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1.
Am J Pharm Educ ; : 8760, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785497

RESUMO

Objective The objectives of this study were to 1) describe characteristics of NAPLEX preparation programs currently utilized by colleges and schools of pharmacy and 2) to evaluate these program characteristics in relation to first-time NAPLEX pass rates.Methods This cross-sectional study was based on an online survey administered between February and March 2020. Assessment leads from 143 PharmD programs were invited to answer questions on their schools' PharmD program characteristics and various aspects of NAPLEX preparation programs. The study included regression analyses to investigate the associations between the NAPLEX first-attempt pass rates and PharmD demographic characteristics, as well as data collection on various aspects of the NAPLEX preparation programs. Finally, common themes from the open-ended questions were identified.Results Fifty-eight participants completed the survey out of 132 successfully delivered email invitations (response rate = 44%). Fifty participants (86%) indicated that their PharmD program offers a NAPLEX preparation program. Our data indicate that offering a NAPLEX preparation program was not significantly associated with higher NAPLEX first-attempt pass rates. The analysis identified possible explanations for this lack of association, including student concerns with balancing a prep program with APPEs, and faculty workload associated with delivering such programs.Conclusion The current findings show no association between offering a NAPLEX preparation program and NAPLEX first attempt pass rate. Future research should continue to examine the impact of these programs on individual school pass rates and factors that may enhance student motivation to engage in these programs.

2.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(4): 584-590, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013215

RESUMO

Objective: The study evaluated point-of-care resources for scope, completeness, and consistency of information describing interactions between therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse (DoA). Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted focusing on seven resources: Clinical Pharmacology, Facts & Comparisons eAnswers, Lexicomp Online, Micromedex, Drug Interactions Analysis and Management, Drug Interaction Facts, and Stockley's Drug Interactions. A sample of clinically relevant interactions was developed through review of tertiary literature and resources, and input was solicited from subject matter experts. Entries from each resource for each interaction were evaluated for scope (i.e., whether there was an entry for the interaction); completeness (i.e., whether there was information addressing mechanism; clinical effects, severity, course of action, and level of certainty, described as a median rating on a 5-point scale); and consistency (i.e., whether the information in the resource was similar to the majority) among resources with an entry. Results: Following review by subject matter experts, the final sample contained 159 interactions. Scope scores ranged from 0.6% (Drug Interactions Analysis and Management) to 43.4% (Lexicomp Online). Completeness scores ranged from 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 0 to 3, Stockley's Drug Interactions) to 5 (IQR 5 to 5, Drug Interaction Facts, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons eAnswers). Consistency scores ranged from 30.8% (Stockley's Drug Interactions) to 87.1% (Clinical Pharmacology) for severity and from 15.4% (Facts & Comparisons eAnswers) to 71.4% (Drug Interaction Facts) for course of action. Conclusions: Although coverage of drug-DoA interactions was low and content was often inconsistent among resources, the provided information was generally complete.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
3.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(8): e476-e481, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intranasal ketamine has not been well studied in acute pain treatment and does not have a recognized place in therapy in current practice guidelines for pediatric patients. Ketamine has a unique mechanism of action with a favorable side effect profile that may provide benefit to the pediatric population for acute pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence evaluating intranasal ketamine versus any other comparator for children who require acute pain treatment. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to include clinical studies of intranasal ketamine for acute pain that reported any pain-related outcome and adverse events in children 0 to 17 years old. Trials were identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, clinical trial registries, research registries, and key journals through April 2018. The Jadad scoring system was used to assess the methodological quality of the included randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Six studies consisting of 261 patients were reviewed. Intranasal ketamine demonstrated pain relief in all included clinical studies; however, there was inconsistency in dosing, comparators, scales, and indications. Two of the randomized controlled trials were rated as high quality, and 1 randomized controlled trial was rated as poor quality on the Jadad scale. CONCLUSIONS: Intranasal ketamine was safe and effective in the 6 clinical studies included in this systematic review.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Criança , Humanos
4.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(1): 7702, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292199

RESUMO

Most pharmacy faculty members are more confident in their foundation as research scientists or clinical pharmacists than with the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL). However, many wish to enter this rewarding field of scholarship in order to test pedagogical innovations, measure teaching effectiveness, and share success with the Academy. This commentary provides general advice for those who wish to explore SoTL but lack formal education and training in this area. Four opportunities are highlighted: educational research, small activities and projects, course redesign, and longitudinal assessment and evaluation.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Docentes , Bolsas de Estudo/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Farmacêuticos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Ensino
5.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 12(3): 307-312, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Indiana Pharmacy Teaching Certificate Program (IPTeC) offered a live, two-day conference to pharmacy residents, fellows, and preceptors in Indiana, while simultaneously live-streaming to participants in Doha, Qatar. Participants engaged in longitudinal activities for a one-year period. The purpose is to evaluate this pilot extension of a teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) to experienced preceptors in a global partnership and determine whether global and local participants perceive similar quality of programming. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Upon completion of the two-day conference, all pharmacists from two years of the program were encouraged to complete the standard course evaluations, consisting of nine items, in order to obtain continuing education (CE) credit. Evaluations of the program were analyzed by location cohort. FINDINGS: A total of 206 eligible pharmacists attended the program, with 154 completing the course evaluations (response rate 75%). "Good" or "outstanding" median ratings were given to each learning objective by both location cohorts, with domestic participants more likely to give "outstanding" ratings (6/9 items versus 0/9 items). SUMMARY: This pilot extension was successful in providing educational content satisfying learning objectives from the perspective of domestic participants and remote participants in Qatar. This type of global collaboration can meet the needs of trainees and experienced preceptors to advance pharmacy education and training.


Assuntos
Currículo/tendências , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Currículo/normas , Educação em Farmácia/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia/métodos , Humanos , Indiana , Internacionalidade , Catar
6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(5): 356-364, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an evidence-based tool that will provide concise guidance to pharmacy students who want to become competitive postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency applicants. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles describing student or school factors and specific interventions or activities associated with improved or decreased residency match rates, as well as studies describing residency program directors' (RPDs') or preceptors' perceptions of qualified applicants. An initial checklist was developed, with an item for each relevant factor. A consensus on checklist items was built through a 2-round Delphi process with a panel of RPDs. Ultimately, items that received a median score of at least 5 on a 7-point scale with less than one-third of the ratings being a 1, 2, or 3 were included. RESULTS: The initial checklist of 34 items, primarily related to grade point average, professional involvement, work experience, or professional development, was evaluated by a panel of 25 RPD participants. Six of 34 items (18%) were reevaluated in round 2, along with 1 added item and 4 items substantively modified based on comments; 2 items were merged. Ultimately, 33 items met the criteria for consensus and were included in the final checklist. CONCLUSION: A checklist of items to guide prospective pharmacy residency applicants was developed through a systematic literature search and verified by program directors using a Delphi process.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Residências em Farmácia/organização & administração , Estudantes de Farmácia , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Critérios de Admissão Escolar
7.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(2): 148-160, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Propofol has not been extensively studied as an acute migraine therapy; however, based on the limited evidence from outpatient and inpatient settings, propofol has been proposed as an option for patients who present to the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this review was to evaluate the existing literature regarding the safety and efficacy of propofol for acute migraine treatment in the ED. METHODS: A systematic review of clinical studies of propofol treatment for acute migraine in the ED was performed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Trials were identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, clinical trial registries, research registries, and key journals through May 2019. A modified Jadad scoring system was used to assess the methodologic quality of the included randomized controlled trials, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for the retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Nine studies, including five case reports or series, one retrospective cohort study, and three randomized controlled trials, consisting of 290 patients, were reviewed. All studies in adults reported propofol to be an effective therapy for migraine, but the strength of these results was limited by dosing variations, small sample sizes, and limited generalizability. Pediatric studies produced mixed results. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol may be an effective rescue therapy for patients presenting to the ED for acute migraine, but its place in therapy based on the limited available evidence is unknown. The safety of propofol for migraine management in the ED has not been adequately examined.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(12): 7981, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283776

RESUMO

Objective. To determine the perceived value that pharmacy practice department chairs ascribe to pharmacy faculty candidates having completed a teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) program and related activities.Methods. An 18-item survey instrument was created that was intended to capture the overall impressions of pharmacy practice chairs regarding the value of TLC programs, relative importance compared to other accomplishments (eg, residency completion, board certification), and importance of specific activities. Following pilot testing and establishment of intra-rater reliability, invitations to complete the electronic survey instrument were sent to pharmacy practice chairs (or their equivalent) at accredited Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States.Results. Of the 127 pharmacy practice chairs invited, 53 completed the survey (response rate of 41.7%). The majority of respondents held a PharmD degree (90.6%), had been in their role of chair for zero to five years (60.4%), and represented a private institution (54.7%). The majority of respondents who answered the question (32 of 49) felt it was very important or important (16.3% and 49.0%, respectively) that teaching experiences be completed within a formal teaching and learning curriculum program. These programs were believed to be most important for candidates with less than five years of professional experience. Teaching and learning curriculum programs were not deemed to be more important than other accomplishments by most responders. The perceived most important TLC program activities were instruction on didactic and experiential teaching strategies, and experience developing learning objectives, developing examination items, evaluating examination results, and facilitating case conferences or practice laboratory activities.Conclusion. Teaching and learning curriculum programs may provide the foundational experiences needed for pharmacy graduates to stand out among other candidates, although department chairs' perceptions of the value of teaching and learning curriculum experiences varied.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Farmácia , Currículo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Faculdades de Farmácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino , Estados Unidos
9.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(1): 62-71, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598650

RESUMO

Objective: The research evaluated point-of-care drug interaction resources for scope, completeness, and consistency in drug-ethanol and drug-tobacco content. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 2 independent reviewers extracted data for 108 clinically relevant interactions using 7 drug information resources (Clinical Pharmacology Drug Interaction Report, Facts & Comparisons eAnswers, Lexicomp Interactions, Micromedex Drug Interactions, Drug Interactions Analysis and Management, Drug Interaction Facts, and Stockley's Drug Interactions). Scope (presence of an entry), completeness (content describing mechanism, clinical effects, severity, level of certainty, and course of action for each present interaction; up to 1 point per assessed item for a total possible score of 5 points), and consistency (similarity among resources) were evaluated. Results: Fifty-three drug-ethanol and 55 drug-tobacco interactions were analyzed. Drug-ethanol interaction entries were most commonly present in Lexicomp (84.9%), Clinical Pharmacology (83.0%), and Stockley's Drug Interactions (73.6%), compared to other resources (p<0.05). Drug-tobacco interactions were more often covered in Micromedex (56.4%), Stockley's Drug Interactions (56.4%), Drug Interaction Facts (43.6%), and Clinical Pharmacology (41.8%) (p<0.001). Overall completeness scores were higher for Lexicomp, Micromedex, Drug Interaction Facts, and Facts & Comparisons (median 5/5 points, interquartile range [IQR] 5 to 5, p<0.001) for drug-ethanol and for Micromedex (median 5/5 points, IQR 5 to 5, p<0.05) for drug-tobacco, compared to other resources. Drug Interaction Facts and Micromedex were among the highest scoring resources for both drug-ethanol (73.7%, 68.6%) and drug-tobacco (75.0%, 32.3%) consistency. Conclusions: Scope and completeness were high for drug-ethanol interactions, but low for drug-tobacco interactions. Consistency was highly variable across both interaction types.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/normas , Interações Medicamentosas , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
10.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(4): 813-817, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence of venous thromboembolism between obese and non-obese hospitalized patients who received United States Food and Drug Administration-approved prophylactic enoxaparin doses and to describe enoxaparin dosing strategies used in obese patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients who were admitted to Parkview Regional Medical Center, Parkview Hospital, or Parkview Orthopedic Hospital between September 2011 and August 2012 and received at least one dose of enoxaparin 30 mg twice daily or enoxaparin 40 mg once daily for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Patients classified based on their body mass index into three groups, Group 1 (non-obese: body mass index < 25 kg/m2), Group 2 (overweight: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 but < 30 kg/m2), and Group 3 (obese: body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2). The primary endpoint was venous thromboembolism occurrence within 90 days, considering day 1 of hospitalization as day 1. RESULTS: Of the 428 patients included, 8 cases of venous thromboembolism (1.9%) were identified; 3 in the non-obese group, 2 in the overweight group, and 3 in the obese group, no statistically significant differences were found between the three groups, p = 0.81. When venous thromboembolism incidence was adjusted for age and sex, no statistically significant differences were found between overweight (OR = 0.685; 95% CI 0.115-4.095), obese (OR = 0.797; 95% CI 0.353-1.796), and combined overweight and obese (OR = 0.656; 95% CI 0.154-2.799) groups compared to patients with normal body weight. CONCLUSION: This study did not find a statistically significant difference in venous thromboembolism incidence between obese, overweight, and non-obese hospitalized patients receiving approved enoxaparin prophylaxis doses.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
11.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(12): 1587-1593, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Drug interaction management is essential in pharmacy practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate student pharmacists' ability and confidence using drug information databases to investigate a drug-drug interaction previously unencountered in the curriculum. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted where didactic students were presented with three cases, each containing an interaction. Students were asked to select a drug information resource and determine the mechanism, clinical effects, severity, level of documentation, and course of action for each interaction. Overall performance was assessed on a 15-point scale (one point for each assessment item for each interaction), and students were asked to rate their confidence on a five-point scale for each interaction, yielding a 15-point confidence scale. FINDINGS: For the 187 participants (90.8% response rate) who completed each interaction assessment, overall median performance score was 14 out of 15 possible points (IQR 12-15); 58 (31.0%) earned the maximum score of 15 points. Median confidence score was 13 out of 15 possible points (IQR 12-14). DISCUSSION: This study uniquely assessed students' competency in interactions by focusing on analysis, as opposed to recall of basic facts. Although most students performed well, a significant minority earned an overall performance score of 80% or less, suggesting need for continued practice and improvement. SUMMARY: This cross-section of student pharmacists earned generally high performance scores when assessed on their ability to use a drug information resource to analyze interactions, and were mostly highly confident.


Assuntos
Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/normas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Interações Medicamentosas , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(9): 1175-1183, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to simultaneously assess impact of enhanced training and anonymity on frequency, constructiveness, and professionalism of open-ended comments provided on course and instructor evaluations. METHODS: In a 2 × 2 factorial study, didactic students at one doctor of pharmacy program were randomized to receive enhanced training in providing constructive feedback on student evaluations of teaching or an unrelated control activity at the beginning of the academic year, and to provide or not provide an electronic signature at the time of evaluation completion for two consecutive semesters. After ensuring intercoder reliability and agreement among all investigators, one external investigator coded all open-ended comments based on the following factors: comment provided/comment not provided, constructive/less than constructive, professional/unprofessional, training/no training, and signed/unsigned. RESULTS: Of 836 opportunities to respond to open-ended items, 646 (77.3%) written comments were provided, which was similar by training (76.6% vs. 78.0%, p = 0.631) and signature (76.1% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.401) status. Of the 646 comments, 85.1% (n = 550) were constructive and 98.0% (n = 633) were professional. Students in the untrained/signed group were associated with decreased constructiveness (78.3%, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.76, p = 0.003); overall, training was associated with increased constructiveness (88.3%, OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09-2.65, p = 0.019). No factors were negatively or positively associated with professionalism when accounting for covariates. DISCUSSION: Most students provided comments on course and instructor evaluations; most were constructive and professional. CONCLUSION: Study group assignment did not substantially impact comment frequency or professionalism. Assignment to enhanced training, regardless of signature status, significantly increased constructiveness.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Autorrelato , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indiana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Pharmacogenomics ; 19(8): 693-700, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790417

RESUMO

AIM: To systematically assess methodological quality of pharmacogenomics clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: Guidelines published through 2017 were reviewed by at least three independent reviewers using the AGREE II instrument, which consists of 23 items grouped into 6 domains and 2 items representing an overall assessment. Items were assessed on a seven-point rating scale, and aggregate quality scores were calculated. RESULTS: 31 articles were included. All guidelines were published as peer-reviewed articles and 90% (n = 28) were endorsed by professional organizations. Mean AGREE II domain scores (maximum score 100%) ranged from 46.6 ± 11.5% ('applicability') to 78.9 ± 11.4% ('clarity of presentation'). Median overall quality score was 72.2% (IQR: 61.1-77.8%). CONCLUSION: Quality of pharmacogenomics guidelines was generally high, but variable, for most AGREE II domains.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Farmacogenética/normas , Humanos
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 35(13): 1303-1307, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of beractant administration in neonates via a single aliquot in a neutral position versus positioning the neonates on their left then right side and two aliquots administration. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort chart review of neonates who were diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received beractant during two 15-month periods between 2013 and 2015 and 2015 and 2016 to compare the change in the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) 1 hour after beractant administration. RESULTS: There were no differences in FiO2 1 hour after beractant between groups (p = 0.617). Adverse events and other comorbidities did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Changing administration of beractant from two aliquots and positions to a neutral position resulted in no significant change in FiO2 and may be considered as an option for administration in neonates.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Registros Médicos Orientados a Problemas/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 23: 2515690X18764844, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 6 tertiary, point-of-care drug information resources' dietary supplement content. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional evaluation of Lexicomp Natural Products Database, Micromedex Alternative Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology, Natural Medicines, The Review of Natural Products, and Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. Each resource was evaluated for scope, completeness, consistency, and ease of use. RESULTS: For a sample of 66 supplements, scope scores ranged from 69.7% (Micromedex) to 100% (Natural Medicines). Completeness scores were high considering uses, dose, adverse effects, and mechanism (85.7% to 100%). Overall completeness scores ranged from 82.5% ( Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs) to 100% (Clinical Pharmacology, Natural Medicines, The Review of Natural Products). Consistency scores ranged from 0% ( Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs) to 100% (Natural Medicines, The Review of Natural Products). Mean time to locate and gather information was similar among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Resources were similar for completeness and ease of use. Scope and consistency varied depending on the resource.

16.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med ; 22(4): 956-968, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228784

RESUMO

The objective of this review is to identify, summarize, and evaluate clinical trials of berberine for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and other dyslipidemias. A literature search for randomized, controlled trials of berberine that assessed at least 2 lipid values as endpoints resulted in identification of 12 articles that met criteria. The majority of evaluated articles consistently suggest that berberine has a beneficial effect on low-density lipoprotein (reductions ranging from approximately 20 to 50 mg/dL) and triglycerides (reductions ranging from approximately 25 to 55 mg/dL). Common study limitations included lack of reporting of precision in their endpoints, description of blinding, transparency in flow of patients, and reporting of baseline concomitant medications. Berberine could serve as an alternative for patients who are intolerant to statins, patients resistant to starting statin therapy but who are open to alternative treatments, and for low-risk patients not indicated for statin therapy.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino
17.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(6): 117, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970618

RESUMO

Objective. To describe the redesigned assessment plan for a patient safety and informatics course and assess student pharmacist performance and perceptions. Methods. The final examination of a patient safety course was redesigned from traditional multiple choice and short answer to team-based, open-ended, and case-based. Faculty for each class session developed higher level activities, focused on developing key skills or attitudes deemed essential for practice, for a progressive patient case consisting of nine activities. Student performance and perceptions were analyzed with pre- and post-surveys using 5-point scales. Results. Mean performance on the examination was 93.6%; median scores for each assessed course outcome ranged from 90% to 100%. Eighty-five percent of students completed both surveys. Confidence performing skills and demonstrating attitudes improved for each item on post-survey compared with pre-survey. Eighty-one percent of students indicated the experience of taking the examination was beneficial for their professional development. Conclusion. A team, case-based examination was associated with high student performance and improved self-confidence in performing medication safety-related skills.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Informática/educação , Segurança do Paciente , Autoimagem , Estudantes de Farmácia , Adulto , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia
18.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 81(2): 34, 2017 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381894

RESUMO

Objective. To implement a series of activities designed to build drug literature evaluation skills and assess their impact on student pharmacists' ability to apply study results to patient cases. Design. Coursework was integrated across two didactic and pharmacy practice laboratory (PPL) courses. Team and individual journal clubs were used in traditional and case-based approaches during PPL courses to reinforce skills introduced in didactic courses. Student performance and perceptions were assessed during orientation for the third professional (P3) year and after the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of the P3 year in identical drug literature evaluation assessments and pre- and post-intervention surveys of students. Assessment. Mean scores on team and individual journal club sessions were 91.8%±7.3% and 88.0%±8.2%. Of 64 students who completed both P3 assessments, 29 (45.3%) earned a passing score on the drug literature evaluation assessment at orientation compared to 57 (89.1%) after the OSCE. Conclusion. Student performance and confidence improved on objective assessments following a series of both team and individual, and traditional and case-based journal clubs.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Farmacêuticos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med ; 22(1): 156-165, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26976085

RESUMO

The objective of this review is to identify, summarize, and evaluate clinical trials to determine the efficacy of curcuma in the treatment of osteoarthritis. A literature search for interventional studies assessing efficacy of curcuma was performed, resulting in 8 clinical trials. Studies have investigated the effect of curcuma on pain, stiffness, and functionality in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Curcuma-containing products consistently demonstrated statistically significant improvement in osteoarthritis-related endpoints compared with placebo, with one exception. When compared with active control, curcuma-containing products were similar to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and potentially to glucosamine. While statistical significant differences in outcomes were reported in a majority of studies, the small magnitude of effect and presence of major study limitations hinder application of these results. Further rigorous studies are needed prior to recommending curcuma as an effective alternative therapy for knee osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Curcuma , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Fitoterapia
20.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 104(4): 290-295, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The research sought to evaluate seven drug information resources, specifically designed for analyzing drug interactions for scope, completeness, and ease of use, and determine the consistency of content among the seven resources. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted where 100 drug-drug and drug-dietary supplement interactions were analyzed using 7 drug information resources: Lexicomp Interactions module, Micromedex Drug Interactions, Clinical Pharmacology Drug Interaction Report, Facts & Comparisons eAnswers, Stockley's Drug Interactions (10th edition), Drug Interactions Analysis and Management (2014), and Drug Interaction Facts (2015). The interaction sample was developed based on published resources and peer input. Two independent reviewers gathered data for each interaction from each of the 7 resources using a common form. RESULTS: Eighty-two drug-drug and 18 drug-dietary supplement interactions were analyzed. Scope scores were higher for Lexicomp Interactions (97.0%), Clinical Pharmacology Drug Interaction Report (97.0%), and Micromedex Drug Interactions (93.0%) compared to all other resources (p<0.05 for each comparison). Overall completeness scores were higher for Micromedex Drug Interactions (median 5, interquartile range [IQR] 4 to 5) compared to all other resources (p<0.01 for each comparison) and were higher for Lexicomp Interactions (median 4, IQR 4 to 5), Facts & Comparisons eAnswers (median 4, IQR 4 to 5), and Drug Interaction Facts (4, IQR 4 to 5) compared to all other resources, except Micromedex (p<0.05 for each comparison). Ease of use, in terms of time to locate information and time to gather information, was similar among resources. Consistency score was higher for Micromedex (69.9%) compared to all other resources (p<0.05 for each comparison). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical Pharmacology Drug Interaction Report, Lexicomp Interactions, and Micromedex Drug Interactions scored highest in scope. Micromedex Drug Interactions and Lexicomp Interactions scored highest in completeness. Consistency scores were overall low, but Micromedex Drug Interactions was the highest.


Assuntos
Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/normas , Humanos , Obras de Referência/normas
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