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1.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV). Cytology-based national screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Different hrHPV subtypes have different carcinogenic potentials. This study evaluated the distribution of different types of hrHPV relative to age in cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. METHODS: HPV testing was performed between November 2018 and February 2020 using the Abbott RealTime high-risk HPV assay on an Abbott m2000sp instrument. This assay separately detects HPV-16, HPV-18, and a pool of 12 additional hrHPV types (HPV-31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, and -68). RESULTS: The study included 652 women with HPV samples and biopsies of the cervix or histology samples obtained during surgery. In all, 30.8% (95% CI, 27.3-34.6%) were HPV-negative. Among HPV-positive women, HPV-16, HPV-18, and "HPV other" types were found in 33.5, 4.4, and 49.4%, respectively. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in women ≤ 34 years were positive for HPV-16 in 54.5% of cases and in those ≥ 35 years in 45.4% of cases. Among women with cervical cancer, 75.8% were infected with HPV-16 or had coinfection with HPV-16 and "HPV other". CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 is the most common type of hrHPV in HSIL + lesions. It is more common in women diagnosed with CIN 3/HSIL who are aged ≤ 35 and is decreasing with age. Therefore, women age ≥ 35 with persistent infection with this type of hrHPV need careful surveillance, as they are at high risk of progression to cervical cancer.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

8.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 80(11): 1134-1142, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173241

RESUMO

Purpose Pertuzumab and T-DM1 are two efficient anti-HER2 treatments for patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. While pertuzumab is usually given in first-line treatment and T-DM1 in second-line treatment, standard therapy options seem to be exhausted up to now after the treatment of patients with these two therapy options. Therefore, it is important to have data that describes the therapy situation and prognosis after T-DM1 treatment. Methods The PRAEGNANT metastatic breast cancer registry (NCT02338167) is a prospective registry for breast cancer patients with a focus on molecular biomarkers. Patients of all therapy lines with any kind of treatment are eligible. Collected data comprises therapies, adverse events, quality of life and other patient reported outcomes. Here we report on the patient characteristics and descriptive prognostic data for HER2-positive patients who have completed a treatment with T-DM1. Therapy patterns after T-DM1 and progression-free survival are reported as well as overall survival. Results A total of 85 patients were identified for the study who were prospectively observed during therapy after the termination of T-DM1. The main reason for T-DM1 termination was progress. Following T-DM1, lapatinib, trastuzumab and chemotherapy were the main therapy choices. Median progression-free survival was 4.8 months (95% CI: 3.2 - 6.3) and median overall survival was 18.4 months (95% CI: 15.5 - 21.3). Conclusions Therapy options after T-DM1 in a real-world setting seem to exhibit a relevant clinical efficacy, supporting the concept of continuous anti-HER2 treatments in the advanced therapy setting for breast cancer patients. Novel therapies are needed to improve the rather short median progression-free survival.

9.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite patients' widespread use and acceptance of complementary and integrative medicine (IM), few data are available regarding health-care professionals' current implementation of it in clinical routine. A national survey was conducted to assess gynecologists' attitudes to and implementation of complementary and integrative treatment approaches. METHODS: The Working Group on Integrative Medicine of the German Society of Gynecological Oncology conducted an online survey in collaboration with the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) in July 2019. A 29-item survey was sent to all DGGG members by email. RESULTS: Questionnaires from 180 gynecologists were analyzed, of whom 61 were working office-based in private practice and 95 were employed in hospitals. Seventy percent stated that IM concepts are implemented in their routine clinical work. Most physicians reported using IM methods in gynecological oncology. The main indications for IM therapies were fatigue (n = 98), nausea and vomiting (n = 89), climacteric symptoms (n = 87), and sleep disturbances (n = 86). The most commonly recommended methods were exercise therapy (n = 86), mistletoe therapy (n = 78), and phytotherapy (n = 74). Gynecologists offering IM were more often female (P = 0.001), more often had qualifications in anthroposophic medicine (P = 0.005) or naturopathy (P = 0.019), and were more often based in large cities (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: There is strong interest in IM among gynecologists. The availability of evidence-based training in IM is increasing. Integrative therapy approaches are being implemented in clinical routine more and more, and integrative counseling services are present all over Germany. Efforts should focus on extending evidence-based knowledge of IM in both gynecology and gynecological oncology.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1091, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eligibility criteria are a critical part of clinical trials, as they define the patient population under investigation. Besides certain patient characteristics, clinical trials often include biomarker testing for eligibility. However, patient-identification mostly relies on the trial site itself and is often a time-consuming procedure, which could result in missing out on potentially eligible patients. Pre-selection of those patients using a registry could facilitate the process of eligibility testing and increase the number of identified patients. One aim with the PRAEGNANT registry (NCT02338167) is to identify patients for therapies based on clinical and molecular data. Here, we report eligibility testing for the SHERBOC trial using the German PRAEGNANT registry. METHODS: Heregulin (HRG) has been reported to identify patients with better responses to therapy with the anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody seribantumab (MM-121). The SHERBOC trial investigated adding seribantumab (MM-121) to standard therapy in patients with advanced HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive) breast cancer and HRG overexpression. The PRAEGNANT registry was used for identification and tumor testing, helping to link potential HRG positive patients to the trial. Patients enrolled in PRAEGNANT have invasive and metastatic or locally advanced, inoperable breast cancer. Patients eligible for SHERBOC were identified by using the registry. Study aims were to describe the HRG positivity rate, screening procedures, and patient characteristics associated with inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Among 2769 unselected advanced breast cancer patients, 650 were HER2-negative, HR-positive and currently receiving first- or second-line treatment, thus potentially eligible for SHERBOC at the end of current treatment; 125 patients also met further clinical eligibility criteria (e.g. menopausal status, ECOG). In the first/second treatment lines, patients selected for SHERBOC based on further eligibility criteria had a more favorable prognosis than those not selected. HRG status was tested in 38 patients, 14 of whom (36.8%) proved to be HRG-positive. CONCLUSION: Using a real-world breast cancer registry allowed identification of potentially eligible patients for SHERBOC focusing on patients with HER3 overexpressing, HR-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. This approach may provide insights into differences between patients eligible or non-eligible for clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials, NCT02338167 , Registered 14 January 2015 - retrospectively registered.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153211

RESUMO

The role of tumour-infiltrating inflammatory cells (TIICs) in the disease progression of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer (HR+ BC) is largely unclear since it is generally regarded as the least immunogenic BC subtype. This study investigated the prognostic significance of CD1a+ dendritic cells, CD20+ B cells, CD45RO+ memory T cells and CD4+ T-helper cells in HR+ BC. One hundred and forty-six patients were treated for early stage, distant-metastases-free HR+ BC in an accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) phase II trial. Immunohistochemistry was used to double-stain two adjoining sets of tissue microarrays from pre-RT (radiotherapy) tumour resection samples for CD1a/CD20 and CD45RO/CD4. Cell densities of CD1a+, CD20+, CD45RO+ and CD4+ TIICs in the stromal and intraepithelial compartment were registered semiautomatically. High densities of CD20+ and CD4+ TIICs were strongly associated with reduced disease-free survival (DFS), while high stromal CD45RO+ TIIC densities were indicators of subsequent successful treatment. An immunoscore based on CD20+ and CD45RO+ TIIC densities identified three different risk groups (p < 0.001). Thus, contrary to current assumptions, intratumoural immune cell composition might be an important prognostic indicator and a possible contributing factor in the outcome of HR+ BC and should be the subject of further research. Specifically, B-cell infiltration entailed an increased relapse rate and could play an important role in disease progression.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 111, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When chemotherapy is indicated in patients with early breast cancer, regimens that contain anthracyclines and taxanes are established standard treatments. Gemcitabine has shown promising effects on the response and prognosis in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The SUCCESS-A trial (NCT02181101) examined the addition of gemcitabine to a standard chemotherapy regimen in high-risk early breast cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 3754 patients with at least one of the following characteristics were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms: nodal positivity, tumor grade 3, age ≤ 35 years, tumor larger than 2 cm, or negative hormone receptor status. The treatment arms received either three cycles of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide, followed by three cycles of docetaxel (FEC → Doc); or three cycles of FEC followed by three cycles of docetaxel and gemcitabine (FEC → Doc/Gem). The primary study aim was disease-free survival (DFS), and the main secondary objectives were overall survival (OS) and safety. RESULTS: No differences were observed in the 5-year DFS or OS between FEC → Doc and FEC → Doc/Gem. The hazard ratio was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.12; P = 0.47) for DFS and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.19; P = 0.60) for OS. For patients treated with FEC → Doc and FEC → Doc/Gem, the 5-year probabilities of DFS were 86.6% and 87.2%, and the 5-year probabilities of OS were 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adding gemcitabine to a standard chemotherapy does not improve the outcomes in patients with high-risk early breast cancer and should therefore not be included in the adjuvant treatment setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02181101 and EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2005-000490-21. Registered September 2005.

14.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Symptomatic macromastia causes physical and psychological problems that can lead to restrictions in the patients' social and working lives and a reduced quality of life. Associated medical treatments also have a considerable impact on health-care costs. Several studies have assessed these costs, but the total disease costs of macromastia have never been evaluated on the basis of real-world data. METHODS: The data for 76 patients who underwent reduction mammoplasty between 2008 and 2016 were collected using a two-part questionnaire (preoperative and postoperative), as well as the patient files. Topics surveyed, besides demographic data, included physician visits, medical imaging, medical procedures, medical treatments, rehabilitation and convalescent measures, drug intake, medical aids, exercise activity, and sick leave days before surgery, to calculate the costs per year of conservative treatment of symptomatic macromastia. RESULTS: The mean time from start of symptoms to surgery was 11.82 years. The data for this group of patients with symptomatic macromastia show that costs per patient amount to €1677.55 per year. These costs include medical consultation, radiological imaging, medical treatments and procedures, physical therapy and rehabilitation, medication, special brassieres, exercise classes costs for sick leave due to problems with macromastia, and travel expenses. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that considerable health-care costs arise due to macromastia with conservative treatment. Overall, macromastia costs €1677.55 per patient/year. In particular, lost productivity due to sick days and the costs of physiotherapy are factors driving the high costs.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080911

RESUMO

The approval of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) was conducted without pertuzumab as previous therapy. Efficacy data on T-DM1 following pertuzumab treatment are therefore limited. This study explores this issue in a real-world setting. Within the prospective PRAEGNANT (Prospective Academic Translational Research Network for the Optimization of the Oncological Health Care Quality in the Advanced Setting) metastatic breast cancer registry (NCT02338167), patients in all therapy lines receiving any kind of treatment were eligible for inclusion. This report describes patient characteristics and progression-free survival (PFS) in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive patients receiving T-DM1 after pertuzumab treatment. Seventy-six patients were identified, 39 of whom received T-DM1 as second-line therapy, 25 as third-line, and 12 as fourth-line therapy or higher. Pertuzumab was mostly administered as a first-line treatment (n = 61; 80.3%). The median PFS in all patients was 3.5 months (95% CI: 2.8-7.8); in second-line treatment, 7.7 months (95% CI: 2.8-11.0); in third-line, 3.4 months (95% CI: 2.3-not reached (NR)); and in fourth-line therapy or higher, 2.7 months (95% CI: 1.2-NR). T-DM1 was mainly administered second-line after pertuzumab, but also in more heavily pretreated patients. The PFS in higher therapy lines appears to be shorter than in second-line.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

17.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and preeclampsia are major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many different organs are involved in the diseases' clinical phenotype. The underlying mechanism is still unknown, with a possible genetic component. This case-control study investigated effects on the risk of preeclampsia of genetic variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in the estrogen and progesterone pathway genes. METHODS: The study included 167 patients with preeclampsia and 115 healthy controls from the "Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies" (FRAMES). All patients completed an epidemiological questionnaire, data from which were correlated with prospective data on pregnancy and labor. DNA was isolated from blood samples and genotyping was done by PCR. Variants in the aromatase gene CYP19A1 (rs10046, rs4646), progesterone receptor gene (rs1042838, rs10895068), and estrogen receptor-α gene (rs488133) were examined, and the genotype distribution in the two groups was analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A significant difference in the distribution frequency of genotypes between preeclampsia patients and controls was identified in one of the five SNPs. For rs10895068 in the progesterone receptor gene, genotype G/A was significantly more frequent among cases than controls (P = 0.023). No significant differences between the two cohorts were found in the other SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant association between only one SNP in the progesterone receptor and preeclampsia. Other studies have also noted genetic aspects of preeclampsia. The underlying mechanism and causal relationship are not yet known, and further research is needed to explain the extent of genetic variations and the causal relationship in preeclampsia.

18.
Dev Psychobiol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is considered a risk factor for child development; however, child biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure have been rarely studied. We examined whether a meconium alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide, EtG) was associated with child cortisol concentrations at primary school age. METHODS: For 137 children, prenatal alcohol exposure was operationalized by the meconium biomarker EtG and by maternal self-reports during pregnancy. Two EtG cut-offs (EtG ≥10 ng/g and EtG ≥112 ng/g) were applied. Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva and hair samples. RESULTS: Children with EtG ≥10 ng/g showed significantly reduced hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) (p = .050, η p 2  = 0.042). For children with EtG ≥112 ng/g, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was significantly decreased (p = .025, η p 2  = 0.070). These effects were also present in correlational analyses with continuous EtG data, speaking for partly dose-dependent effects. Especially, within the EtG ≥112 ng/g group, the basal (CAR: rp  = -.642, p = .120) and cumulative (HCC: rp  = -.660, p = .107) cortisol parameters were associated with child emotional symptoms at medium effect size. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed both the biological association of intrauterine alcohol exposure with the cortisol stress system, partly dose-dependent, and the functional association with emotional and behavioral symptoms.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877442

RESUMO

Cryopreservation of whole organs and specific tissues is an important and continually expanding field of medicine. The protocols currently used for organ preservation do not ensure survivability and functionality; the protocols for ovarian tissue lead to acceptable outcomes, but these are still capable of further improvement. In general, cryopreservation protocols need to be optimized. One important approach to improving cryopreservation protocols in general involves reducing exposure to cytotoxic cryoprotective agents prior to freezing. This study, therefore, evaluated the real-time tissue penetration of dimethyl sulfoxide, a cryoprotective agent that is widely used in cryopreservation. Dimethyl sulfoxide penetration in rat hearts perfused with a 15% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide solution was examined in real-time using dynamic contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography imaging. Viability of cardiomyocytes was not significantly affected by the dimethyl sulfoxide perfusion procedure. Two different perfusion rates were evaluated and compared with perfusion using a common iodine-based contrast agent (iomeprol). The dynamic contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography imaging data showed that dimethyl sulfoxide flushes both the extracellular and intracellular spaces in rat heart tissue to 95% equilibration after ≈ 35 s via perfusion. Subsequent wash-out via perfusion is completed to 95% within ≈ 49 s. The equilibration duration routinely used in dimethyl sulfoxide-based protocols for cryopreservation should therefore be questioned. Shorter incubation duration would perhaps be sufficient, as well as being beneficial in relation to cell survivability. It would be helpful to have techniques for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the penetration of cryoprotective agents and such techniques should be used to revise cryopreservation protocols. Switching to perfusion-based equilibration procedures might be beneficial, if feasible.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfusão , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Animais , Meios de Contraste/química , Feminino , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Iopamidol/análogos & derivados , Iopamidol/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
20.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Labor is a complex process involving multiple para-, auto- and endocrine cascades. The interaction of cortisol, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and progesterone is essential. The action of cortisol on the human feto-placental unit is regulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2/HSD11B2) that converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. The majority of studies on the assessment of placental 11ß-HSD2 function determined indirect activity parameters. It remains elusive if indirect measurements correlate with enzymatic function and if these parameters are affected by potential confounders (e.g., mode of delivery). Thus, we compared determinants of indirect 11ß-HSD2 tissue activity with its direct enzymatic turnover rate in placental samples from spontaneous births and cesarean (C)-sections. METHODS: Using LC-MS/MS, we determined CRH, cortisol, cortisone, progesterone and 17-hydroxy(OH)-progesterone in human term placentas (spontaneous birth vs. C-section, n = 5 each) and measured the enzymatic glucocorticoid conversion rates in placental microsomes. Expression of HSD11B1, 2 and CRH was determined via qRT-PCR in the same samples. RESULTS: Cortisol-cortisone ratio correlated with direct microsomal enzymatic turnover. While this observation seemed independent of sampling site, a strong influence of mode of delivery on tissue steroids was observed. The mRNA expression of HSD11B2 correlated with indirect and direct cortisol turnover rates in C-section placentas only. In contrast to C-sections, CRH, cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly increased in placental samples following spontaneous birth. CONCLUSION: Labor involves a series of complex hormonal processes including activation of placental CRH and glucocorticoid metabolism. This has to be taken into account when selecting human cohorts for comparative analysis of placental steroids.

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