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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 713818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566791

RESUMO

Background: This scoping review analyzed research about how music activities may affect participants' health and well-being. Primary outcomes were measures of health (including symptoms and health behaviors) and well-being. Secondary measures included a range of psychosocial processes such as arousal, mood, social connection, physical activation or relaxation, cognitive functions, and identity. Diverse music activities were considered: receptive and intentional music listening; sharing music; instrument playing; group singing; lyrics and rapping; movement and dance; and songwriting, composition, and improvisation. Methods: Nine databases were searched with terms related to the eight music activities and the psychosocial variables of interest. Sixty-three papers met selection criteria, representing 6,975 participants of all ages, nationalities, and contexts. Results: Receptive and intentional music listening were found to reduce pain through changes in physiological arousal in some studies but not others. Shared music listening (e.g., concerts or radio programs) enhanced social connections and mood in older adults and in hospital patients. Music listening and carer singing decreased agitation and improved posture, movement, and well-being of people with dementia. Group singing supported cognitive health and well-being of older adults and those with mental health problems, lung disease, stroke, and dementia through its effects on cognitive functions, mood, and social connections. Playing a musical instrument was associated with improved cognitive health and well-being in school students, older adults, and people with mild brain injuries via effects on motor, cognitive and social processes. Dance and movement with music programs were associated with improved health and well-being in people with dementia, women with postnatal depression, and sedentary women with obesity through various cognitive, physical, and social processes. Rapping, songwriting, and composition helped the well-being of marginalized people through effects on social and cultural inclusion and connection, self-esteem and empowerment. Discussion: Music activities offer a rich and underutilized resource for health and well-being to participants of diverse ages, backgrounds, and settings. The review provides preliminary evidence that particular music activities may be recommended for specific psychosocial purposes and for specific health conditions.

2.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 73-80, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092197

RESUMO

This study examined the reliability of instrumented trunk assessment methods across two experiments to develop and improve evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Trunk coordination, range of motion (ROM), and strength were assessed in 38 non-disabled participants. Each test battery was completed on two occasions to determine inter-session reliability. Intra-session reliability was also determined in Experiment Two. Absolute agreement of two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1) was calculated to assess reliability. Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were also reported to facilitate comparisons between different outcomes. Trunk coordination measures had low-to-moderate reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.00-0.60; intra-session ICCs = 0.14-0.65) and variable SEMs (5-60%). Trunk ROM demonstrated moderate-to-excellent reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.61-0.93; intra-session ICCs = 0.87-0.95) and good SEMs (<10%). Trunk strength measures demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability (ICCs = 0.87-0.98) and good SEMs (<10%). The strength values obtained for the load cell and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) were significantly different from each other with the HHD underestimating strength. Modifications provided in Experiment Two improved the reliability of strength and ROM assessments but did not improve coordination measures. Further research involving para swimmers is required to establish the validity of the methods.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Paratletas/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(6): 1604-1610, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009879

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Redman, KJ, Connick, MJ, Beckman, EM, and Kelly, VG. Monitoring prescribed and actual resistance training loads in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1604-1610, 2021-Coaches devote a considerable amount of time and effort prescribing and selecting exercises to elicit training adaptations. Adherence to the prescribed resistance training load may vary for a number of reasons. The aim of this study was to quantify the difference between prescribed and actual resistance training loads in a team of professional rugby league players. Training loads were quantified using volume load and training intensity throughout a season. The competition was categorized into preseason, early competition, mid-competition, and late competition. Twenty-seven players participated in this study. Four exercises were monitored: back squat, bench press, bench pull, and clean pull. A Friedman's test was used to assess differences between prescribed and actual training loads throughout different phases of the season, for different exercises, and during different weeks in a training block. There were significantly greater differences in prescribed and actual volume loads during the mid-competition in comparison to all other phases of the season (p < 0.01). Although players adherence to prescribed training intensity was significantly greater during the preseason compared with the remainder of the season (p < 0.05), they completed significantly less prescribed training load during week 1 in comparison to week 4 within a training block (p < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that regular monitoring of completed resistance training loads may be of greater importance to strength and conditioning coaches to assist in examining potential progress and fatigue or allow for more accurate prescription of load to enhance adaptation throughout a season.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Treinamento de Força , Adaptação Fisiológica , Exercício Físico , Fadiga , Humanos , Força Muscular
4.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 81-90, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704022

RESUMO

Conceptually, sports-specific training should not influence measures of impairment used to classify Para athletes. This study evaluated the extent to which measures of strength, range of movement and coordination developed for Para swimming classification changed in response to a performance-focused swimming programme. A five-phase multiple-baseline, single-case experimental research design was utilized. Three participants with cerebral palsy and high support needs completed the 64-week study, which included two 16-week performance-focused swimming training blocks. Swimming speed, isometric shoulder extension strength, shoulder flexion range of movement and upper limb coordination were monitored throughout.Interrupted Time-Series Simulation Method analysis demonstrated large, significant changes in swimming speed (m/s) during the first (d = 2.17; 95% CI 0.45-3.88; p = 0.01) and second (d = 2.59; 95% CI 1.66-3.52; p = 0.00) training blocks. In contrast, changes in strength, range of movement and coordination were predominantly trivial and non-significant. This was the first study to investigate training responsiveness of measures developed for Para sport classification. Results indicate that despite significantly improved swimming performance, impairment measures remained relatively stable, and therefore these measures of impairment may be valid for the purposes of Para swimming classification. Further research is required in elite athletes, different sports and different impairment types.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Fatores de Tempo , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470597

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Redman, KJ, Wade, L, Whitley, R, Connick, MJ, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The relationship between match tackle outcomes and muscular strength and power in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Tackling is a fundamental skill in collision sports, such as rugby league. Match success is largely dependent on a player's ability to complete tackles and tolerate physical collisions. High levels of strength and power are key physical qualities necessary for effective tackling because players are required to generate large forces while pushing and pulling their opponents. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tackle outcomes and strength and power qualities in professional rugby league. Fourteen rugby league players participated in this study. Maximal strength was assessed through 1 repetition maximum on the back squat, bench press, and bench pull. Lower-body vertical and horizontal powers were evaluated using a countermovement jump and standing broad jump (SBJ), respectively. Upper-body power was assessed on a plyometric push-up (PPU). Postmatch analysis of 5 National Rugby League matches was conducted to examine tackling outcomes. A series of Spearman's rank-order correlations were used to assess the relationship among match tackle outcomes and strength and power variables. Significant associations were observed between play-the-ball speed and SBJ peak power (rs = -0.74, p = 0.003), postcontact metres and PPU peak power (rs = 0.77, p = 0.002), losing the play-the-ball contest in defence with SBJ distance (rs = 0.70, p = 0.006), and ineffective tackles with PPU concentric impulse (rs = 0.70, p = 0.007). These results suggest the development and maintenance of full-body power to enhance the likelihood of positive tackle outcomes during professional rugby league match-play.

6.
Int Urogynecol J ; 32(2): 295-302, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Women who perform high-impact activities might be at greater risk of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) than those participating in low-impact exercise; however, little is known about whether PFD is more common in one type of high-impact activity than another. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of PFD symptoms in women who engage in high-impact activity compared with CrossFit®-brand training (CF). METHODS: An online survey collected data from 1,379 women (521 runners, 858 CF) on exercise participation, parity, and PFD symptoms, via the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20). Specific questions from each PFDI-20 subscale further investigated symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), anal incontinence (AI), as well as stress (SUI) and urgency (UUI) urinary incontinence. RESULTS: Symptoms of POP and AI were significantly higher in runners (POP 12.7%, AI 34.0%) than in CF (POP 7.8%, p = 0.003; AI 27.7%, p = 0.014). There was no significant difference in SUI symptoms between groups (37.0% vs 41.0% respectively, p = 0.141). Vaginally parous runners reported significantly more symptoms of POP (19.0% vs 12.2%, p = 0.023), AI (39.3% vs 27.2%, p = 0.001), and UUI (36.3% vs 29.0%, p = 0.037) than CF. CONCLUSION: Women, particularly parous women, who participate in running, have a higher prevalence of POP and AI symptoms than women who participate in CF. This suggests that CrossFit®-brand training might not be more detrimental to PFD symptoms than other high-impact activity, such as running. This study does not conclude a pelvic floor health benefit of one exercise over another, but highlights that exercise options can be provided to women.

7.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(2): 255-260, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166247

RESUMO

Student-led interprofessional health clinics offer valuable opportunities for student learning and meeting the health care needs of the community. This case study describes the operation of a new interprofessional student-led community health service over its initial 13-month period of operation. This case study also presents an overview of the service provision, student placement opportunities and focuses on the challenges associated with the service and the impact on future planning.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Saúde Pública , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Estudantes
8.
Eur J Sport Sci ; : 1-33, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028160

RESUMO

Measurement of maximum voluntary muscle contractions are effort-dependent - valid measurement requires maximal voluntary effort (MVE) from participants. Submaximal efforts (SMEs) yield invalid and potentially misleading results. This is particularly problematic in medico-legal and Para sport assessments where low strength scores may confer a personal advantage. Therefore, objective methods for accurately differentiating MVE and SME are required. This systematic review aimed to identify, appraise and synthesise evidence from scientific studies evaluating the validity of objective methods for differentiating MVE from SME during maximal voluntary contractions. Four electronic databases were searched for original research articles published in English and secondary references appraised for relevance yielding 25 studies for review. Methods were categorised based on eight distinct underlying theories. For isokinetic strength assessment, methods based on two theories - Strength-measure Ratios and Inter-Trial Strength Consistency - correctly classified 100% MVE and > 92% SME. Consequently, research evaluating the relative suitability of these methods for translation into practice is warranted. During isometric strength assessments, methods based on Deceptive Visual Feedback and Force-length properties warrant further investigation. Both methods yielded statistically significant differences between MVE and SME, with minimal overlap in values, but their sensitivity and specificity have not been evaluated.Highlights The most promising methods for translation into practice were Strength-measure Ratios, and Inter-trial Force Consistency for isokinetic strength measures, and ratios between force outputs produced in multiple joint positions, and Deceptive Visual Feedback for isometric strength measures.All methods or measures must be analysed using sensitivity and specificity analyses to determine detection power, this must also be conducted in males and females separately to allow assessment for potential strength bias.All methods or measures must be validated in a representative sample of the population they are intended for use in prior to translation into practice.

10.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-22, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912039

RESUMO

A fundamental aspect of classification systems in Paralympic sport is having valid and reliable measures of impairment. However, minimal consensus exists for assessing impaired strength, coordination and range of motion. This review aimed to systematically identify measures of upper body strength, coordination and range of motion impairments that meet the requirements for use in evidence-based classification systems in wheelchair sports. Three electronic databases were searched from 2003 until 31 August 2019 for studies that assessed upper body function of participants and used a measurement tool that assessed strength, coordination or range of motion. The body of evidence for each identified measure was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Twenty-three studies were included: ten measured strength and coordination, and six measured range of motion. There was "moderate" confidence in using isometric strength for assessing strength impairment. Tapping tasks for the assessment of coordination impairment received a "low" confidence rating. All other identified measures of coordination and range of motion impairment received a "very low" confidence rating. Several potential measures were identified for assessing upper body strength, coordination and range of motion impairments. Further research is warranted to investigate their use for classification in Paralympic wheelchair sports.

11.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(12): 1118-1127, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Para athletes with brain impairment are affected by hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis, which adversely affect starting, sprinting and submaximal running. The aim was to identify and synthesise evidence from studies that have compared the biomechanics of runners with brain impairments (RBI) and non-disabled runners (NDR). DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Five journal databases were systematically searched from inception to March 2020. Included studies compared the biomechanics of RBI (aged>14 years) and NDR performing either block-starts, sprinting, or submaximal running. RESULTS: Eight studies were included, analysing a total of 100 RBI (78M:22F; 18-38 years) diagnosed with either cerebral palsy (n=44) or traumatic brain injury (n=56). Studies analysed block-starts (n=3), overground sprinting (n=3) and submaximal running (n=2), and submaximal treadmill running (n=1). Horizontal velocity during starts, sprinting and self-selected submaximal speeds were lower in RBI. During sprinting and submaximal running, compared with NDR, RBI had shorter stride length, step length, and flight time, increased ground-contact time, increased cadence, and reduced ankle and hip range of motion. In submaximal running, RBI had decreased ankle-power generation at toe-off. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited research and small sample sizes in this area. However, preliminary evidence suggests that RBI had lower sprint speeds and biomechanical characteristics typical of submaximal running speeds in NDR, including increased ground-contact times and reduced stride length, step length, and flight times. Meaningful interpretation of biomechanical findings in RBI is impeded by impairment variability (type, severity and distribution), and methods which permit valid, reliable impairment stratification in larger samples are required.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(4): 982-987, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972823

RESUMO

James, LP, Connick, M, Haff, GG, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The countermovement jump mechanics of mixed martial arts competitors. J Strength Cond Res 34(4): 982-987, 2020-Gross countermovement jump (CMJ) performance measures are greater in higher-level mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors than lower-level (LL) competitors. Differences in CMJ kinetics and kinematics throughout the action may explain those CMJ performance differences, but this remains to be investigated. After warm-up and familiarization, 27 MMA competitors (divided into 2 groups based on competitive standard; higher level [HL]: n = 14 and LL: n = 13) completed 3 maximal effort CMJs. Power, force, velocity, displacement-time waveforms and eccentric phase displacement, eccentric time, eccentric impulse, and the modified reactive strength index (RSImod) were compared between groups using statistical parametric mapping procedures and independent t-tests. Power (between 65 and 71% of the power-time curve) was greater in the HL than that of the LL group (p = 0.01) despite no differences in eccentric displacement (p = 0.50) or movement time (p = 0.17) between groups. The HL group demonstrated a greater RSImod (p = 0.05) alongside a reduced eccentric time (p = 0.02) and eccentric impulse (p = 0.02). These findings suggest that timing and control of lower-body force production contributed to between-group differences in CMJ performance among MMA competitors.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int Urogynecol J ; 31(8): 1551-1558, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), defined as the sensation of a vaginal bulge, and associated risk factors in women over 18 years of age who lift light (≤15 kg), moderate (16-50 kg), and heavy (>50 kg) weights for exercise, and those who do not lift weights for exercise. METHODS: Women completed an online survey about risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunctions, physical activity history, and pelvic floor symptoms. A question about a vaginal bulge sensation from the validated Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20) was used to indicate symptoms of POP. Relationships between symptoms of POP and possible risk factors were assessed through logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 3,934 survey participants, the total prevalence of POP symptoms was 14.4% (n = 566). Category of weight lifted, age, vaginal parity, history of constipation or hemorrhoids, and family history of POP were significantly associated with symptoms. Physically active women lifting weights ≤15 kg were more likely to report symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse than women lifting weights greater than 50 kg (59.7% vs 15.2%; adjusted odds ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.7-3.4). There was no relationship between POP symptoms and body mass index, forceps delivery, cesarean section, hysterectomy, or menopausal status. CONCLUSION: Physically active women who lift heavy weights for exercise do not have an increased prevalence of POP symptoms. Advice on the contribution of heavy weight lifting as part of a physical activity regime to the pathophysiology of POP requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Diafragma da Pelve , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/epidemiologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/etiologia , Gravidez
14.
PM R ; 11(5): 533-547, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the fitness, function, and exercise training responses of patients following reconstruction of the lower limb with a total femoral (TF), proximal femoral (PF), distal femoral (DF), or proximal tibial (PT) megaprosthesis. TYPE: Systematic review. LITERATURE SURVEY: Five research databases were searched systematically for original studies published in English from 2006 to 2017 that reported fitness, functioning, or exercise training responses for one or more of the four types of lower limb megaprosthesis listed above. METHODOLOGY: Methodologic quality was assessed using a 22-item modified STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) checklist. SYNTHESIS: Of the 5342 articles retrieved, 28 met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies reported fitness outcomes, primarily in PT, with none in TF. Impaired knee extensor strength of the affected limb was reported following limb salvage with PF, DF, and PT megaprosthetics. Impaired flexibility was reported following limb salvage with DF and PT megaprosthetics. Functional outcomes were described in all studies and were most commonly reported using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) system score. Results indicated no clear difference in functional outcomes between megaprosthesis locations. No studies evaluated exercise training responses. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified impairments of lower limb strength and flexibility following limb salvage with a lower limb megaprosthesis. Similarity in functional outcomes for all four reported megaprosthetic locations may indicate a lack of sensitivity in outcome measures, including the absence of items assessing higher-level functioning. Exercise interventions that aim to improve fitness and function in this population have not been evaluated but are required given increasing 5-year survival rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Exercício Físico , Salvamento de Membro , Extremidade Inferior , Humanos
15.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(5): 526-531, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination. Para swimmers also completed a maximal freestyle swim to obtain a performance measure. The predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks was examined by establishing differences in test measures between participants with and without brain injury and defining the strength of association between test measures and maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers, respectively. RESULTS: Random forest successfully classified 96% of participants with and without brain injury using test measures derived from instrumented tapping tasks. Most test measures had moderate to high correlations (r=0.54 to 0.72; p<0.01) with maximal freestyle swim speed and collectively explained up to 72% of the variance in maximal freestyle swim performance in Para swimmers with brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study evidence the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimmers with brain injury. These tests can be included in revised Para swimming classification to improve the objectivity and transparency in determining athlete eligibility and sport class for these Para athletes.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2936-2944, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547489

RESUMO

James, LP, Comfort, P, Suchomel, TJ, Kelly, VG, Beckman, EM, and Haff, GG. Influence of power clean ability and training age on adaptations to weightlifting-style training. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2936-2944, 2019-The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether weightlifting actions are a viable method for improving athletic performance among weaker, inexperienced lifters when compared with individuals with a greater power clean (PC) result, and hence weightlifting ability and experience. Two groups of males with distinctly different PC performances (higher performance [HP]: N = 8; body mass [BM] = 78.1 ± 4.0 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] PC = 1.08 ± 0.09 kg·BM; lower performance [LP]: N = 8; BM = 82.6 ± 14.0 kg; 1RM PC = 0.78 ± 0.1 kg·BM) and resistance training age (HP: resistance training experience = 3.5 ± 1.2 years; LP: resistance training experience = 1.44 ± 1.50 years) undertook 10 weeks of training involving weightlifting derivatives, in addition to supplemental ballistic and plyometric exercises. Testing of athletic performance (represented by measures derived from the countermovement jump) occurred at baseline, after 5 weeks of training, and after 10 weeks of training. Both groups significantly improved across the majority of outcome variables after training (Hedges' g = 0.98-2.55, p ≤ 0.01-0.05). Only the HP participants experienced significant changes at midtest (g = 0.99-1.27, p ≤ 0.01-0.05), whereas no significant changes were revealed between midtest and posttest in this group. In contrast to this, the LP participants displayed a significant improvement in relative impulse (g = 1.39, p < 0.01) and rate of force development (g = 1.91, p < 0.01) during this final period (p < 0.01). As weaker, inexperienced lifters underwent a significant and meaningful enhancement in maximal neuromuscular measures after weightlifting derivative-focused training, practitioners should consider early implementation of such exercises. However, it is important for coaches to note that a delayed training effect might be present in weaker, less experienced lifters.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Fatores Etários , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Pliométrico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 37(4): 404-413, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058953

RESUMO

This study examined the validity of isometric strength tests for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Thirty non-disabled participants and forty-two Para swimmers with physical impairment completed an isometric strength test battery designed to explain activity limitation in the freestyle discipline. Measures pertaining to dominant and non-dominant limb strength and symmetry were derived from four strength tests that were found to be reliable in a cohort of non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.97; CV = 6.4-9.1%). Para swimmers had lower scores in strength tests compared with non-disabled participants (d = 0.14-1.00) and the strength test battery successfully classified 95% of Para swimmers with physical impairment using random forest algorithm. Most of the strength measures had low to moderate correlations (r = 0.32 to 0.53; p ≤ 0.05) with maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers. Although, fewer correlations were found when Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power were analysed independently, highlighting the impairment-specific nature of activity limitation in Para swimming. Collectively, the strength test battery has utility in Para swimming classification to infer loss of strength in Para swimmers, guide minimum eligibility criteria, and to define the impact that strength impairment has on Para swimming performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Força Muscular , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Phys Ther Sport ; 32: 34-41, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of swimming-specific range of movement tests developed in order to permit evidenced-based classification in the sport of para swimming. DESIGN: Test-retest intra- and inter-examiner reliability. SETTING: International Swimming training camps and university exercise science departments. PARTICIPANTS: 42 non-disabled participants (mean age 23.2 years) and 24 Para swimmers (mean age 28.5 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of a battery of novel active range of motion tests. RESULTS: Good to excellent intra-examiner reliability was found for the majority (32/34) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values ranged from 1.18° to 6.11°. Similarly, good to excellent inter-examiner reliability was found for the majority (35/42) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values range from 0.73° to 6.52°. Para swimmers exhibited significantly reduced range of motion compared to non-disabled participants. CONCLUSIONS: The large majority of ROM tests included in this novel battery were reliable both within and between examiners in non-disabled participants. The tests were found to differentiate between non-disabled participants and Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power.


Assuntos
Artrometria Articular , Pessoas com Deficiência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 29(2): 313-332, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627091

RESUMO

Para-sport classification systems define eligibility for Para sport and provide a competition structure that controls for the impact of impairment on the outcome of competition. This article focuses on the classification of para athletes with physical impairments. Development of classification systems based on scientific evidence has only recently been made possible by adoption of a statement of the purpose of classification by the International Paralympic Committee and its member organizations. Rigorous descriptive science can improve extant systems of classification and a recently published study described a data-driven classification structure with validity superior to that of the extant system.


Assuntos
Atletas/classificação , Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Reabilitação , Pesquisadores , Especialização
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