reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis, fever, Guillian-Barre syndrome [GBS]), adverse birth outcomes (e.g. preeclampsia/eclampsia, premature rupture or membranes, chorioamnionitis) and newborn outcomes (e.g. respiratory distress, pulmonary hypertension, neonatal jaundice). Women with optimal or early prenatal Tdap were compared to those not immunized in pregnancy, using propensity score-weighted log-binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate risk ratios (RR) and hazard ratios (HR). We identified 1,079,034 deliveries and 677,075 linked newborns; 11.5% were immunized optimally and 2.3% immunized early. There were 1 case of post-immunization anaphylaxis, and 12 cases of maternal encephalopathy (all post- delivery); there were no cases of GBS. Optimally-timed immunization was associated with small increased relative risks of: chorioamnionitis [RR=1.11, (95% CI: 1.07-1.15), overall risk=2.8%], and postpartum hemorrhage [RR=1.23 (95% DI: 1.18-1.28), overall risk=2.4%]; however, these relative increases corresponded to low absolute risk increases. Tdap was not associated with increased risk of any adverse newborn outcome. Overall, prenatal Tdap immunization was not associated with newborn adverse events, but potential associations with chorioamnionitis consistent with one previous study and postpartum hemorrhage require further investigation.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA