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1.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(1): 11-22, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peritoneal metastases of gastric cancer have a poor prognosis with a median survival of 7 months. A benefit of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) could be shown in several selected patient cohorts but remains controversial. The aim of this study was, to reflect the results of a national German HIPEC registry initiated by the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV). METHODS: The DGAV HIPEC registry StuDoQ|Peritoneum documents patients with peritoneal malignancy contributed from 52 hospitals. All consecutive documented patients from 2011 until 2016 (n = 3078) were treated with CRS and HIPEC and were analysed. A total of 315 (10%) suffered from gastric cancer and were analysed. RESULTS: A complete data set of 235 patients was available for this study, including 113 male (48.1%) and 122 female (51.9%) patients with a median age of 53.4 years (SD ± 11.9). The median PCI was 8.0 (range 1-30). A complete cytoreduction was achieved in 121 patients (71.6%). Postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grades 3-4) occurred in 40 patients (17%). The median overall survival (OS) time was 13 months. The 5-year survival rate was 6%. According to the PCI from 0-6 (n = 74); 7-15 (n = 70) and 16-39 (n = 24) the median OS differs significantly (18 months vs. 12 months vs. 5 months; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: CRS and HIPEC in selected patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal spread can improve survival when they are treated in centers. An accurate staging and patient selection are of major importance to achieve long-term survival.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2526, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803175

RESUMO

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment option for malignancies located in the liver. RFA-induced irreversible coagulation necrosis leads to the release of danger signals and cellular content. Hence, RFA may constitute an endogenous in situ tumor vaccination, stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses, including tumor-antigen specific T cells. This may explain a phenomenon termed abscopal effect, namely tumor regression in untreated lesions evidenced after distant thermal ablation or irradiation. In this study, we therefore assessed systemic and local immune responses in individual patients treated with RFA. Methods: For this prospective clinical trial, patients with liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) receiving RFA and undergoing metachronous liver surgery for another lesion were recruited (n = 9) during a 5-year period. Tumor and non-malignant liver tissue samples from six patients were investigated by whole transcriptome sequencing and tandem-mass spectrometry, characterizing naturally presented HLA ligands. Tumor antigen-derived HLA-restricted peptides were selected by different predefined approaches. Further, candidate HLA ligands were manually curated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with epitope candidate peptides, and functional T cell responses were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. Immunohistochemical markers were additionally investigated in surgically resected mCRC from patients treated with (n = 9) or without RFA (n = 7). Results: In all six investigated patients, either induced immune responses and/or pre-existing T cell immunity against the selected targets were observed. Multi-cytokine responses were inter alia directed against known tumor antigens such as cyclin D1 but also against a (predicted) mutation contained in ERBB3. Immunohistochemistry did not show a relevant influx of immune cells into distant malignant lesions after RFA treatment (n = 9) as compared to the surgery only mCRC group (n = 7). Conclusions: Using an individualized approach for target selection, RFA induced and/or boosted T cell responses specific for individual tumor antigens were more frequently detectable as compared to previously published observations with well-characterized tumor antigens. However, the witnessed modest RFA-induced immunological effects alone may not be sufficient for the rejection of established tumors. Therefore, these findings warrant further clinical investigation including the assessment of RFA combination therapies e.g., with immune stimulatory agents, cancer vaccination, and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors.

3.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 28, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mutated HLA ligands are considered ideal cancer-specific immunotherapy targets, evidence for their presentation is lacking in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Employing a unique multi-omics approach comprising a neoepitope identification pipeline, we assessed exome-derived mutations naturally presented as HLA class I ligands in HCCs. METHODS: In-depth multi-omics analyses included whole exome and transcriptome sequencing to define individual patient-specific search spaces of neoepitope candidates. Evidence for the natural presentation of mutated HLA ligands was investigated through an in silico pipeline integrating proteome and HLA ligandome profiling data. RESULTS: The approach was successfully validated in a state-of-the-art dataset from malignant melanoma, and despite multi-omics evidence for somatic mutations, mutated naturally presented HLA ligands remained elusive in HCCs. An analysis of extensive cancer datasets confirmed fundamental differences of tumor mutational burden in HCC and malignant melanoma, challenging the notion that exome-derived mutations contribute relevantly to the expectable neoepitope pool in malignancies with only few mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exome-derived mutated HLA ligands appear to be rarely presented in HCCs, inter alia resulting from a low mutational burden as compared to other malignancies such as malignant melanoma. Our results therefore demand widening the target scope for personalized immunotherapy beyond this limited range of mutated neoepitopes, particularly for malignancies with similar or lower mutational burden.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Exoma , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(2): e27517, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362235

RESUMO

Advanced and relapsed intraperitoneal rhabdomyosarcomas in young children represent an oncological challenge and options for local tumor control are limited. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is commonly used in advanced peritoneal tumors in adults. However, no studies are available regarding CRS and HIPEC in young children. We report our experiences treating six patients with intraperitoneal rhabdomyosarcoma with CRS and HIPEC using cisplatin and doxorubicin focusing on safety and outcomes. No procedure-associated mortalities occurred and no major short- or long-term toxicities were recorded. All patients showed no evidence of disease after 12-month median (7-41) follow-up.


Assuntos
Terapia Combinada/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Rabdomiossarcoma/terapia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Clin Med ; 7(12)2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS), followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), combines radical surgery with abdominal heated chemotherapy, constituting a multimodal treatment approach. Since clear standards for HIPEC conduct in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are lacking, we aimed to provide a comprehensive structured survey. Data sources and study eligibility criteria: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, with keywords "HIPEC" and "colorectal cancer", according to established guidelines. Articles were systematically screened, selecting 87 publications complemented by 48 publications identified through extended search for subsequent synthesis and evaluation, extracting inter alia details on used drugs, dosage, temperature, exposure times, and carrier solutions. RESULTS: Compiled publications contained 171 reports on HIPEC conduct foremost with mitomycin C and oxaliplatin, but also other drugs and drug combinations, comprising at least 60 different procedures. We hence provide an overview of interconnections between HIPEC protocols, used drugs and carrier solutions as well as their volumes. In addition, HIPEC temperatures and dosing benchmarks, as well as an estimate of in vivo resulting drug concentrations are demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Owing to recent developments, HIPEC conduct and practices need to be reassessed. Unfortunately, imprecise and lacking reporting is frequent, which is why minimal information requirements should be established for HIPEC and the introduction of final drug concentrations for comparability reasons seems sensible.

6.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 144, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PTEN-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome (PHTS) is caused by germline mutations in Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) and predisposes to the development of several typical malignancies. Whereas PTEN mutations have been implicated in the occurrence of malignant mesotheliomas, the genetic landscape of verrucous carcinomas (VC) is largely uncharted. Both VC and malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPM) are exceedingly rare and a potential link between these malignancies and PHTS has never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe the clinical course of a PHTS patient who, in addition to a typical thyroid carcinoma at the age of 36 years, developed a highly-differentiated oral VC and an epithelioid MPM six years later. The patient with a history of occupational asbestos exposure underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for MPM. The clinical diagnosis of PHTS was consequently corroborated by a germline PTEN deletion. Sequencing of tumor tissue revealed a second hit in PTEN in the thyroid carcinoma and VC, confirmed by a PTEN loss and activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, additional somatic mutations in the thyroid carcinoma as well as in the VC were detected, whereas the genetics of MPM remained unrevealing. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We here report the very unusual clinical course of a patient with rare tumors that have a germline mutation first hit in PTEN in common. Since this patient was exposed to asbestos and current evidence suggests molecular mechanisms that might render PHTS patients particularly susceptible to mesothelioma, we strongly recommend PHTS patients to avoid even minimal exposure.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Verrucoso/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Humanos , Doenças Raras
7.
Clin Exp Metastasis ; 35(7): 635-640, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062506

RESUMO

Data on the effectivness of PIPAC in patients with peritoneal metastases of pancreaticobiliary origin is scarce. We here present further proof of treatment efficacy in this subset of patients. Repetitive PIPAC treatment with low-dose cisplatin 7.5 mg/m2 and doxorubicin 1.5 mg/m2 body surface area every 6 weeks and prospective data collection. Documentation included microscopic histological regression, median overall survival and treatment-related adverse events. Twelve patients with a median age of 57 years (range 43-78 years) were included. Six patients suffered from pertioneal metastases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and six patients from cholangiocarcinoma (CC). In total 23 cycles of PIPAC were adminstered with the median number of PIPAC cycles being two (range 1-4). Complete tumor regression was found in four patients and major regression in one patient. Median overall survival after the first PIPAC cycle was 12.7 months for PDAC patients and 15.1 months for CC patients. 11 of the 12 patients are still alive after a median follow-up of 438 days. There were no CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 complications. PIPAC is an innovative and attractive treatment option in the salvage situation for patients with peritoneal metastases of pancreaticobiliary tumors after failure of systemic chemotherapy. In 40% of the patients histological regression can be induced. Further studies are warranted to further elucidate treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Cancer Res ; 78(16): 4627-4641, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789417

RESUMO

Immune cell infiltrates have proven highly relevant for colorectal carcinoma prognosis, making colorectal cancer a promising candidate for immunotherapy. Because tumors interact with the immune system via HLA-presented peptide ligands, exact knowledge of the peptidome constitution is fundamental for understanding this relationship. Here, we comprehensively describe the naturally presented HLA ligandome of colorectal carcinoma and corresponding nonmalignant colon (NMC) tissue. Mass spectrometry identified 35,367 and 28,132 HLA class I ligands on colorectal carcinoma and NMC, attributable to 7,684 and 6,312 distinct source proteins, respectively. Cancer-exclusive peptides were assessed on source protein level using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein analysis through evolutionary relationships (PANTHER), revealing pathognomonic colorectal carcinoma-associated pathways, including Wnt, TGFß, PI3K, p53, and RTK-RAS. Relative quantitation of peptide presentation on paired colorectal carcinoma and NMC tissue further identified source proteins from cancer- and infection-associated pathways to be overrepresented merely within the colorectal carcinoma ligandome. From the pool of tumor-exclusive peptides, a selected HLA-ligand subset was assessed for immunogenicity, with the majority exhibiting an existing T-cell repertoire. Overall, these data show that the HLA ligandome reflects cancer-associated pathways implicated in colorectal carcinoma oncogenesis, suggesting that alterations in tumor cell metabolism could result in cancer-specific, albeit not mutation-derived, tumor antigens. Hence, a defined pool of unique tumor peptides, attributable to complex cellular alterations that are exclusive to malignant cells, might comprise promising candidates for immunotherapeutic applications.Significance: Cancer-associated pathways are reflected in the antigenic landscape of colorectal cancer, suggesting that tumor-specific antigens do not necessarily have to be mutation-derived but may also originate from other alterations in cancer cells. Cancer Res; 78(16); 4627-41. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Imunoterapia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(6): 1650-1657, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is used to treat peritoneal surface malignancies with application of cytostatic drugs such as oxaliplatin (OX) after cytoreductive surgery. Despite its increased use, evidence for optimal drug dosage, and notably duration of HIPEC, is scarce. METHODS: In this study, OX distribution was comprehensively assessed in nine patients during HIPEC (300 mg OX/m2 body surface area in Physioneal solution for 30 min). Oxaliplatin and its derivatives were measured in peritoneal perfusates over time by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and the resulting total platinum concentration in tissue was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Additionally, a novel impedance-based real-time cytotoxicity assay was used to evaluate the bioactivity of perfusates ex vivo. RESULTS: Compared with amounts of OX expected in peritoneal perfusates by calculation, only 10-15% of the parent drug could be detected by LC-MS during HIPEC. Notably, the study additionally detected platinum compounds consistent with OX transformation, accounting for a further fraction of the applied drug. The cytotoxic properties of perfusates remained unchanged during HIPEC, with only a slight but significant attenuation evidenced after 30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The bioactivity of peritoneal perfusates ex vivo is a useful parameter for evaluating the actual cytotoxic potential of OX and its derivatives used in HIPEC over time, overcoming important limitations and disadvantages associated with respective drug monitoring only. Ex vivo cytotoxicity assays may be a promising tool to aid guiding future standardization and harmonization of HIPEC protocols based on drug-mediated effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional , Protocolos Clínicos , Hipertermia Induzida , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Prognóstico
10.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 2(4): 153-161, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911646

RESUMO

The parietal peritoneum (PP) is innervated by somatic and visceral afferent nerves. PP receives sensitive branches from the lower intercostal nerves and from the upper lumbar nerves. Microscopically, a dense network of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers can be found all over the PP. The unmyelinated fibers are thin and are ending just underneath the PP. The myelinated fibers can penetrate the PP to reach the peritoneal cavity, where they lose their myelin sheath and are exposed to somatic and nociceptive stimuli. PP is sensitive to pain, pressure, touch, friction, cutting and temperature. Noxious stimuli are perceived as a localized, sharp pain. The visceral peritoneum (VP) itself is not innervated, but the sub-mesothelial tissue is innervated by the autonomous nerve system. In contrast to the PP, the visceral submesothelium also receives fibers from the vagal nerve, in addition to the spinal nerves. VP responds primarily to traction and pressure; not to cutting, burning or electrostimulation. Painful stimuli of the VP are poorly localized and dull. Pain in a foregut structure (stomach, duodenum or biliary tract) is referred to the epigastric region, pain in a midgut structure (appendix, jejunum, or ileum) to the periumbilical area and pain from a hindgut source (distal colon or rectum) is referred to the lower abdomen or suprapubic region. Peritoneal adhesions can contain nerve endings. Neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, VIP, serotonin, NO, encephalins, CGRP and substance P. Chronic peritoneal pain can be exacerbated by neurogenic inflammation, e.g. by endometriosis.

11.
World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther ; 7(3): 434-9, 2016 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602245

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the clinical impact of post-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) leukopenia, intraperitoneal and combined intravenous/intraperitoneal drug administrations were compared. METHODS: Two patient cohorts were retrospectively analyzed regarding the incidence of postoperative leukopenia. The first cohort (n = 32) received Mitomycin C (MMC)-based HIPEC intraperitoneally (35 mg/m² for 90 min) and the second cohort (n = 10) received a bi-directional therapy consisting of oxaliplatin (OX) (300 mg/m(2) for 30 min) intraperitoneally and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m² plus folinic acid 20 mg/m² intravenously. The following data were collected retrospectively: Age, sex, length of operation, length of hospital stay, amount of resection including extent of peritonectomy, peritoneal cancer index, CC (completeness of cytoreduction)-status and leukocyte-count before cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, on days 3, 7 and 14 after CRS and HIPEC. HIPEC leukopenia was defined as < 4000 cells/m³. RESULTS: Leukopenia occurred statistically more often in the MMC than in the OX/5-FU-group (10/32 vs 0/10; P = 0.042). Leukopenia set-on was on day 7 after CRS and MMC-HIPEC and lasted for two to three days. Three patients (33%) required medical treatment. Patients affected by leukopenia were predominantly female (7/10 patients) and older than 50 years (8/10 patients). The length of hospital stay tended to be higher in the MMC-group without reaching statistical significance (22.5 ± 11 vs 16.5 ± 3.5 d). Length of operation (08:54 ± 01:44 vs 09:48 ± 02:28 h) were comparable between patients with and without postoperative leukopenia. Prior history of systemic chemotherapy did not trigger post-HIPEC leukopenia. Occurrence of leucopenia did not trigger surgical site infections, intraabdominal abscess formations, hospital-acquired pneumonia or anastomotic insufficiencies. CONCLUSION: Surgeons must be aware that there is a higher incidence of postoperative leukopenia in MMC-based HIPEC protocols primarily affecting females and older patients.

12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 22(17): 4321-9, 2016 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27158200

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether the simultaneous treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) abolishes the negative effects of everolimus on anastomotic healing. METHODS: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley-rats were randomized to three groups of 16 animals each (I: vehicle; II: everolimus 3 mg/kg po; III: everolimus 3 mg/kg po + hGH 2.5 mg/kg sc). Animals were pre-treated with hGH and/or everolimus daily for seven days. Then a standard anastomosis was created in the descending colon and treatment was continued for another seven days. The anastomosis was resected in toto and the bursting pressure was assessed as a mechanical parameter of intestinal healing. Moreover, biochemical (Hydroxyproline, PCNA, MPO, MMP-2 and MMP-9) and histological (cell density, angiogenesis, amount of granulation tissue) parameters of intestinal healing were assessed. RESULTS: Anastomotic bursting pressure was significantly reduced by everolimus and a simultaneous treatment with hGH resulted in considerably higher values (I: 134 ± 19 mmHg, II: 85 ± 25 mmHg, III: 114 ± 25 mmHg; P < 0.05, I vs II; P = 0.09, I vs III and II vs III) Hydroxyproline concentration was significantly increased by hGH compared to everolimus alone (I: 14.9 ± 2.5 µg/mg, II: 8.9 ± 3.6 µg/mg, III: 11.9 ± 2.8 µg/mg; P < 0.05, I vs II/III and II vs III). The number of MPO-positive cells was reduced significantly by hGH compared to everolimus alone (I: 10 ± 1 n/mm², II: 15 ± 3 n/mm², III: 9 ± 2 n/mm²; P < 0.05, I vs II and II vs III), while the number of PCNA-positive cells were increased by hGH (I: 28 ± 3 /mm², II: 12 ± 3 /mm², III: 26 ± 12 /mm²; P < 0.05, I vs II and II vs III). Corresponding to these biochemical findings, HE-histology revealed significantly increased amount of granulation tissue in hGH-treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of intestinal wound healing by everolimus is partially neutralized by simultaeous treatment with hGH. Both inflammation as well as collagen deposition is influenced by hGH.


Assuntos
Everolimo/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacologia , Intestinos/cirurgia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Animais , Hidroxiprolina/análise , Masculino , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 1(3): 145-158, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911618

RESUMO

The peritoneum consists of a layer of mesothelial cells on a connective tissue base which is perfused with circulatory and lymphatic vessels. Total effective blood flow to the human peritoneum is estimated between 60 and 100 mL/min, representing 1-2 % of the cardiac outflow. The parietal peritoneum accounts for about 30 % of the peritoneal surface (anterior abdominal wall 4 %) and is vascularized from the circumflex, iliac, lumbar, intercostal, and epigastric arteries, giving rise to a quadrangular network of large, parallel blood vessels and their perpendicular offshoots. Parietal vessels drain into the inferior vena cava. The visceral peritoneum accounts for 70 % of the peritoneal surface and derives its blood supply from the three major arteries that supply the splanchnic organs, celiac and superior and inferior mesenteric. These vessels give rise to smaller arteries that anastomose extensively. The visceral peritoneum drains into the portal vein. Drugs absorbed are subject to first-pass hepatic metabolism. Peritoneal inflammation and cancer invasion induce neoangiogenesis, leading to the development of an important microvascular network. Anatomy of neovessels is abnormal and characterized by large size, varying diameter, convolution and blood extravasation. Neovessels have a defective ultrastructure: formation of large "mother vessels" requires degradation of venular and capillary basement membranes. Mother vessels give birth to numerous "daughter vessels". Diffuse neoangiogenesis can be observed before appearance of macroscopic peritoneal metastasis. Multiplication of the peritoneal capillary surface by neoangiogenesis surface increases the part of cardiac outflow directed to the peritoneum.

14.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 400(6): 693-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26245705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) prolongs survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastases. Since this procedure is likely to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it remains controversial whether it is also suitable for patients older than 70 years. METHODS: Consecutive patients with radiographic evidence of peritoneal metastases (PM) were scheduled for CRS and HIPEC at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed categorizing patients with respect to age into elderly (age ≥ 70) and non-elderly patients (age < 70). RESULTS: Between June 2005 and March 2014, 381 patients with a median age of 55 [14-77] years could be enrolled with 29 patients (8 %) being at least 70 years old. Both groups were comparable for tumor-related parameters including PCI, CC-status, time in operating room, and visceral resections. However, there was a difference in patient-related factors such as cardio-pulmonary comorbidities and ASA score. We found no difference in overall and recurrence-free survival between the two groups. Surgery-related mortality was 0.9 % in patients younger than 70 years whereas no patient died in the elderly group. Overall morbidity was 47 % in the younger and 76 % in the elderly group (p = 0.048). There was no difference in Clavien-Dindo grade III-IV morbidity. Logistic regression analysis proved age as an independent risk factor for increased overall morbidity in elderly patients. CONCLUSION: In elderly patients, CRS and HIPEC are associated with increased overall morbidity but neither Dindo III-IV morbidity nor surgery-related mortality.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Invest Surg ; 28(3): 160-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565126

RESUMO

AIM: In locally advanced ovarian cancer with bowel involvement appropriate surgical treatment is still controversial. Objective was to delineate factors to select those most likely to benefit from radical surgery in patients with locally advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated 207 consecutive patients with primary stage IIB-IV ovarian cancer who underwent primary surgery between 2000 and 2007. Every patient received stage-related surgery and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 53.5 months. Data collected included stage, histology, extent of cytoreduction and type of bowel resection. Univariate survival analyses were performed to investigate variables associated with outcome. RESULTS: Optimal cytoreduction (OCR) (R ≤ 1 cm) was achieved in 76.8%. Most patients presented histologic grade 2/3 (96.6%), serous ovarian cancers (84.1%) and lymph node involvement (52.2%). Complete cytoreduction (R = 0 mm) has significant best prognostic impact in FIGO IIB-IV (p = .026). Regarding bowel involvement, bowel resection was performed in 82 patients (39.6%). In this subgroup of patients complete cytoreduction led to significant better overall survival than R > 0 mm-1 cm, even in FIGO IIIC-IV patients (p = .027); this fact is independent of bowel resection. Noticeably, for survival bowel resection achieving residual tumor mass below 1 cm was also one main prognostic factor and even recurrence rate was associated with residual tumor mass. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the major prognostic factor in patients with advanced ovarian cancer needing colorectal resection is completeness of cytoreduction. Therefore, in advanced ovarian cancer patients, multivisceral surgery is indicated to achieve OCR (R ≤ 1 cm) with or without bowel resection with best prognostic impact.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Gastric Cancer ; 14(2): 117-22, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25061539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been shown to improve survival in select patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal metastases. It remains unclear, however, whether this multimodal treatment protocol is also beneficial for signet-ring cell gastric cancer (SRC) patients with peritoneal metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of patients scheduled for upfront systemic chemotherapy consisting of 5-FU (2,600 mg/m(2)), folinic acid (200 mg/m(2)), docetaxel (50 mg/m(2)), and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) followed by CRS and HIPEC using cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive patients for whom irresectability has been ruled out by a computed tomography scan were enrolled. However, complete cytoreduction could only be achieved in 72% of patients. When categorizing patients with respect to the completeness of cytoreduction, we found no difference between both groups considering tumor- or patient-related factors. The overall complication rate following complete cytoreduction and HIPEC was 46%. Within a median follow-up of 6.6 (0.5~31) months, the median survival for CRS and HIPEC patients was 8.9 months as opposed to 1.1 months for patients where complete cytoreduction could not be achieved. Following complete cytoreduction and HIPEC, progression-free survival was 6.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: In SRC with peritoneal metastases, the prognosis appears to remain poor irrespective of complete CRS and HIPEC. Moreover, complete cytoreduction could not be achieved in a considerable percentage of patients. In SRC, CRS and HIPEC should be restricted to highly selective patients in order to avoid exploratory laparotomy.

17.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 399(5): 589-94, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24817542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This investigation aims to assess morbidity, mortality and postoperative outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC) with peritoneal metastases (PM). METHODS: Consecutive patients with radiographic evidence of REOC with PM were scheduled for CRS and HIPEC at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 90 patients were analyzed. Complete cytoreduction and HIPEC could be performed in 69 % of patients. When categorizing patients with respect to the completeness of cytoreduction (CC-0/1 vs CC-2/3), there was no difference considering baseline demographic characteristics. Cumulative morbidity was 42 %. Morbidity rates did not statistically differ between CC-0/1 patients with HIPEC and CC-2/3 patients without HIPEC. No surgery-related and 90-day postoperative mortality was observed. In CC-0/1 patients, median overall survival was 35 months as opposed to 14 months in CC-2/3 patients. There was no difference in survival with respect to the peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) as long as complete cytoreduction could be achieved. CONCLUSIONS: CRS and HIPEC can be performed with acceptable morbidity and low mortality in specialized centres. Our data do not suggest that HIPEC necessarily increases the risk of postoperative adverse events.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/secundário , Ovariectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Surg Today ; 44(2): 260-3, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23494067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In pancreatic cancer, the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) precludes the possibility of a surgical cure, irrespective of the resectability of the primary tumor. However, peritoneal spread cannot be reliably detected radiographically during preoperative tumor staging. METHODS: The pancreatic adenocarcinoma database of the Tübingen Comprehensive Cancer Center included 29 patients in whom PC was incidentally detected during the surgery. These patients were retrospectively compared for patient- and tumor-related factors with 29 randomly selected patients without PC who underwent curative resection. RESULTS: Clinical jaundice and diarrhea were more frequently present in patients without PC. The CA 19-9 levels were significantly higher in patients with PC compared to those in patients without PC. No other differences were observed in the patient- or tumor-related factors between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In pancreatic cancer patients, markedly elevated CA 19-9 levels may serve as surrogate marker for peritoneal dissemination, irrespective of the local resectability of the tumor. In such patients, laparoscopy should be considered as an additional staging tool to rule out peritoneal carcinomatosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; 12(2): 113-29, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23771612

RESUMO

Valid and reproducible sampling techniques as well as processing protocols are required for the assessment of biomarkers and mediators contained in wound exudate. Moreover, the ideal technique should be easy to use even in daily clinical routine. This is challenging since wound fluid represents an inhomogeneous mixture of different exogenous and endogenous sources. Analyzing wound fluid, however, may facilitate clinical decision making. Many techniques for obtaining wound fluid have been described. There is very little validation data, and the array of different techniques appears confusing. Structuring and new standards are needed to avoid wound fluid sampling yielding an "undefined soup." A lot of wound fluid parameters have been analyzed, although none of them have made its way into clinical practice. Nevertheless, basic principles of wound healing have been established from wound fluid analysis. With adequate techniques suitable for daily practice, basic research might foster our clinical understanding of wound healing with implications for new therapies. So far, research has mainly concentrated on analyzing available sample material with respect to either a wide variety of analytes or comparing acute with chronic wound exudate. Clinical endpoints such as healing or wound infection as well as longitudinal data may indeed be more valuable for clinical practice, enabling the discovery of meaningful biomarkers using a suitable technique.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/patologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Doença Aguda , Bandagens , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Exsudatos e Transudatos/imunologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Microdiálise , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Infecção dos Ferimentos/diagnóstico
20.
Ann Transplant ; 18: 182-6, 2013 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23792519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a potentially curative approach for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colonic origin. So far experience concerning the use of this treatment option in transplant recipients is lacking. CASE REPORT: We herein present the case of a 31-year-old man who had previously been liver transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Approximately 10 years after transplantation colon carcinoma with co-existing peritoneal carcinomatosis was diagnosed. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy were conducted. Operative management under tacrolimus medication did not trigger infections, wound healing disorders or graft function impairment. At one year follow-up no tumor recurrence was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Recent literature suggests that proctocolectomy for colorectal cancer is considered feasible in liver graft recipients. Virtually all patients suffering from primary sclerosing cholangitis exhibit co-existing ulcerative colitis, rendering this subset of patient at risk for developing colonic malignancies. Furthermore chronic immunosuppression may facilitate malignant growth. The most feared complication in colorectal carcinomas is the occurence of peritoneal carcinomatosis, for which cytoreduction plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy may be a curative option. This, so far unique, case report suggests that even in this patient subset this treatment is feasible and for further cases this dual-approach for the management of PC in transplant recipients should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Colangite Esclerosante/cirurgia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário
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